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  2. https://www.runnersworld.com/news/a28171425/yo-yo-dieting-reduce-muscle-strength/#:~:text=People who yo-yo diet,dieting%2C according to the study.
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  4. Clinton

    Silvanesti Smoothie

    Thanks Sibiriak, That looks like they have included all of the main supplements that can aid in joint health, Clinton
  5. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of dementia: Results of the prospective Three-City Study. Mortamais M, Gutierrez LA, de Hoogh K, Chen J, Vienneau D, Carrière I, Letellier N, Helmer C, Gabelle A, Mura T, Sunyer J, Benmarhnia T, Jacquemin B, Berr C. Environ Int. 2021 Jan 20;148:106376. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.106376. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33484961 Abstract Background: Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests a relationship between exposure to air pollution and dementia. However, most of the existing studies relied on health administrative databases for the diagnosis of dementia. In a large French population-based cohort (the 3C Study), we assessed the effects of particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and black carbon (BC) on the risk of dementia diagnosed with reliable tools. Methods: Participants aged ≥65 years were recruited between 1999 and 2001 and followed for 12 years. At baseline and every 2 years, dementia was suspected on the basis of the neuropsychological and neurological examination and confirmed by an independent committee of clinicians. Exposure to NO2, BC and PM2.5 at the participants' residential address was estimated using land use regression models. For each pollutant and year of follow-up, the 10-year moving average of past exposure was estimated. Multilevel spatial random-effects Cox proportional hazards models were used in which exposure was included as a time-varying variable. Analyses were adjusted for individual (age, sex, education, APOE4 genotype, health behaviours) and contextual (neighbourhood deprivation index) confounders. Results: At baseline, the median age of the 7066 participants was 73.4 years, and 62% were women. The median follow-up duration was 10.0 years during which 791 participants developed dementia (n = 541 Alzheimer's disease (AD) and n = 155 vascular/mixed dementia (VaD)). The 10-year moving average of PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 14.6 to 31.3 µg/m3. PM2.5 concentration was positively associated with dementia risk: HR = 1.20, 95% CI (1.08-1.32) for all-cause dementia, 1.20 (1.09-1.32) for AD, and 1.33 (1.05-1.68) for VaD per 5 µg/m3 PM2.5 increase. No association was detected between NO2 or BC exposure and dementia risk. Conclusion: In this large cohort of older adults, long-term PM2.5 exposure was associated with increased dementia incidence. Reducing PM2.5 emissions might lessen the burden of dementia in aging populations. Keywords: Air pollution; Black carbon; Cohort; Dementia; Elderly; Fine particulate matter; Incidence; Nitrogen dioxide. High Serum Folate Concentrations Are Associated with Decreased Risk of Mortality among Japanese Adults. Chen S, Honda T, Hata J, Sakata S, Furuta Y, Yoshida D, Shibata M, Ohara T, Hirakawa Y, Oishi E, Kitazono T, Ninomiya T. J Nutr. 2021 Jan 20:nxaa382. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxaa382. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33484141 Abstract Background: Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential nutrients for normal cell growth and replication, but the association of serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations with mortality risk remains uncertain. Objective: This study was performed to investigate the associations of serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations with mortality risk and test whether the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism modifies these associations. Methods: A total of 3050 Japanese community residents aged ≥40 y were prospectively followed-up for mortality between 2002 and 2012. Cox proportional hazards models and restricted cubic splines were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of mortality. Results: During a median follow-up period of 10.2 y, 336 participants died. Higher serum folate concentrations were associated with lower risks of all-cause mortality [multivariable-adjusted HR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.96 for the second tertile (8.8-12.2 nmol/L; median 10.4 nmol/L) and HR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.80 for the third tertile (≥12.5 nmol/L; median 15.6 nmol/L) serum folate concentrations compared with the first tertile (≤8.6 nmol/L; median 7.0 nmol/L)]. This association remained significant in all sensitivity analyses. Spline analyses showed a steady decline in all-cause mortality risk with increasing serum folate concentrations up to 20-25 nmol/L. This association persisted regardless of the MTHFR C677T genotypes. For serum vitamin B-12, the multivariable-adjusted HR of 1.32 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.79) of all-cause mortality was marginally significantly greater in the first tertile compared with the second tertile. This association was attenuated and nonsignificant after the exclusion of participants with a history of cardiovascular disease or cancer, or participants aged ≥85 y at baseline, or deaths in the first 3 y of follow-up. Conclusions: Serum folate concentrations were inversely associated with the risk of all-cause mortality in Japanese adults. Serum vitamin B-12 concentrations were not consistently associated with all-cause mortality risk after accounting for reverse-causation bias. Keywords: Japanese; folate; mortality; nutritional biomarkers; prospective cohort; serum; vitamin B-12. Colchicine reduces the risk of COVID-19-related complications January 23, 2021 https://www.icm-mhi.org/en/pressroom/news/colchicine-reduces-risk-covid-19-related-complications >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> A gout drug shows promise for Covid-19, but skeptics worry about trusting science by press release By MATTHEW HERPER @matthewherperJANUARY 23, 2021 https://www.statnews.com/2021/01/23/colchicine-gout-drug-shows-promise-for-covid-19/ Comparison of Deaths Rates for COVID-19 across Europe During the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Villani L, McKee M, Cascini F, Ricciardi W, Boccia S. Front Public Health. 2020 Dec 11;8:620416. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.620416. eCollection 2020. PMID: 33425843 Free PMC article. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793870/pdf/fpubh-08-620416.pdf Abstract Background: Europe overall suffered greatly in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic but the impact of different countries varied. Italy was in the forefront, but there too there were differences, with the Lombardy region the epicentre of the pandemic. Methods: We report Crude Mortality Rates (CMRs) from deaths reported as due to COVID-19 and, in five countries where age-specific data are available, Standardized Mortality Rates (SMRs) in the European Union and United Kingdom. Results: As of 30th August 2020, Belgium was the country with the highest cumulative CMR (86.3/100,000), but the Lombardy region reached almost double this figure (167.6/100,000), far ahead of the corresponding figure for the rest of Italy at 37.0/100,000. SMRs could be calculated for five countries (Italy, Portugal, Sweden, Germany, and Netherlands). Among them, Sweden had the highest SMR (61.6/100,000). The corresponding figures for Italy, Netherlands, Portugal and Germany were 50.2, 41.4, 15.9, and 10.1 per 100,000, respectively. Conclusion: It is clear that countries within Europe have performed very differently in their responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, but the many limitations in the available data must be addressed before a definitive assessment of the reasons for these differences can be made. Keywords: COVID-19; death rates; epidemics; pandemics; standardized mortality rate. [Sodium raises blood pressure but they adjusted for hypertension. -- AP] Higher Intakes of Potassium and Magnesium, but Not Lower Sodium, Reduce Cardiovascular Risk in the Framingham Offspring Study. Pickering RT, Bradlee ML, Singer MR, Moore LL. Nutrients. 2021 Jan 19;13(1):E269. doi: 10.3390/nu13010269. PMID: 33477824 um to cardiovascular health. Keywords: cardiovascular disease; potassium; sodium.
  6. AlPater

    Al's CR updates

    Effects of Caloric Restriction Diet on Arterial Hypertension and Endothelial Dysfunction. Di Daniele N, Marrone G, Di Lauro M, Di Daniele F, Palazzetti D, Guerriero C, Noce A. Nutrients. 2021 Jan 19;13(1):E274. doi: 10.3390/nu13010274. PMID: 33477912 Review. Abstract The most common manifestation of cardiovascular (CV) diseases is the presence of arterial hypertension (AH), which impacts on endothelial dysfunction. CV risk is associated with high values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and depends on the presence of risk factors, both modifiable and not modifiable, such as overweight, obesity, physical exercise, smoking, age, family history, and gender. The main target organs affected by AH are the heart, brain, vessels, kidneys, and eye retina. AH onset can be counteracted or delayed by adopting a proper diet, characterized by a low saturated fat and sodium intake, a high fruit and vegetable intake, a moderate alcohol consumption, and achieving and maintaining over time the ideal body weight. In this review, we analyzed how a new nutritional approach, named caloric restriction diet (CRD), can provide a significant reduction in blood pressure values and an improvement of the endothelial dysfunction. In fact, CRD is able to counteract aging and delay the onset of CV and neurodegenerative diseases through the reduction of body fat mass, systolic and diastolic values, free radicals production, and oxidative stress. Currently, there are few studies on CRD effects in the long term, and it would be advisable to perform observational studies with longer follow-up. Keywords: arterial hypertension; caloric restriction diet; endothelial dysfunction; intermittent fasting; organ damage Caloric restriction reduces sympathetic activity similar to beta-blockers but conveys additional mitochondrio-protective effects in aged myocardium. Niemann B, Li L, Simm A, Molenda N, Kockskämper J, Boening A, Rohrbach S. Sci Rep. 2021 Jan 21;11(1):1931. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-81438-7. PMID: 33479375 Abstract Increased activation of sympathetic nervous system contributes to congestive heart failure (CHF) progression, and inhibition of sympathetic overactivation by beta-blockers is successful in CHF patients. Similarly, caloric restriction (CR) reduces sympathetic activity but mediates additional effects. Here, we compared the cardiac effects of CR (- 40% kcal, 3 months) with beta-blocker therapy (BB), diuretic medication (DF) or control diet in 18-months-old Wistar rats. We continuously recorded blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature and activity with telemetric devices and analysed cardiac function, activated signalling cascades and markers of apoptosis and mitochondrial biogenesis. During our study, left ventricular (LV) systolic function improved markedly (CR), mildly (BB) or even deteriorated (DF; control). Diastolic function was preserved by CR and BB but impaired by DF. CR reduced blood pressure identical to DF and BB and heart rate identical to BB. Plasma noradrenaline was decreased by CR and BB but increased by DF. Only CR reduced LV oxidative damage and apoptosis, induced AMPK and Akt phosphorylation and increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, additive to the reduction of sympathetic activity, CR achieves protective effects on mitochondria and improves LV function and ROS damage in aged hearts. CR mechanisms may provide additional therapeutic targets compared to traditional CHF therapy. Maf1 limits RNA polymerase III-directed transcription to preserve genomic integrity and extend lifespan. Noguchi C, Wang L, Shetty M, Mell JC, Sell C, Noguchi E. Cell Cycle. 2021 Jan 21:1-9. doi: 10.1080/15384101.2021.1874697. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33475456 Abstract A key to longevity assurance is the nutrient-sensing mTOR pathway. Inhibition of mTOR extends lifespan in a variety of organisms. However, the downstream effectors of the mTOR pathway for lifespan regulation are elusive. In a recent report, we described the role of Maf1 as a critical lifespan regulator downstream of the mTOR pathway in fission yeast. Maf1 is the master negative regulator of RNA polymerase III-directed transcription (e.g. tRNAs and 5S rRNAs) and is regulated by mTOR-mediated phosphorylation. We demonstrated that Maf1 is required for lifespan extension under calorie restriction or when mTOR is inhibited. We also showed that Maf1 prevents DNA damage at tRNA genes, which appears to contribute to lifespan maintenance by Maf1. Here we highlight these observations and present additional results to discuss the role of the mTOR-Maf1-Pol III axis in promoting genomic integrity in the face of DNA replication-transcription conflicts in order to maintain normal lifespan. Keywords: Maf1; RNA polymerase III; aging; genomic integrity; mTOR; replication fork.
  7. Keeping it simple I think Michael Pollan got it right for the most part. Eat WHOLE foods, mostly from plants, and not too much. also the term carbohydrate which the keto crowd tosses out there is very misleading. Are we talking about kale, lentils, blueberries or are we talking about sugar, Oreos, white bread, French fries, crackers, fruit loops, jellybeans etc.
  8. Sibiriak

    Silvanesti Smoothie

    I've used Biocell collagen in the past when I was having a little knee joint pain. Seemed to help, and improved skin tone as well. I didn't feel any effect from UC-II undenaturedt type II collagen. https://www.biocellcollagen.com/ In this particular formulation: Supplement Facts Serving Size: 2 Capsules Servings Per Container: 30 Amount per Serving % Daily Value Biocell Collagen (from chicken sternal cartilage extract) 1000 mg ** Hydrolyzed Collagen Type II 600 mg ** Chondroitin Sulfate 200 mg ** Hyaluronic Acid 100 mg ** OptiMSM 400 mg ** Organic Amla fruit extract (Nature's C) (Naturally containing 5% food nutrient Vit C) 100 mg ** Other Ingredients Capsule (cellulose /plant fiber).
  9. mccoy

    Silvanesti Smoothie

    If it may be of any solace to you, in my case the body hardly seems to heal at all. Age apparently governs recovery, but there are some other factors that remain mysterious. I've tried rest, physiotherapy and I'm trying now supplements. Next time I'm going to try specialists in orthopedy, but I don't expect glamorous results.
  10. Clinton

    Silvanesti Smoothie

    McCoy, I haven’t dedicated the necessary time to research for myself what we can expect from collagen, what forms, brands, quantities, etc to consider. I see that Rhonda Patrick sometimes takes hydrolyzed collagen, 1g, the Great Lakes brand. I’m trying to recover from a shoulder injury at the moment... possibly an issue with the elbow on the same side. I am taking EPA, DHA and glucosamine at the moment but the body seems to heal slowly...
  11. Last week
  12. Public health guidelines should recommend reducing saturated fat consumption as much as possible: NO
  13. Volume 112 Issue 1 July 2020 Public health guidelines should recommend reducing saturated fat consumption as much as possible: YES Penny M Kris-Etherton, Ronald M Krauss The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 112, Issue 1, July 2020, Pages 13–18, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa110
  14. Decline seems to be reversed but I doubt that lost memories would be recovered. Cognitive decline due to aging can be reversed in mice – here's what the new study means for humans Now a new study published in Nature reveals that microglia—a type of white blood cells found in the brain—are extremely vulnerable to changes in the levels of a major inflammatory molecule called prostaglandin E2(PGE2). the researchers found that these effects occurred only because of PGE2's interaction with one specific receptor on the microglia. By disrupting it they were able normalize cellular energy production and reduce brain inflammation. … exposure to this molecule badly affected the ability of microglia and related cells to generate energy and carry out normal cellular processes. Fortunately, the researchers found that these effects occurred only because of PGE2's interaction with one specific receptor on the microglia. By disrupting it they were able normalize cellular energy production and reduce brain inflammation. exposing these white blood cells to PGE2 suppressed the ability of their mitochondria [They] genetically modified animals to [remove] the EP2 receptor … the old genetically modified mice learned and remembered just as well as their young counterparts. There is also evidence that [blueberries, strawberries, spinach, and other fruit & vegetables] block PGE2 at the cellular level,
  15. New perspectives challenge the idea that saturated fats cause heart disease In a new article published today in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, three scientists have raised a question that challenges the diet-heart-hypothesis: Why do saturated fats increase blood cholesterol, and why should this be dangerous? A cell is surrounded by a fluid membrane that controls cell function, and the cells depend on the ability to incorporate a certain amount of cholesterol molecules, so that their membranes don't become too stiff or too fluid. The basis of the model is that when saturated fats replace polyunsaturated fats in the diet, less cholesterol is needed in the cell membranes . . . because polyunsaturated fats from the diet enter our cell membranes and make them more fluid. The cells adjust the fluidity of their membranes by incorporating cholesterol recruited from the bloodstream. According to the model presented by the researchers, this can explain why blood cholesterol levels decrease when we eat more polyunsaturated fats. Cells need to adjust their membrane fluidity according to changes in their environment, such as the access to different types of fat With this model we propose to disconnect the blood-cholesterol raising effect of diet from the elevated blood cholesterol that is causally linked to heart disease [the paper] questions the benefit of lowering blood cholesterol by adding polyunsaturated fatty acids to the diet, and not addressing the root cause [of cardiovascular disease] The research and reasoning that the HADL (Homeoviscous Adaptation to Dietary Lipids) model is based on indicates that the effect of dietary fats on blood cholesterol is not a pathogenic response, but rather a completely normal and even healthy adaptation to changes in diet.
  16. The maximal reduction for biological age when using the biological age calculator, Phenotypic Age, is ~20 years. In other words, if I'm 80 years old and my biomarkers are all reflective of youth, the lowest possible biological age will be ~60 years old. One reason for that is the inclusion of chronological age in the prediction of biological age, which adds strength to the correlation while simultaneously limiting the maximal biological age reduction. To account for the possibility that youthful biomarkers at an older chronological age can yield a biological age that is more than 20 years younger, it's important to quantify biological age using a tool that doesn't include chronological age in its calculation. Aging.ai fits that criterion, and in the video I present biological age data with use of aging.ai for 24 blood tests since 2009.
  17. I swear Vadim Gladyshev did a presentation on measuring differing aging rates between tissues (in terms of metabolomic diversity) and I think he showed that more rapidly dividing cells age faster/accumulate more "strange" metabolites, but the ones that divide more slowly should presumably accumulate more protein aggregates/lipofuscin that can't be diluted too?
  18. See how they run: 'Exercise protein' doubles running capacity, restores function and extends healthy lifespans in older mice https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/01/210121131934.htm
  19. mccoy

    Keepin' the proteins LOW!

    Incredible... But statistically likely in a country with 1.3 billion citizens.
  20. Clinton

    Keepin' the carbs LOW!

    Does you cat ever get p1ssed off when it sees you gulping down the Liver pate?
  21. Todd Allen

    Keepin' the proteins LOW!

    From the paper:
  22. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and All-Cause Mortality in a Chinese Population: The China Health and Nutrition Survey. Gu Y, He Y, Ali SH, Harper K, Dong H, Gittelsohn J. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jan 5;18(1):E342. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18010342. PMID: 33466375 Abstract This study was to investigate the association of long-term fruit and vegetable (FV) intake with all-cause mortality. We utilized data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), a prospective cohort study conducted in China. The sample population included 19,542 adult respondents with complete mortality data up to 31 December 2011. Cumulative FV intake was assessed by 3 day 24 h dietary recalls. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all-cause mortality. Covariates included sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, health-related factors, and urban index. A total of 1409 deaths were observed during follow-up (median: 14 years). In the fully adjusted model, vegetable intake of the fourth quintile (327~408 g/day) had the greatest negative association with death compared to the lowest quintile (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.53-0.76). Fruit intake of the fifth quintile (more than 126 g/day) had the highest negative association (HR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.15-0.40) and increasing general FV intake were also negatively associated with all-cause mortality which demonstrated the greatest negative association in the amount of fourth quintile (HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.49-0.70) compared to the lowest quintile. To conclude, greater FV intake is associated with a reduced risk of total mortality for Chinese adults. High intake of fruit has a stronger negative association with mortality than differences in intake of vegetables. Our findings support recommendations to increase the intake of FV to promote overall longevity. Keywords: China; fruit; mortality; prospective studies; vegetables. Leukocyte telomere length, cancer incidence and all-cause mortality among Chinese adults: Singapore Chinese Health Study. Samavat H, Luu HN, Beckman KB, Jin A, Wang R, Koh WP, Yuan JM. Int J Cancer. 2021 Jan 15;148(2):352-362. doi: 10.1002/ijc.33211. Epub 2020 Aug 5. PMID: 33459354 Abstract Telomeres play a key role in chromosomal maintenance and stability. To date, few studies have investigated the association of leukocyte telomere length with risk of cancer incidence and all-cause mortality in a large prospective cohort, particularly of the Asian population. Relative telomere lengths in genomic DNA from peripheral blood samples were quantified using a validated quantitative real-time PCR among 26 540 middle-aged or older Chinese adults. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer and deaths by quintiles of telomere length were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards regression method with adjustment for age, sex and other potential confounders. After baseline blood collection, 4353 persons developed cancer and 7609 died. Participants with the longest decile of telomeres had a 26% (95% CI: 11%-44%) higher risk of total cancer incidence compared to the shortest decile after controlling for age, sex and other potential founders (Ptrend < .0001). In contrast, longer telomeres were associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.84-1.03), noncancer death (HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.71-0.92), specifically, death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.70-0.89) and digestive diseases (HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.88). Our findings demonstrated that longer telomeres are associated with increased risk of cancer development overall and several common cancer types including breast, rectal, prostate, pancreatic cancer and lung adenocarcinoma. Our study also confirmed that longer telomeres are associated with a reduced risk of noncancer related death. Keywords: all‐cause mortality; biomarkers; cancer incidence; prospective cohort study; telomere length. Cognitive Trajectories and Resilience in Centenarians-Findings From the 100-Plus Study. Perls TT. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Jan 4;4(1):e2032538. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.32538. PMID: 33449091 No abstract available. [Free full-text from PMID abstract.] >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Association of Cognitive Function Trajectories in Centenarians With Postmortem Neuropathology, Physical Health, and Other Risk Factors for Cognitive Decline. Beker N, Ganz A, Hulsman M, Klausch T, Schmand BA, Scheltens P, Sikkes SAM, Holstege H. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Jan 4;4(1):e2031654. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.31654. PMID: 33449094 https://www.crsociety.org/search/?q=33449094 Abstract Importance: Understanding mechanisms associated with prolonged cognitive health in combination with exceptional longevity might lead to approaches to enable successful aging. Objective: To investigate trajectories of cognitive functioning in centenarians across domains, and to examine the association of these trajectories with factors underlying cognitive reserve, physical health, and postmortem levels of Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated neuropathology. Design, setting, and participants: This cohort study used neuropsychological test data and postmortem neuropathological reports from Dutch centenarians who were drawn from the 100-plus Study between January 2013 and April 2019. Eligible participants self-reported being cognitively healthy, which was confirmed by a proxy. Data analysis was performed between June 2019 and June 2020. Exposures: Age, sex, APOE ε genotype, factors of cognitive reserve, physical health, and AD-associated neuropathology (ie, amyloid-β, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuritic plaques). Main outcomes and measures: In annual visits (until death or until participation was no longer possible), centenarians underwent an extensive neuropsychological test battery, from which an mean z score of global cognition, memory, executive functions, verbal fluency, visuospatial functions, and attention/processing speed was calculated. Linear mixed models with a random intercept and time as independent variable were used to investigate cognitive trajectories, adjusted for sex, age, education, and vision and hearing capacities. In a second step, linear mixed models were used to associate cognitive trajectories with factors underlying cognitive reserve, physical health at baseline, and AD-associated neuropathology. Results: Of the 1023 centenarians approached, 340 were included in the study. We analyzed 330 centenarians for whom cognitive tests were available at baseline (239 [72.4%] women; median [interquartile range] age of 100.5 [100.2-101.7] years), with a mean (SD) follow-up duration of 1.6 (0.8) years. We observed no decline across investigated cognitive domains, with the exception of a slight decline in memory function (β, -0.10 SD per year; 95% CI, -0.14 to -0.05 SD; P < .001). Cognitive performance was associated with factors of physical health (eg, higher Barthel index: β, 0.37 SD per year; 95% CI, 0.24-0.49; P < .001) and cognitive reserve (eg, higher education: β, 0.41 SD per year; 95% CI, 0.29-0.53; P < .001), but none of these factors were associated with the rate of decline. Neuropathological reports were available for 44 participants. While centenarian brains revealed varying loads of postmortem neuropathological hallmarks of AD, this was not associated with cognitive performance or rate of decline. Conclusions and relevance: While we observed a slight vulnerability for decline in memory function, centenarians maintained high levels of performance in all other investigated cognitive domains for up to 4 years despite the presence of risk factors of cognitive decline. These findings suggest that mechanisms of resilience may underlie the prolongation of cognitive health until exceptional ages. NEWS AND VIEWS 14 JANUARY 2021 Anti-ageing effects of protein restriction unpacked Two animal studies show that restricting the dietary intake of branched-chain amino acids can extend lifespan by modulating the mTOR signalling pathway. But more research is needed before this diet should be recommended in people. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-03662-x >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Lifelong restriction of dietary branched-chain amino acids has sex-specific benefits for frailty and life span in mice Nicole E. Richardson, Elizabeth N. Konon, Haley S. Schuster, Alexis T. Mitchell, Colin Boyle, Allison C. Rodgers, Megan Finke, Lexington R. Haider, Deyang Yu, Victoria Flores, Heidi H. Pak, Soha Ahmad, Sareyah Ahmed, Abigail Radcliff, Jessica Wu, Elizabeth M. Williams, Lovina Abdi, Dawn S. Sherman, Timothy A. Hacker & Dudley W. Lamming Nature Aging volume 1, pages73–86(2021) https://www.nature.com/articles/s43587-020-00006-2 Abstract Protein-restricted diets promote health and longevity in many species. While the precise components of a protein-restricted diet that mediate the beneficial effects to longevity have not been defined, we recently showed that many metabolic effects of protein restriction can be attributed to reduced dietary levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine. Here, we demonstrate that restricting dietary BCAAs increases the survival of two different progeroid mouse models, delays frailty and promotes the metabolic health of wild-type C57BL/6J mice when started in midlife, and leads to a 30% increase in life span and a reduction in frailty in male, but not female, wild-type mice when they undergo lifelong feeding. Our results demonstrate that restricting dietary BCAAs can increase health span and longevity in mice and suggest that reducing dietary BCAAs may hold potential as a translatable intervention to promote healthy aging. An isocaloric moderately high-fat diet extends lifespan in male rats and Drosophila. Shi D, Han T, Chu X, Lu H, Yang X, Zi T, Zhao Y, Wang X, Liu Z, Ruan J, Liu X, Ning H, Wang M, Tian Z, Wei W, Sun Y, Li Y, Guo R, Wang Y, Ling F, Guan Y, Shen D, Niu Y, Li Y, Sun C. Cell Metab. 2021 Jan 7:S1550-4131(20)30672-0. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.12.017. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33440166 Abstract The health effect of dietary fat has been one of the most vexing issues in the field of nutrition. Few animal studies have examined the impact of high-fat diets on lifespan by controlling energy intake. In this study, we found that compared to a normal diet, an isocaloric moderately high-fat diet (IHF) significantly prolonged lifespan by decreasing the profiles of free fatty acids (FFAs) in serum and multiple tissues via downregulating FFA anabolism and upregulating catabolism pathways in rats and flies. Proteomics analysis in rats identified PPRC1 as a key protein that was significantly upregulated by nearly 2-fold by IHF, and among the FFAs, only palmitic acid (PA) was robustly and negatively associated with the expression of PPRC1. Using PPRC1 transgenic RNAi/overexpression flies and in vitro experiments, we demonstrated that IHF significantly reduced PA, which could upregulate PPRC1 through PPARG, resulting in improvements in oxidative stress and inflammation and prolonging the lifespan. Keywords: PPRC1; isocaloric moderately high-fat diet; lifespan; palmitic acid. Associations between daily aspirin use and cancer risk across strata of major cancer risk factors in two large U.S. cohorts. Hurwitz LM, Michels KA, Cook MB, Pfeiffer RM, Trabert B. Cancer Causes Control. 2020 Oct 26. doi: 10.1007/s10552-020-01357-2. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33104910 Abstract Purpose: Daily aspirin use has been shown to reduce risk of colorectal, and possibly other, cancers, but it is unknown if these benefits are consistent across subgroups of people with differing cancer risk factors. We investigated whether age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, physical inactivity, and family history of cancer modify the effect of daily aspirin use on colorectal, ovarian, breast, endometrial and aggressive prostate cancer risk. Methods: We pooled 423,495 individuals from two prospective, U.S.-based studies: the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (1995-2011) and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (1993-2009). Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined associations between daily aspirin use (≥ 5 days/week) and risk of colorectal, ovarian, breast, endometrial, and aggressive prostate cancer, overall and across strata of risk factors. Results: Daily aspirin use was associated with a 15% reduction in colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio : 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-0.89). Risk reductions were generally consistent across strata of risk factors but attenuated with increasing BMI (p-interaction = 0.16). For ovarian cancer, there was no significant association overall (HR: 0.93, 95% CI 0.80-1.08) but reduced risk among obese women (HR: 0.73, 95% CI 0.52-0.98, p-interaction = 0.12). Weak or null associations were observed for breast, endometrial, and aggressive prostate cancer, with no strong effect modification observed. Conclusions: Daily aspirin use appears to reduce colorectal cancer risk regardless of other risk factors, though the potential modifying effect of BMI warrants further investigation and may need to be considered in risk-benefit calculations for aspirin use. Keywords: Anti-inflammatory agents; Aspirin; Cancer risk; Chemoprevention; Effect modification; Non-steroidal. Physical activity and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: assessing the impact of reverse causation and measurement error in two large prospective cohorts. Lee DH, Rezende LFM, Ferrari G, Aune D, Keum N, Tabung FK, Giovannucci EL. Eur J Epidemiol. 2021 Jan 11. doi: 10.1007/s10654-020-00707-3. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33428024 Abstract Most cohort studies have only a single physical activity (PA) measure and are thus susceptible to reverse causation and measurement error. Few studies have examined the impact of these potential biases on the association between PA and mortality. A total of 133,819 participants from Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2014) reported PA through biennial questionnaires. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PA and mortality using different analytic approaches comparing single (baseline, simple update = most recent) versus repeated (cumulative average) measures of PA and applying various lag times separating PA measurement and time at risk. Over 3.2 million person-years, we documented 47,273 deaths. The pooled multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) of all-cause mortality per 10 MET-hour/week was 0.95 (0.94-0.96) for baseline PA, 0.78 (0.77-0.79) for simple updated PA and 0.87 (0.86-0.88) for cumulative average PA in the range of 0-50 MET-hour/week. Simple updated PA showed the strongest inverse association, suggesting larger impact of reverse causation. Application of 2-year lag substantially reduced the apparent reverse causation (0.85 (0.84-0.86) for simple updated PA and 0.90 (0.89-0.91) for cumulative average PA), and 4-12-year lags had minimal additional effects. In the dose-response analysis, baseline or simple updated PA showed a J or U-shaped association with all-cause mortality while cumulative average PA showed an inverse association across a wide range of PA (0-150 MET-hour/week). Similar findings were observed for different specific mortality causes. In conclusion, PA measured at baseline or with short lag time was prone to bias. Cumulative average PA showed robust evidence that PA is inversely associated with mortality in a dose-response manner. Keywords: Bias; Measurement error; Mortality; Physical activity; Reverse causation.
  23. AlPater

    Al's CR updates

    Intermittent Energy Restriction Attenuates the Loss of Fat Free Mass in Resistance Trained Individuals. A Randomized Controlled Trial. Campbell BI, Aguilar D, Colenso-Semple LM, Hartke K, Fleming AR, Fox CD, Longstrom JM, Rogers GE, Mathas DB, Wong V, Ford S, Gorman J. J Funct Morphol Kinesiol. 2020 Mar 8;5(1):19. doi: 10.3390/jfmk5010019. PMID: 33467235 Free PMC article. Abstract There is a lack of research into how lean, resistance trained (RT) individuals respond to intermittent energy restricted diets. Therefore, we investigated body composition changes in RT-individuals during continuous energy restriction or intermittent restriction. A total of 27 males and females (25 ± 6.1 years; 169 ± 9.4 cm; 80 ± 15.6 kg) were randomized to a ~25% caloric restricted diet Refeed (RF; n = 13) or Continuous group (CN; n = 14) in conjunction with 4-days/week resistance training for 7-weeks. RF implemented two consecutive days of elevated carbohydrate (CHO) intake, followed by 5-days of caloric restriction each week. CN adhered to a continuous 7-week caloric restriction. Body mass (BM), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), dry fat-free mass (dFFM), and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were assessed pre/post-diet. Both groups significantly reduced BM (RF: baseline = 76.4 ± 15.6 kg, post-diet = 73.2 ± 13.8 kg, Δ3.2 kg; CN: baseline = 83.1 ± 15.4 kg, post-diet = 79.5 ± 15 kg, Δ3.6 kg) and FM (RF: baseline = 16.3 ± 4 kg, post-diet = 13.5 ± 3.6 kg, Δ2.8 kg; CN: baseline = 16.7 ± 4.5 kg, post-diet = 14.4 ± 4.9 kg, Δ2.3 kg) with no differences between groups. FFM (RF: baseline = 60.1 ± 13.8 kg, post-diet = 59.7 ± 13.0 kg, 0.4 kg; CN: baseline = 66.4 ± 15.2 kg, post-diet = 65.1 ± 15.2 kg, Δ1.3 kg p = 0.006), dFFM (RF: baseline = 18.7 ± 5.0 kg, post-diet = 18.5 ± 4.5 kg, Δ0.2 kg; CN: baseline =21.9 ± 5.7 kg, post-diet = 20.0 ± 5.7 kg, Δ1.9 kg), and RMR (RF: baseline = 1703 ± 294, post-diet = 1665 ± 270, Δ38 kcals; CN: baseline = 1867 ± 342, post-diet = 1789 ± 409, Δ78 kcals) were better maintained in the RF group. A 2-day carbohydrate refeed preserves FFM, dryFFM, and RMR during energy restriction compared to continuous energy restriction in RT-individuals. Keywords: bodybuilding; diet; diet break; fat loss; nutrition; physique enhancement; refeed; resistance training; sports nutrition; weight loss. Effects of Late-Life Caloric Restriction on Age-Related Alterations in the Rat Cortex and Hippocampus. Tonini C, Segatto M, Martino F, Cigliano L, Nazzaro M, Barberio L, Mandalà M, Pallottini V. Nutrients. 2021 Jan 15;13(1):E232. doi: 10.3390/nu13010232. PMID: 33467406 Abstract Background: A major problem of aging is the disruption of metabolic homeostasis. This is particularly relevant in the brain where it provokes neurodegeneration. Caloric restriction is a physiologic intervention known to delay the deleterious consequences of aging in several species ranging from yeast to mammals. To date, most studies on experimental models have started this dietary intervention from weaning, which is very difficult to be translated to human beings. Here, we study the effects of a more realistic dietary regimen in rats, starting at an advanced age and lasting for six months. Methods: we analyzed in the cortex and hippocampus, the proteins involved in the energetic balance of the cells, cholesterol metabolism, oxidative stress response, inflammation, synaptic impairment, and brain trophism. Results: our results suggest that caloric restriction in late life can revert only some age-related changes studied here. Keywords: aging; caloric restriction; cholesterol; cortex; hippocampus; rats.
  24. B.C. health officials haven't found a single case of seasonal flu spreading in the community this winter 'I've been on the influenza beat for 20 years and I've never seen anything like this,' BCCDC expert says CBC News · Posted: Jan 19, 2021 9:07 AM PT | Last Updated: January 19 https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/influenza-remarkably-absent-in-bc-covid-19-pandemic-1.5878835
  25. KHashmi317

    Keepin' the carbs LOW!

    Use both Rodent and Primate "high-protein" chow to achieve a balanced spectrum. This is based on 21 years of Nutribase and DWIDP software number-crunching.. For primate chow (as mentioned prev).: Lab Diet 5045. Also, for extra protein, have also experimented with wet cat food (Fancy Feast Liver pate). Yes ... SIGNIFICANT use -- most bulk and mass of my meal --of raw, shredded veg, (broc, red cbg, kale, spinach, asparagus) . Some unsweetened almond milk (2 c/day), and unsweetened cocoa pwdr. Two cups of coffee: whole bean which I grind and French press, with either soy creamer or CoffeeMate pwdr. And two cups of Diet Coke. FWIW: a generic multi-vitamin, some extra Vit-D gel caps. some Ca and Zn supps. About animal food and taste.... Animals have palates, too. One of the most scrumptious being frugivore mega bats. About questionable human palates ... alcohol ... BITTER, disguising and expensive.
  26. mccoy

    Silvanesti Smoothie

    Clinton, yes, I've started experimenting this strategy, specifically suggested by the examine.com staff (joint health for athletics). I'll go on for 120 days, then evaluate the results: Type2 undernatured collagen: 40 milligrams per day Combined EPa+DHA : 3 grams per day. I chose the costliest, hi-quality fish-oil capsules I could find. Whereas I chose the only T2-UC I could find, the NOW brand. T2-UC can be substituted by 10 grams collagen or 15 grams gelatin. I prefer to minimize animal food, most collagen is bovine collagen. What about prions?
  27. mccoy

    Keepin' the proteins LOW!

    I was wondering how it is possible to eat so few protein in the Western world, but then I saw the study was carried out in India, with prevalently anorexic (or very low income) individuals. It would have been interesting to have the units in g/kg/d, so that a comparison with the accepted RDA would have been possible.
  28. mccoy

    Keepin' the carbs LOW!

    khashmi, I found the ingredients which look pretty complete and supplemented with vitamins and mierals, I wonder about the taste though. How much chow do you eat usually per day? As far as I recall, you eat lots of shredded, raw vegetables as well. You probably deserve the gold medal for nutritional stoicism!
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