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  1. Today
  2. tea

    Cadmium contamination in cacao products

    I think flavanol content (and to a lesser extent cadmium content) are highly variable between batches. There is no reason to assume that one batch of one brand will have the same levels the following harvest. Someone on the forum contacted Trader Joe's and they guaranteed their cacao powder to be: "Alkali used in processing - no Cadmium <0.6 ppm or it doesn't ship to their stores (so it could be less, but this is the max allowable) Lead <0.0001 ppm or it doesn't ship to their stores (so it could be less, but this is the max allowable) Polyphenols - 4 grams per 100 grams of product (I actually asked about flavanols, but since it isn't a nutritional supplement they don't measure/track it and she provided polyphenol levels instead)"
  3. Yesterday
  4. One more with evidence of making flu vaccine more effective: ginseng: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3659611/ (but also a study just in mice) Still, add this to AHCC and Rapamycin (and maybe fasting/CR). And probably sleep around the immunization is important too though I haven't seen a study on that, but intuitive given the other reading on sleep and immune system. Note: Timing is different for each of these. Eg, AHCC was given for a few weeks after immunization vs. Rapamycin was given for weeks but stopped 2 weeks before vaccination.
  5. Yeah, this definitely looks cool and like something I would love to try. It's a bit pricey for my budget, but we'll see. One question I have is how loud it is. If this is sending auditory cues to you throughout the night, is it loud enough that it might bother a partner in the same bed? There is a lot of useful content on their website. I searched for an answer to this question but couldn't find one. The product videos make it look like it might be loud enough to bother someone else trying to sleep next to you.
  6. Metabolomics identifies increases in the acylcarnitine profiles in the plasma of overweight subjects in response to mild weight loss: a randomized, controlled design study. Kang M, Yoo HJ, Kim M, Kim M, Lee JH. Lipids Health Dis. 2018 Oct 15;17(1):237. doi: 10.1186/s12944-018-0887-1. PMID: 30322392 https://lipidworld.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12944-018-0887-1 Abstract BACKGROUND: Using metabolomics technique to analyze the response to a dietary intervention generates valuable information concerning the effects of the prescribed diet on metabolic regulation. To determine whether low calorie diet (LCD)-induced weight reduction causes changes in plasma metabolites and metabolic characteristics. METHODS: Overweight subjects consumed a LCD (n = 47) or a weight maintenance diet (control, n = 50) in a randomized, controlled design study with a 12-week clinical intervention period. Plasma samples were analyzed using an UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS. RESULTS: The 12-week LCD intervention resulted in significant mild weight loss, with an 8.3% and 10.6% reduction observed in the visceral fat area (VFA) at the level of the lumbar vertebrae L1 and L4, respectively. The LCD group showed a significant increase in the mean change of serum free fatty acids compared to the control group. In the LCD group, we observed a significant increase in the acylcarnitine (AC) levels, including hexanoylcarnitine, L-octanoylcarnitine, 9-decenoylcarnitine, trans-2-dodecenoylcanitine, dodecanoylcarnitine, 3,5-tetradecadiencarnitine, cis-5-tetradecenoylcarnitine, 9,12-hexadecadienoylcarnitine, and 9-hexadecenoylcarnitne at the 12-week follow-up assessment. When the plasma metabolite changes from baseline were compared between the control and LCD groups, the LCD group showed significant increases in hexanoylcarnitine, L-octanoylcarnitine, trans-2-dodecenoylcanitine, and 3,5-tetradecadiencarnitine than the control group. Additionally, the changes in these ACs in the LCD group strongly negatively correlated with the changes in the VFA at L1 and/or L4. CONCLUSION: Mild weight loss from 12-week calorie restriction increased the plasma levels of medium- and long-chain ACs. These changes were coupled with a decrease in VFA and an increase in free fatty acids. KEYWORDS: Acylcarnitine; Low calorie diet; Metabolomics; Mild weight loss; Visceral fat area Social Isolation and Mortality in US Black and White Men and Women. Alcaraz KI, Eddens KS, Blase JL, Diver WR, Patel AV, Teras LR, Stevens VL, Jacobs EJ, Gapstur SM. Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Oct 16. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwy231. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30325407 Abstract Social isolation is associated with higher mortality in studies of mostly white adults, yet associations among black adults is unclear. This prospective cohort study evaluated whether associations of social isolation with all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality differ by race and sex. Adults enrolled into Cancer Prevention Study-II in 1982/1983 were followed for mortality through 2012 (n = 580,182). Sex- and race-specific multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for associations of a five-point social isolation score with risk of death. Social isolation was associated with all-cause mortality in all subgroups (P-trend ≤ 0.005); for the most versus the least isolated, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 2.34 (1.58, 3.46) and 1.60 (1.41, 1.82) among black and white men, respectively (P-interaction = 0.40), and 2.13 (1.44, 3.15) and 1.84 (1.68, 2.01) among black and white women, respectively (P-interaction = 0.89). The association did not differ between black men and women (P-interaction = 0.33) but was slightly stronger in white women than white men (P-interaction = 0.01). Social isolation was associated with cardiovascular disease mortality in each subgroup (P-trend < 0.03) but with cancer mortality only among whites (P-trend < 0.0001). Subgroup differences in the influence of specific social isolation components were identified. Identifying and intervening with socially isolated adults could improve health outcomes. An association of urinary sodium-potassium ratio with insulin resistance among Korean adults. Park YM, Kwock CK, Park S, Eicher-Miller HA, Yang YJ. Nutr Res Pract. 2018 Oct;12(5):443-448. doi: 10.4162/nrp.2018.12.5.443. Epub 2018 Sep 28. PMID: 30323912 Abstract BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of sodium-potassium ratio on insulin resistance and sensitivity in Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Subjects were 3,722 adults (1,632 men and 2,090 women) aged 40-69 years participating in the Korean genome and epidemiology study_Ansan and Ansung study. Insulin resistance was assessed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HoMA-IR) and fasting insulin, and insulin sensitivity was assessed by using the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). The 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion were estimated from spot urinary samples using the Tanaka formula. The generalized linear model was applied to determine the association between urinary sodium-potassium ratio and insulin resistance. RESULTS: HoMA-IR (P-value = 0.029, P-trend = 0.008) and fasting insulin (P-value = 0.017, P-trend = 0.005) levels were positively associated with 24-h estimated urinary sodium-potassium ratio in the multivariable model. QUICKI was inversely associated with 24-h estimated urinary sodium-potassium ratio in all models (P-value = 0.0002, P-trend < 0.0001 in the multivariate model). CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that high sodium-potassium ratio is related to high insulin resistance and low insulin sensitivity. Decreasing sodium intake and increasing potassium intake are important for maintaining insulin sensitivity. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in longitudinal studies. KEYWORDS: Sodium; insulin resistance; insulin sensitivity; potassium Physical Activity and Association Between Frailty and All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Older Adults: Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study. Higueras-Fresnillo S, Cabanas-Sánchez V, Lopez-Garcia E, Esteban-Cornejo I, Banegas JR, Sadarangani KP, Rodríguez-Artalejo F, Martinez-Gomez D. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2018 Oct 16. doi: 10.1111/jgs.15542. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30325012 Abstract OBJECTIVES: To examine the separate and joint association between physical activity and frailty and long-term all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in older adults. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: Cohort representative of the noninstitutionalized Spanish population. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 60 and older (N=3,896) in 2000-01. MEASUREMENTS: Participants reported their physical activity using a validated instrument, and frailty was ascertained using the Fatigue, low Resistance, limitation in Ambulation, Illness and weight Loss (FRAIL) scale. Those with 0 frailty criteria were considered to be robust, with 1 or 2 criteria to be prefrail, and with 3 of more criteria to be frail. Participants were followed until 2014 to identify all-cause and CVD deaths. Associations were summarized using hazard ratios (HRs) and Cox regression after adjustment for main covariates. RESULTS: During a median 14 years of follow-up, 1,801 total deaths occurred, 672 from CVD. Compared with being robust, the multivariate hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for all-cause mortality was 1.29 (1.14-1.45) in prefrail individuals, and 2.16 (1.82-2.58) in frail individuals (p-trend <.001). Compared with being physically inactive, being physically active was associated with a statistically significant 18% (1-32%), 28% (16-39%) and 39% (17-55%) lower all-cause mortality among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals, respectively (all p <.001). Compared with participants who were robust and physically active, those who were frail and inactive showed the highest all-cause mortality 2.45 (95%CI: 1.95-3.06); however, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for all-cause mortality in frail individuals who were physically active was comparable to that in pre-frail and inactive participants: 1.70 (1.32-2.19) and 1.56 (1.34-1.82), respectively. Mortality of prefrail active participants was similar to that of robust inactive participants. Results were similar for CVD mortality. CONCLUSION: Physical activity might partly compensate for the greater mortality risk associated with frailty in old age. KEYWORDS: elderly; frailty; mortality; physical activity Prolonging healthy aging: Longevity vitamins and proteins. Ames BN. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Oct 15. pii: 201809045. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1809045115. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30322941 https://sci-hub.tw/10.1073/pnas.1809045115 Abstract It is proposed that proteins/enzymes be classified into two classes according to their essentiality for immediate survival/reproduction and their function in long-term health: that is, survival proteins versus longevity proteins. As proposed by the triage theory, a modest deficiency of one of the nutrients/cofactors triggers a built-in rationing mechanism that favors the proteins needed for immediate survival and reproduction (survival proteins) while sacrificing those needed to protect against future damage (longevity proteins). Impairment of the function of longevity proteins results in an insidious acceleration of the risk of diseases associated with aging. I also propose that nutrients required for the function of longevity proteins constitute a class of vitamins that are here named "longevity vitamins." I suggest that many such nutrients play a dual role for both survival and longevity. The evidence for classifying taurine as a conditional vitamin, and the following 10 compounds as putative longevity vitamins, is reviewed: the fungal antioxidant ergothioneine; the bacterial metabolites pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) and queuine; and the plant antioxidant carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene, α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and the marine carotenoid astaxanthin. Because nutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent in the United States (and elsewhere), appropriate supplementation and/or an improved diet could reduce much of the consequent risk of chronic disease and premature aging. KEYWORDS: aging; essential minerals; nutrition; vitamins A comparison of blood pressure indices as predictors of all-cause mortality among middle-aged men and women during 701,707 person-years of follow-up. Rosenblad A. J Hum Hypertens. 2018 Jul 10. doi: 10.1038/s41371-018-0085-7. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 29991703 Abstract High systolic blood pressure (SBP) is often used as a measure of hypertension in epidemiological studies. Alternative blood pressure (BP) indices include diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), mid-blood pressure (MBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). The present study compares the predictive ability for all-cause mortality (ACM) of these indices and the novel BP index mean proportional arterial pressure (MPAP), defined as the weighted mean of SBP and DBP where the weights are proportional to SBP's and DBP's contributions to the sum of SBP and DBP. Using a Swedish cohort of 32,238 middle-aged men and women, not being on antihypertensive treatment, examined in 1989-2000 and followed-up until March 9, 2017, the predictive abilities for ACM of SBP, DBP, PP, MBP, MAP and MPAP were compared using a likelihood-based R2-type measure for adjusted and unadjusted Cox regression models. Of the included participants (mean age 45.4 years, 48.2% men), 2936 (9.1%) died during a mean follow-up time of 21.8 years, equalling 701,707 person-years at risk. Higher BP were for all indices significantly associated with increased ACM. For all models, those including MPAP had the highest predictive ability, followed in turn by models including MBP, SBP, MAP, DBP and PP, respectively. The difference was significant for SBP, DBP and PP in unadjusted models and for PP in fully adjusted models. In conclusion, MPAP and MBP are the best predictors of ACM. Until the clinical usefulness of these indices has been evaluated, they may primarily be useful for epidemiological studies.
  7. AlPater

    Al's CR updates

    Hypocaloric Diet Prevents the Decrease in FGF21 Elicited by High Phosphorus Intake. Pineda C, Rios R, Raya AI, Rodriguez M, Aguilera-Tejero E, Lopez I. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 13;10(10). pii: E1496. doi: 10.3390/nu10101496. PMID: 30322116 https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/10/1496/htm Abstract The effect of dietary phosphorus (P) on fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)/β-klotho axis was investigated in rats that were fed diets with: Normal (NP) or high P (HP) and either normal (NC), high (HC) or low calories (LC). Sampling was performed at 1, 4 and 7 months. Plasma FGF21 concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) in NC and HC than in LC groups. Increasing P intake had differing effects on plasma FGF21 in rats fed NC and HC vs. rats fed LC at the three sampling times. When compared with the NP groups, FGF21 concentrations decreased at the three sampling points in rats fed NC-HP (80 vs. 194, 185 vs. 382, 145 vs. 403 pg/mL) and HC-HP (90 vs. 190, 173 vs. 353, 94 vs. 434 pg/mL). However, FGF21 did not decrease in rats fed LC-HP (34 vs. 20, 332 vs. 164 and 155 vs. 81 pg/mL). In addition, LC groups had a much lower liver FGF21 messenger ribonucleic acid/glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mRNA/GAPDH) ratio (0.51 ± 0.08 and 0.56 ± 0.07) than the NC-NP (0.97 ± 0.14) and HC-NP (0.97 ± 0.22) groups. Increasing P intake reduced liver FGF21 mRNA/GAPDH in rats fed NC and HC to 0.42 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.04. Liver β-klotho mRNA/GAPDH ratio was lower (p < 0.05) in LC groups (0.66 ± 0.06 and 0.59 ± 0.10) than in NC (1.09 ± 0.17 and 1.03 ± 0.14) and HC (1.19 ± 0.12 and 1.34 ± 0.19) groups. A reduction (p < 0.05) in β-klotho protein/α-tubulin ratio was also observed in LC groups (0.65 ± 0.05 and 0.49 ± 0.08) when compared with NC (1.12 ± 0.11 and 0.91 ± 0.11) and HC (0.93 ± 0.17 and 0.87 ± 0.09) groups. In conclusion β-klotho is potently regulated by caloric restriction but not by increasing P intake while FGF21 is regulated by both caloric restriction and increased P intake. Moreover, increased P intake has a differential effect on FGF21 in calorie repleted and calorie depleted rats. KEYWORDS: calories; fibroblast growth factor 21; phosphorus; rat
  8. Thanks for posting, I had not heard of this device but now I want one! Do you actually have one and if so, how long have you been using it and in what ways do you think it has benefitted you? I'm wondering if you can get the EEG, respiration, and heart rate data off of the device? (I'm thinking of possible uses in addition to its deep sleep improvement or sleep analysis features, to further justify the expense). Also wondering if the device is "open" for hacking/development, for example I see strong potential for use as a tool to gain consciousness while dreaming (i.e. "lucid dreaming") through auditory or visual cues when REM sleep is detected though EEG and/or heart rate (possible improvement over existing lucid dream masks). I'll contact its manufacturer about my ideas...
  9. Gordo

    Going complete vegan

    Only with respect to iron (in which case there was no problem found and I need no supplement nor do I have too much). For something like b12, DHA, D3, zinc or iodine it seemed silly to do testing, because the testing itself costs more than the supplements and you'd have to keep testing every year as nutrient requirements and bodily function change with age. If you limit your supplementation to recommended amounts (avoid excessive doses), there is little risk of taking too much even if you were already receiving enough in your diet (If I'm getting decent sun exposure and its Summer, I don't take D3, I take b12 only once a week, zinc only 2-3 times a week). "when one (apparently) explores and understands nature better, does the nature itself offer the opportunity to fight nature?" Well humans are part of nature, so the answer is of course, yes. We may have been guided since the beginning of life on Earth by basic survival but now we've already moved beyond that in many respects and have the capability to mess with the genetic code itself, replace or remove failing organs, rejuvenate cells, modify hormones and disrupt physiological processes. It seems reasonable to me to think that we will achieve radical life extension eventually despite the formidable hurdles encountered thus far.
  10. Can We Become Immortal? The Quest to Live Forever Through Technology Several promising projects involving robotics, genetics, cryonics, 3D printing and more are in the pipeline seeking to make the idea of living forever plausible. By Kashyap Vyas Link to article from October, 15th 2018 Humans have always been looking for ways of not having to die. It is an instinct as strong as survival to extend our lifespan and eliminate diseases from the face of humanity. As unrealistic and incomprehensible as the idea might seem, researchers have forever been focusing their efforts on cheating death and leading invincible lives. There have been countless experiments, studies, and investigations into this theory that have prompted scientists to design ingenious ways of not just extending our lives, but eliminating the concept of death altogether. Bina48 is a robotic very primitive representation of you that can incorporate the characteristics and unique eccentricities of your being into a new form. According to the latest experiment dedicated to Bina48, the robot is being loaded with inexhaustible information. Source: iBina48/Twitter This information is being derived from the interviews held between Bina Rothblattand Bruce Duncan. This robot has been the subject of an experiment for more than a decade where scientists have been trying to make it more social and smarter. 2017 made Bina48 the first robot in history to ever successfully complete a university level course and the following year has only proved to be more victorious for the robot. This robot experiment is just one amongst countless that have been initiated in a bid to live forever! Another study revealed by the futurologist Dr. Ian Pearson reveals that human beings are quite close to becoming “immortal,” i.e., they are likely to achieve the ability to “not die” ever. According to Dr. Pearson, there are various ways of living forever but only if we can make it till 2050. Some of the methods that he listed are as follows: Body Part Renewal: With the help of genetic engineering, your body parts can be rejuvenated. Also, scientists are working towards creating human body parts and organs with the help of 3D printers that are loaded with living cells. It can help in replacing the old and withered body parts with healthy ones. Start your life in an Android body: Another way to live a longer life is to link your mind with a machine and start living in the cloud. According to Dr. Pearson, you can easily hire an Android in 2050 like you hire a car these days and transfer your consciousness to it. For example, the current status of sex dolls is almost like humans, and they are likely to achieve a form closer to humans in the next 30 years. Biomedical Technology The biomedical technology has also made several advances toward reverse the aging process. According to a statement issued by Daily Express, “From enhancing certain proteins which protect cells from aging to extending telomeres – fragments of DNA which cap both ends of each chromosome and protect against the wear and tear of natural aging – scientists have tried to halt the aging process.” Hence, there is a lot of hope for humans to live forever. Cryonics Cryonics is also an excellent option for human beings who want to achieve immortality. Through this process, people can be frozen in liquid nitrogen with a hope to be safely revived and defrosted. Although there is no proof of this concept, yet it is hoped that there would be enough scientific advancements in the future to revive such bodies so that they can start reliving a normal life. Alcor Life Extension Foundation has put forward an approach in which the brain of a person would be removed before his/her death and will be treated with a chemical fixative and a cryoprotective agent. Brain preservation there is still a lot of is technically possible according to a neuroscientist Kenneth Hayworth, but he says that research needed. Swap Your Body with An Android Avatar Dmitri Itskov, a Russian billionaire and a former media tycoon, has founded the 2045 Project. In this project, he is trying to find possibilities to replace human bodies with their robotic avatars that would be uploaded with all the content of their human counterparts. The ultimate goal of this project is to extend the lives of human beings by hundreds or even thousands of years. Itskov’s overall ambition is to create a utopia where people can be free from their corporal selves and can spend their time on spiritual and intellectual growth. Recently, Dmitri also unveiled a sophisticated robot that was a replica of his own head. It was designed by the pioneer in robotics named David Hanson. There would be as many as 36 motors in the head that ought to create exceptional realism or in other words, an exceptional Android. Source: 2045 Initiative The final aim is to create a full human Android body that can jump, run, walk and behave exactly like a human being in the future. This will help people to live longer and healthier lives. Transferring Your Consciousness to An Artificial Body A new startup called Humai wants to help people live forever by transferring their consciousness to an artificial body. The CEO of this company, Josh Bocanegra believes that the team in his startup will create its own human being in the next 30 years. ROBOTICS Two Humanoid Robots Discuss the Fate of Humanity In his words, "We’re using artificial intelligence and nanotechnology to store data of conversational styles, behavioral patterns, thought processes and information about how your body functions from the inside-out. This data will be coded into multiple sensor technologies, which will be built into an artificial body with the brain of a deceased human. Using cloning technology, we will restore the brain as it matures." As can be seen, countless initiatives and experiments have been started to date and continue popping up to increase the life of humans and make them “immortal.” Humans continue striving to achieve the impossible and have dedicated their careers to making this dream happen. Irrespective of the approach taken by different scientists and researchers to avoid the inevitability of death, their long-term goals are pretty much aligned - make humans live forever! Only future holds the truth of this dream while efforts in this direction continue.
  11. Yes, of course I understand that they must have conducted studies that looked at side effects - which you have to do for every medication to get it past the FDA. However, I wasn't referring to immediate side effects, but rather to more subtle and long term effects which might be hard to spot in shorter term studies - which, by the way, is the frequent downfall of a lot of medications pushed through the FDA review process by large pharma. Have you noticed how often these have to come back with black box warnings or are taken off the market altogether? If the studies you refer to were as reliable and comprehensive as you seem to have faith in, then recalls should never happen. Yet they happen with alarming frequency, and probably should happen even more often. I am simply applying the precautionary principle. I don't believe - I repeat - that we know all there is to know about the long term effects on f.ex. the immune system. Maybe it is harmless and maybe not. Not knowing for 100% means if I don't have to undergo a medical procedure or take a given medication, I elect not to, if the benefits are minimal. My attitude to taking the flu shot might change if I can be convinced that even if it is worthless or of limited utility to me personally it might protect the herd - but I'm not completely convinced of that either, so why should I take that sacrifice for no discernable benefit to anyone? Sorry, but unless the effectiveness of the flu shot improves dramatically - dramatically - I am not inclined at the present moment to get one. I might change my mind in the future, especially if a better vaccine comes along.
  12. Last week
  13. mccoy

    Going complete vegan

    Actually, the hypochloridria argument is cited by vegan activist but I never looked up the literture, which however does support some ratio of hypocloridria (20%) in >65-70 years individuals (for example: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01540281) Also, the Canadian GI website publishes a table with some known causes of B12 deficiency or impaired absorption, only one of which is a vegan long-term diet. https://www.badgut.org/information-centre/health-nutrition/vitamin-b12/ Condition or State Causes of Deficiency Absence of vitamin B12 in the diet Vegan diet (long-term); poor intake of vitamin B12-rich food Lack of adequate intrinsic factor Gastrectomy, pernicious anemia Inadequate intestinal absorption Gastric bypass surgery, small bowel surgery (especially in the ileum), disease in the ileum (Crohn’s disease, cancer), short bowel syndrome, fistulas Poor digestion of food Reduced gastric acid (>65 years of age, gastric cancer, H. pylori infection) Failure to digest salivary R protein Pancreatic disease, lack of pancreatic enzymes Other malabsorption syndromes HIV, multiple sclerosis Congenital disease Transcobalamin deficiency Receptor or mucosal defects Long-term use of certain drugs like H2 receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, Metformin, antacids Altered use of intestinal organ Bacterial overgrowth, long-term TPN, tapeworm
  14. mccoy

    Going complete vegan

    Unfortunately I'm not a fan of frequent blood analyses, which would also constitute a major cost here if most main minerals and vitamins should be analysed. I opened a thread with my recent blood analyses, taking B12, zinc, iodine supplements, and after a couple of months sunbathing. Iron was good as well D3, both with natural sources, no supplementation. Among the analysed parameters homocisteyne was beyond the upper normal range, I described the possible causes and the supplementation strategy I'm trying, bsaed on choline, TMG, cycles of B complex vitamins . Should I try and get enough choline from plant-based foods, I should gorge on mushrooms and tofu.
  15. mccoy

    Going complete vegan

    Smio, thanks for the appreciation. By the way, probably the best reference to try the vegan regimen is Brenda Davis-Melina Vesanto book: 'Becoming Vegan-comprehensive edition'. Choke full of useful suggestions by academic authors.
  16. Diabetes mellitus, blood glucose and the risk of heart failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Aune D, Schlesinger S, Neuenschwander M, Feng T, Janszky I, Norat T, Riboli E. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2018 Jul 25. pii: S0939-4753(18)30230-8. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2018.07.005. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30318112 Abstract BACKGROUND AND AIM: The strength of the association between diabetes and risk of heart failure has differed between previous studies and the available studies have not been summarized in a meta-analysis. We therefore quantified the association between diabetes and blood glucose and heart failure in a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to May 3rd 2018. Prospective studies on diabetes mellitus or blood glucose and heart failure risk were included. A random effects model was used to calculate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Seventy seven studies were included. Among the population-based prospective studies, the summary RR for individuals with diabetes vs. no diabetes was 2.06 (95% CIs: 1.73-2.46, I2 = 99.8%, n = 30 studies, 401495 cases, 21416780 participants). The summary RR was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.15-1.32, I2 = 78.2%, n = 10, 5344 cases, 91758 participants) per 20 mg/dl increase in blood glucose and there was evidence of a J-shaped association with nadir around 90 mg/dl and increased risk even within the pre-diabetic blood glucose range. Among the patient-based studies the summary RR was 1.69 (95% CI: 1.57-1.81, I2 = 85.5%, pheterogeneity<0.0001) for diabetes vs. no diabetes (n = 41, 100284 cases and >613925 participants) and 1.25 (95% CI: 0.89-1.75, I2 = 95.6%, pheterogeneity<0.0001) per 20 mg/dl increase in blood glucose (1016 cases, 34309 participants, n = 2). In the analyses of diabetes and heart failure there was low or no heterogeneity among the population-based studies that adjusted for alcohol intake and physical activity and among the patient-based studies there was no heterogeneity among studies with ≥10 years follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that individuals with diabetes are at an increased risk of developing heart failure and there is evidence of increased risk even within the pre-diabetic range of blood glucose. KEYWORDS: Blood glucose; Diabetes mellitus; Heart failure; Meta-analysis; Systematic review The Role of Lifestyle Factors and Sleep Duration for Late-Onset Dementia: A Cohort Study. Larsson SC, Wolk A. J Alzheimers Dis. 2018 Oct 3. doi: 10.3233/JAD-180529. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30320581 Abstract BACKGROUND: The role of lifestyle factors and sleep for dementia is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of major lifestyle factors and sleep duration with risk of late-onset dementia. METHODS: We used data from a population-based cohort of 28,775 Swedish adults who were ≥65 years of age and completed a questionnaire about lifestyle and other modifiable factors in the autumn of 1997. Dementia cases were ascertained by linkage with the Swedish National Patient Register. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 12.6 years, dementia was diagnosed among 3,755 participants (mean age at diagnosis 83.2±5.1 years). There were no associations of an overall healthy diet (defined by a modified Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet score or a Mediterranean diet score), alcohol and coffee consumption, or physical activity with dementia incidence. Compared with never smokers, dementia risk was increased in former and current smokers (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.13 [1.04-1.23] and 1.10 [1.00-1.21], respectively). Extended time of sleep (>9 h per night) was associated with an increased risk of dementia. However, this association appeared to be related to a reverse causation effect since the association did not remain after exclusion of cases diagnosed within the first five or ten years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study found no evidence that major lifestyle factors, aside from smoking, or sleep duration influence the risk of dementia. KEYWORDS: Cohort studies; dementia; diet; lifestyle; prospective studies; sleep The effects of whole-grain compared with refined wheat, rice, and rye on the postprandial blood glucose response: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Musa-Veloso K, Poon T, Harkness LS, O'Shea M, Chu Y. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 Oct 1;108(4):759-774. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy112. PMID: 30321274 https://sci-hub.tw/10.1093/ajcn/nqy112 Abstract BACKGROUND: Whole grains are often referred to collectively, despite differences in their composition, physical structure, processing, and potential health benefits. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the postprandial blood glucose response of whole-grain with refined wheat, rice, or rye, while controlling for the food delivery matrix and the processing of the grain (e.g., grinding, germination). DESIGN: Eleven electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies published up to and including November 2017. Randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of whole-grain wheat, rice, or rye with those of each grain's refined counterpart on postprandial blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) were included. Pooled effect sizes were computed by using the difference in the blood glucose AUC after the consumption of the whole compared with the refined grain. RESULTS: Twenty publications were included, with 10, 14, and 5 strata (or active-control comparisons) on whole-grain wheat, rice, and rye, respectively. The consumption of ground (wholemeal) wheat, compared with white wheat, was not associated with a significant reduction in blood glucose AUC (-6.7 mmol/L ⋅ min; 95% CI: -25.1, 11.7 mmol/L ⋅ min; P = 0.477). The consumption of wholemeal rye, compared with endosperm rye, was not associated with a significant reduction in blood glucose AUC (-5.5 mmol/L ⋅ min; 95% CI: -24.8, 13.8 mmol/L ⋅ min; P = 0.576). The consumption of intact (whole-grain) rice, compared with white rice, was associated with a significant reduction in blood glucose AUC (-40.5 mmol/L ⋅ min; 95% CI: -59.6, -21.3 mmol/L ⋅ min; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with white rice, whole-grain rice significantly attenuates the postprandial blood glucose response. In most of the studies on wheat and rye, the postprandial blood glucose responses to foods formulated with wholemeal compared with refined flours were compared. Whether reductions in the blood glucose AUC can be achieved with whole-grain (as opposed to wholemeal) wheat and rye requires further investigation.
  17. Thank you all for your informative answers! I appreciate it!
  18. I agree with everything that's been said. I would add, if it's not obvious, that you can prioritize McCoy's (2) and hit up isolated deficiencies with supplements (1), especially if this is something that only happens occasionally, as it sounds like is the case.
  19. sMio

    Going complete vegan

    Hello @mccoy, Thanks also for your answers. I'm also a big fan of your posts and appreciate your experiences and passion. I'm glad, if you would also like to introduce yourself in detail in my other thread - I know only little about your overall diet, training, stress exposures etc. Do you have studies or theses, why the stomach acid weakens from the age? Is the strength of the acids recoverable? Here I find the theses of Galina Schatalova very interesting - do you know her or her theories? Regarding dietary supplements and that I see it as a "problem" would be extremely to say (to write). I am only critical because the knowledge of whole foods is very limited (in my opinion). I would be happy to see it differently because as Gordo said, these are cheap to get and as you mentioned, it makes things easier in the diet. Did you (Gordo + Mccoy) look at your blood levels, for example, if you were eating a rich vegan diet while not taking any nutritional supplements and paying attention to the blood attributes that would be deficient if you did not take them in extra? @Gordo, thanks for the great first sentence (""Nature" does not want you to have longevity, better to kill you off shortly after reproduction and parenting are done, to give more resources to your offspring and theirs 😉"") of your new answer - it sums it up wonderfully. At the same time, when one (apparently) explores and understands nature better, does the nature itself offer the opportunity to fight nature? Now it's going to be philosophical for me 😉 In addition to saying that dietis not everything, I absolutely agree. Among other aspects because of the health (but also because of my hobbies and my job) I dealt with the topics: communication, interpersonal relationships, psyche, "meaning of life". I think that I will open some threads over time 🙂 Have a good night - It is very instructive for me to read your entries. Best regards
  20. Protein malnutrition mitigates the effects of a high-fat diet on glucose homeostasis in mice. Branco RCS, Camargo RL, Batista TM, Vettorazzi JF, Lubaczeuski C, Bomfim LHM, Silveira LR, Boschero AC, Zoppi CC, Carneiro EM. J Cell Physiol. 2018 Oct 14. doi: 10.1002/jcp.27361. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30317568 Abstract Nutrient malnutrition, during the early stages of development, may facilitate the onset of metabolic diseases later in life. However, the consequences of nutritional insults, such as a high-fat diet (HFD) after protein restriction, are still controversial. We assessed overall glucose homeostasis and molecular markers of mitochondrial function in the gastrocnemius muscle of protein-restricted mice fed an HFD until early adulthood. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control (14% protein-control diet) or a protein-restricted (6% protein-restricted diet) diet for 6 weeks. Afterward, mice received an HFD or not for 8 weeks (mice fed a control diet and HFD [CH] and mice fed a protein-restricted diet and HFD [RH]). RH mice showed lower weight gain and fat accumulation and did not show an increase in fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels compared with CH mice. RH mice showed higher energy expenditure, increased citrate synthase, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha protein content, and higher levels of malate and α-ketoglutarate compared with CH mice. Moreover, RH mice showed increased AMPc-dependent kinase and acetyl coenzyme-A (CoA) carboxylase phosphorylation, lower intramuscular triacylglycerol content, and similar malonyl-CoA levels. In conclusion, protein undernourishment after weaning does not potentiate fat accumulation and insulin resistance in adult young mice fed an HFD. This outcome seems to be associated with increased skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and reduced lipids accumulation. KEYWORDS: fat-enriched diet; gastrocnemius; insulin sensitivity; protein restriction Major trauma and acceleration of the ageing process. Sullivan J, Mirbahai L, Lord JM. Ageing Res Rev. 2018 Oct 11. pii: S1568-1637(18)30187-9. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2018.10.001. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PMID: 30316759 http://sci-hub.tw/http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568163718301879 Abstract It is well established that numerous factors can affect the rate at which we age biologically. Diet, physical activity, lifestyle and our genes all play a major role in influencing the ageing trajectory and longevity. Major trauma affects millions globally, is the major cause of death in young adults and could influence ageing processes but has largely been ignored by biogenterologists. The long-term health consequences of physical trauma are well known in the medical community, how trauma effects the ageing process at a molecular level is not. It has long been difficult to assess ageing trajectories due to the absence of a biomarker of biological rather than chronological age. Recent advances in epigenetics have helped by identifying specific DNA methylation sites as good indicators of biological age. Recent investigations into the impact of psychological trauma and the associated physical stress on accelerating ageing as measured by epigenetic drift are promising. The physical and metabolic stress which is synonymous with physical trauma may also accelerate the ageing process. We suggest that long term epigenetic profiling is required to understand to what degree the ageing trajectory is altered by trauma, which will in turn add support for the development of novel therapies to improve health outcomes for survivors of traumatic injury. KEYWORDS: DNA methylation; ageing; epigenetic; injury; trauma >>>>>>> [Don't drink and drive: https://www.archives-pmr.org/article/S0003-9993(13)00532-7/pdf .] Searching for longevity hotspots in Denmark. Hansen AV, Mortensen LH, Westendorp R. Aging (Albany NY). 2018 Oct 13. doi: 10.18632/aging.101579. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30317223 Abstract While existing research on regions with high prevalence of centenarians has focused on selected candidate geographical regions, we explore the existence of hotspots in the whole of Denmark.We performed a Kulldorff spatial scan, searching for regions of birth, and of residence at age 71, where an increased percentage of the cohort born 1906-1915 became centenarians. We then compared mortality hazards for these regions to the rest of the country.We found a birth hotspot of 222 centenarians, 1.37 times more than expected, centered on a group of rural islands. Lower mortality hazards from age 71 onwards were confined to those born within the hotspot and persisted over a period of at least 30 years. At age 71, we found two residence-based hotspots of 348 respectively 238 centenarians, 1.46 and 1.44 times the expected numbers. One hotspot, located in high-income suburbs of the Danish capital, seems driven by selective in-migration of low-mortality individuals. The other hotspot seems driven by selective migration and lower morality among those born and residing in the hotspot.Thus, Danish centenarian hotspots do exist. The locations and interpretation depend on whether we look at place of birth or of residence late in life. KEYWORDS: Denmark; centenarian rate; cluster detection; longevity Association between lifestyle risk factors and incident hypertension among middle-aged and older Australians. Nguyen B, Bauman A, Ding D. Prev Med. 2018 Oct 11. pii: S0091-7435(18)30312-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.10.007. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30316880 Abstract This study aimed to examine the association between individual and combined lifestyle risk factors and the incidence of hypertension 1) in middle-aged and older Australians, and 2) to compare findings in men and women. A sample of 32,393 adults aged ≥45 years from New South Wales completed baseline (2006-2008) and follow-up (2010) questionnaires. Self-reported incident hypertension was defined as not having physician-diagnosed hypertension nor taking antihypertensive medications at baseline and reporting a diagnosis/treatment of hypertension at follow-up. High-risk categories for six lifestyle risk factors were defined as: a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, physical activity levels <150 min/week, consuming ≥14 alcohol drinks/week, being a current smoker, consuming <2 fruit and/or <3 vegetable serves/day, and being at high risk of psychological distress (Kessler-10 score ≥ 22). The association between baseline risk factors and incident hypertension was examined using logistic regression models, adjusted for socio-demographic, medical and lifestyle risk factors. After 2.7 (SD: 0.9) years of follow-up, 17.1% developed hypertension. Compared to low-risk categories, high BMI (AOR [95% CI]: 1.99 [1.85, 2.13]), high alcohol intake (1.58 [1.44, 1.73]), low physical activity levels (1.17 [1.07, 1.27]) and being a current smoker (1.15 [1.0, 1.31]) were associated with a higher incidence of hypertension in the overall sample, with similar associations in men and women. The number of high-risk lifestyle factors was positively associated with higher odds of developing hypertension in the overall sample, men and women; with a stronger association in middle-aged men. Adopting a low-risk lifestyle may prevent hypertension among middle-aged and older adults. KEYWORDS: Blood pressure; Hypertension; Lifestyle; Prospective studies; Risk factors Broccoli consumption affects the human gastrointestinal microbiota. Kaczmarek JL, Liu X, Charron CS, Novotny JA, Jeffery EH, Seifried HE, Ross SA, Miller MJ, Swanson KS, Holscher HD. J Nutr Biochem. 2018 Sep 21;63:27-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2018.09.015. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30317146 Abstract The human gastrointestinal microbiota is increasingly linked to health outcomes; however, our understanding of how specific foods alter the microbiota is limited. Cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli are a good source of dietary fiber and phytonutrients, including glucosinolates, which can be metabolized by gastrointestinal microbes. This study aimed to determine the impact of broccoli consumption on the gastrointestinal microbiota of healthy adults. A controlled feeding, randomized, crossover study consisting of two 18-day treatment periods separated by a 24-day washout was conducted in healthy adults (n=18). Participants were fed at weight maintenance with the intervention period diet including 200 g of cooked broccoli and 20 g of raw daikon radish per day. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each treatment period for microbial analysis. Beta diversity analysis indicated that bacterial communities were impacted by treatment (P=.03). Broccoli consumption decreased the relative abundance of Firmicutes by 9% compared to control (P=.05), increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes by 10% compared to control (P=.03) and increased Bacteroides by 8% relative to control (P=.02). Furthermore, the effects were strongest among participants with body mass index <26 kg/m2, and within this group, there were associations between bacterial relative abundance and glucosinolate metabolites. Functional prediction revealed that broccoli consumption increased the pathways involved in the functions of the endocrine system (P=.05), transport and catabolism (P=.04), and energy metabolism (P=.01). These results reveal that broccoli consumption affects the composition and function of the human gastrointestinal microbiota. KEYWORDS: Bacteroides; Brassica vegetables; Cruciferous vegetables; Glucosinolates; Microbiome
  21. Gordo

    Going complete vegan

    "Nature" does not want you to have longevity, better to kill you off shortly after reproduction and parenting are done, to give more resources to your offspring and theirs 😉 Also you can survive on almost anything, there is a show called "Freaky Eaters" (also on YouTube) that shows people who have been living for years on the strangest, hyper-limited diets (nothing but french fries, nothing but pizza, nothing but cheeseburgers, there was a woman drinking over 4000 kcal a day of soda (30 cans a day, and didn't get especially fat either by the way). See: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=freaky+eaters I don't consider myself "vegan" by the way. I like to tell people I eat a plant based whole food diet. I do eat non-vegan foods about once a week (occasional dairy item, or small portion of salmon). I believe it's what you do 90% of the time that matters as far as health is concerned, and the exceptions aren't going to make any significant difference if they are minor and infrequent. You will know how well your regime is doing by your biomarkers of health and aging indicators compared to others - and those don't lie 😉 I think some people get so obsessed with diet tweaks that they end up damaging their health with anxiety and anti-social behavior. There is MUCH more to longevity than what or how you eat. If you have a lousy marriage or no friends or poor sleep, you aren't likely to have longevity for example.
  22. As Todd says, the average value governs. However, your question would be relevant to a CR regimen which does not reach all nutrients needed. The correct answer in this context would be 'priority to caloric restriction', and the possible deficiency issue may be solved by: Using a targeted supplementation (easy way) Designing a diet which hits the CR target with the average minimum amounts of all nutrients (difficult solution). This entails optimization strategies, often by trial-and-error using apps like cronometer. The optimization works like a game, trying to find out the combination of foods which minimizes calories and maximizes nutrients at the same time.
  23. mccoy

    Going complete vegan

    If your problem is supplementation, then you should follow a mixed diet, probably vegan-pescetarian, with mussels for B12 and fat fish and flaxseed for omega3s/D3. A few years ago I was against supplements but they allow you a wide freedom of choice as far as dietary regimens go. Valte Longo himself advises supplements 2 or 3 times per week, beside his vegan-pescetarian diet.
  24. mccoy

    Going complete vegan

    There are probably 4 main levels to regard the nutrient issue, with respect to a well balanced omnivorous diet in an efficiently digesting less than age-50 individual: Basic nutrients: the only one nutrient which absolutely is missing in a plant-based regimen is B12 , as gordo says; pls note omnivorous individuals and those wth little stomach acidity especially if over 50 may exhibit B12 deficiency as well Basic nutrients but controversial or related to phenotype (genetic polymorpisms): D3 may be lacking if you have not the opportunity to sunbathe regularly or have unfavourable genes. EPA-DHA may be missing if you are a bad converter ALA→EPA-DHA; Retinol may be missing if you are a bad converter carotenes→retinol. Iodine may be present in small amounts. Some of the precedeing are controversial, for example persons of colour in northern climates whould all get ill if not eating huge amounts of fat fish. Nutrients which may be deficient in a plant-based diet in some conditions. For example zinc, lysine, Tiamine, Niacin and so on, but this is the same for non-vegan people, certain fixed eating habits may bring about deficiencies Nutrients which are not believed to be really necessary but may be useful, like choline, creatine and so on. There is an excellent sticky post by Michael Rae on advised supplemetation regimen for vegans. Also, using an app like cronometer may give you valuable hints. last, checking the hints with regular blood analyses will make you sure that the vegan transition will be painless. all the above has been discussed in previous threads. I myself made the transition from lacto-ovo to fully vegan (99%) 2 years ago, with excellent results. An adequate strategy is necessary though.
  25. sMio

    Going complete vegan

    @Gordo Thank you for your answer. 😊 I believe that my research is not sufficient enough to give a counter-argument regarding DHA, but as far as I know, you can reach enough with certain fish species (which are less contaminated) and certain plant-oils (such as linseed oil) , without to have to resort to supplements? At the same time, I question the study. I'm missing some parameters. What I find interesting, for example, are the "good" results of semi-vegetarian. It's close to what I "do" to myself: Namely vegan with once a week pure meat (150-300 gram). But here they also take dairy products - I think that's also an big issue? An addition to that, the ratio of vegetable - non-plant food is not investigated (as far as I know) . At the end of the day, I question how it can be that nature does not give us what we need for survival / longevity and we need to eat it industrially. I notice how difficult it is for me to give a detailed answer in English 😔. I hope you can understand it to some extent. Sorry, if not.
  26. Gordo

    Going complete vegan

    I think the 2 main supplements recommended for vegans are also generally recommended for non-vegans too, so I don't consider that a major factor. B12 is so cheap its almost free, only needs to be taken once a week or even less frequently. DHA - most meat eaters don't get the recommended amount because they don't eat a lot of salmon/oily fish. Fish generally have pretty high levels of contamination: https://www.epa.gov/fish-tech/national-lake-fish-tissue-study-results-and-data https://scripps.ucsd.edu/news/study-finds-toxic-pollutants-fish-across-worlds-oceans https://www.consumerlab.com/answers/is-fish-oil-safe/fish-oil_contamination/ Is this worse than the contaminants in plant foods? I don't know... But its easy enough to get dha from a vegan supplement, and this is likely a superior source than fish oil supplements which are more likely to go rancid and contain pcbs. Eating meat & dairy can spike your growth factors and other cell signaling which may not be optimal for longevity, especially for men. The longest lived people group ever documented (as far as I know) are CA Adventists, and their diets have been studied. For men, the vegan diet was optimal for longevity, for women, pesco-vegetarian was best. Table 4 Associations of Dietary Patterns With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality From a Cox Proportional Hazards Regression Model Among Participants in the Adventist Health Study 2, 2002–2009 Characteristic Deaths, Hazard Ratio (95% CI) All-Cause Ischemic Heart Disease Cardiovascular Disease Cancer Other All (N = 73 308), No. of deathsa,b 2560 372 987 706 867  Vegetarian   Vegan 0.85 (0.73–1.01) 0.90 (0.60–1.33) 0.91 (0.71–1.16) 0.92 (0.68–1.24) 0.74 (0.56–0.99)   Lacto-ovo 0.91 (0.82–1.00) 0.82 (0.62–1.06) 0.90 (0.76–1.06) 0.90 (0.75–1.09) 0.91 (0.77–1.07)   Pesco 0.81 (0.69–0.94) 0.65 (0.43–0.97) 0.80 (0.62–1.03) 0.94 (0.72–1.22) 0.71 (0.54–0.94)   Semi 0.92 (0.75–1.13) 0.92 (0.57–1.51) 0.85 (0.63–1.16) 0.94 (0.66–1.35) 0.99 (0.72–1.36)  Nonvegetarian 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference] Men (n = 25 105), No. of deathsa 1031 169 390 273 368  Vegetarian   Vegan 0.72 (0.56–0.92) 0.45 (0.21–0.94) 0.58 (0.38–0.89) 0.81 (0.48–1.36) 0.81 (0.53–1.22)   Lacto-ovo 0.86 (0.74–1.01) 0.76 (0.52–1.12) 0.77 (0.59–0.99) 1.01 (0.75–1.37) 0.89 (0.69–1.15)   Pesco 0.73 (0.57–0.93) 0.77 (0.45–1.30) 0.66 (0.44–0.98) 1.10 (0.73–1.67) 0.60 (0.39–0.93)   Semi 0.93 (0.68–1.26) 0.73 (0.33–1.60) 0.75 (0.43–1.32) 1.15 (0.65–2.03) 1.03 (0.62–1.71)  Nonvegetarian 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference] Women (n = 48 203), No. of deathsa,c 1529 203 597 433 499  Vegetarian   Vegan 0.97 (0.78–1.20) 1.39 (0.87–2.24) 1.18 (0.88–1.60) 0.99 (0.69–1.44) 0.70 (0.47–1.05)   Lacto-ovo 0.94 (0.83–1.07) 0.85 (0.59–1.22) 0.99 (0.81–1.22) 0.85 (0.67–1.09) 0.93 (0.75–1.17)   Pesco 0.88 (0.72–1.07) 0.51 (0.26–0.99) 0.90 (0.66–1.23) 0.86 (0.61–1.21) 0.81 (0.58–1.15)   Semi 0.92 (0.70–1.22) 1.09 (0.60–1.98) 0.93 (0.64–1.34) 0.85 (0.56–1.30) 0.97 (0.64–1.47)  Nonvegetarian 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference]
  27. How many of those trials are designed, conducted, analyzed and reported by people whose highest priority is the public interest?
  28. Thanks Michael. The Dreem looks interesting. [There is also a Philips SmartSleep headband with some similar functionality to at least part of that of the Dreem.] In the links I didn't see anything addressing potential EMF risk from an ARM computer on the forehead overnight -- other than that WiFi and Bluetooth are disabled then. On the web site, it is interesting to look under Support at the Technical help pages. There are 13 responses to issues apparently brought up by users.
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