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  2. Gordo

    The Ultimate Purpose of Life

    Always fun to think about these things, there is no use getting worked up about various ideas out there. Quite a few smart people currently think our universe is a simulation. They say the probability of this being "base reality" is mathematically near zero. This of course means we were created, and not only that, but created by something which gave our universe rules. This is compatible with the idea and scientific consensus, that our universe basically instantly sprang into existence out of essentially nothing like something flipped a switch one day or said "let there be light" 😉 I think its kind of interesting that the Bible also talks about the earth being completely destroyed by fire, considering this was written nearly 2000 years ago, long before we knew that our sun will eventually go supernova and our planet will in fact be destroyed by fire. But beyond that event, our universe definitely seems to have an expiration, eventually all sun's will burn out, there will be nothing but darkness everywhere, planet hoping / traveling to other star systems, isn't going to help, the great wheels of entropy pretty much ensure there will be no life in our universe one day - so what happens after that? Is there something that then leads to a "reboot"? Again I find it kind of fascinating that the Bible even chimes in on this topic - apparently the same entity that created our current "simulation" in the first place, is going to do it again after this one dies out. Apparently in the new "simulation" this creator dude is going to take on a more interactive role, the new Earth simulation will have some interesting differences compared to the current one as well, like there will not be an ocean anymore, or a sun, so that's going to be kind of strange (there will however be a new, different, kind of light source) - and there will be all sorts of other benefits, like no more death or pain, so that's pretty cool! Everyone will also be vegetarian, which is kind of interesting, might as well switch over now so you can get used to it, haha. 😉
  3. Yesterday
  4. Interesting stuff: Immune discovery 'may treat all cancer A newly-discovered part of our immune system could be harnessed to treat all cancers, say scientists. The Cardiff University team discovered a method of killing prostate, breast, lung and other cancers in lab tests. The findings, published in Nature Immunology, have not been tested in patients, but the researchers say they have "enormous potential".
  5. Last week
  6. TomBAvoider

    Flatulence study

    What if they live shorter? It's possible that a gut biome that's very active in the production of gas might have health benefits.
  7. Ron Put

    Flatulence study

    Find another hobby? Before your ears grow pointy and your teeth large....
  8. Fernando Gabriel

    Flatulence study

    I would like you to do a study to find out if people with less gas live longer.
  9. There may still be a debate, but it doesn't meant that those "high-end audiophiles" know what they are talking about, or understand physics and human hearing. Ignorance and bias are a really good thing for "high end audiophile" manufacturers.
  10. But of course. Epigenetics matter too. At the same time, having random variations provides another layer, but it certainly doesn't meant that genes do not matter. A lot.
  11. An interesting article, highlighting the fact that much in biology is determined by more than genes and the environment, and is essentially noise. For example, controlling as tightly as possible for genes and environment with both virtually identical, you can still have differences of lifespan in worms of as much as 300%. https://slate.com/technology/2014/09/random-noise-in-biology-why-genetically-identical-twins-arent-identical.html
  12. Association of dietary glycaemic index, glycaemic load, and total carbohydrates with incidence of type-2 diabetes in adults aged ≥40 years: The Multi-Rural Communities Cohort (MRCohort). Young Kim S, Won Woo H, Lee YH, Hoon Shin D, Shin MH, Youl Choi B, Kyung Kim M. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020 Jan 14:108007. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108007. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31953108 https://sci-hub.tw/https://www.diabetesresearchclinicalpractice.com/article/S0168-8227(19)31185-4/fulltext Abstract AIMS: To examine potential associations between the glycaemic index (GI), glycaemic load (GL), and carbohydrates and the incidence risk of type-2 diabetes (T2D) and the effect modification of obesity among Korean adults aged ≥40 years. METHOD: Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for T2D were estimated in 8,310 participants using a modified Poisson regression model. Dietary indices were averaged using repeated dietary assessments during follow-up. RESULT: After adjusting for potential confounders, a positive association between GI and T2D was found among women (IRR=1.63, 95% CI=1.06-2.51 in the highest tertile (T3) vs. the lowest tertile (T1) for GI, p trend=0.0310), but not for GL and carbohydrate intake. This positive association with GI was stronger in obese women (IRR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.15-3.19 in T3 vs. T1, p trend=0.0137 for body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2; IRR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.01-5.48, p trend=0.0350 for waist circumference (WC) ≥ 85 cm). In men, there was no association before stratification by obesity, but IRRs of GI (T3 vs. T1) were significant and stronger with increased WCs (IRR=2.26, 95% CI: 1.02-4.98, p trend=0.0439 for WC ≥90). CONCLUSION: GI may be positively associated with the incidence of T2D in women, particularly in obese women. The association of GI with T2D incidence risk may also be positive even in men with high WC. KEYWORDS: Carbohydrates; Glycaemic index; Glycaemic load; Prospective cohort study; Type 2 diabetes Physical Activity Compared to Adiposity and Risk of Liver-Related Mortality: Results from Two Prospective, Nationwide Cohorts. Simon TG, Kim MN, Luo X, Yang W, Ma Y, Chong DQ, Fuchs CS, Meyerhardt JA, Corey KE, Chung RT, Stampfer M, Zhang X, Giovannucci EL, Chan AT. J Hepatol. 2020 Jan 15. pii: S0168-8278(20)30013-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2019.12.022. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31954204 Abstract BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity in adulthood has been associated with increased risk of liver-related mortality. Whether higher levels of physical activity counteract the excess risk conferred by obesity remains unknown. We simultaneously evaluated the long-term impact of physical activity and adiposity on liver-related mortality, within two nationwide populations. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 77,238 women and 48,026 men, with detailed, validated assessments of weekly physical activity (metabolic equivalent task [MET]-hours]), adiposity (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference), and diet, alcohol use and clinical comorbidities, biennially from 1986 through 2012. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models, we calculated multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for liver-related mortality, including death from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other cirrhosis complications. RESULTS: Over 1,856,226 person-years, we recorded 295 liver-related deaths (108 HCC; 187 cirrhosis). Risk of liver-related mortality increased monotonically with higher BMI during adulthood (Ptrend<0.0001) and with weight gain during early-adulthood (Ptrend<0.0001). The risk of liver-related mortality also declined progressively, with increasing physical activity (Ptrend=0.0003); the aHRs across increasing physical activity quintiles were: 1.0, 0.70 (95%CI=0.51-0.96), 0.59 (95%CI=0.42-0.84), 0.52 (95%CI=0.36-0.74) and 0.46 (95%CI=0.31-0.66). Compared to lean-active adults (BMI<25; ≥18 MET-hours/week), the aHRs for obese-active, lean-sedentary, and obese-sedentary adults were: 1.04 (95%CI=0.73-1.37), 2.08 (95%CI=1.21-3.33) and 3.40 (95%CI=2.06-5.56), respectively. Findings were similar for HCC-specific and cirrhosis-specific mortality. Overall, engaging in average-pace walking for >3 hours/week could have prevented 25% of liver-related deaths (95%CI=0.12-0.38). CONCLUSIONS: In two prospective, nationwide cohorts, both excess adiposity and reduced PA were significant predictors of liver-related mortality. Achieving higher PA levels counteracted the excess liver-related risks associated with obesity. KEYWORDS: cirrhosis; lifestyle; modifiable risk factor; prevention The relationship between consumption of nitrite or nitrate and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Yu M, Li C, Hu C, Jin J, Qian S, Jin J. Sci Rep. 2020 Jan 17;10(1):551. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-57453-5. PMID: 31953513 Abstract Epidemiologic studies of the relationship between nitrite or nitrate consumption and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) remain controversial. The current meta-analysis aimed to reexamine the evidence and quantitatively evaluate that relationship. Manuscripts were retrieved from the Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and PubMed databases up to May 2019. From the studies included in the review, results were combined and presented as odds ratios (OR). To conduct a dose-response (DR) analysis, studies presenting risk estimates over a series of categories of exposure were selected. Our data indicate that the consumption of nitrite was linked to a significantly increased hazard of NHL (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.14-1.65), rather than nitrate (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.94-1.10). According to Egger's and Begg's tests (P > 0.05), there was no evidence of significant publication bias. Moreover, our DR analysis indicated that the risk of NHL grew by 26% for each additional microgram of nitrite consumed in the diet per day (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.09-1.42). Through subset analysis of the nitrite studies, data from the high-quality studies indicated that consumption was positively associated with carcinogenicity, leading to NHL (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.17-1.77) and positively correlated with the development of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.07-2.26), but not other NHL subtypes. In addition, the data suggested that females (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.15-1.95) and high levels of nitrite intake (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.28-2.09) had a higher risk of NHL. Our meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that nitrite intake, but not that of nitrate, raises the risk of developing NHL. In the future, better designed prospective research studies should be conducted to confirm our findings, clarify potential biological mechanisms and instruct clinicians about NHL prophylaxis. Red Cell Distribution Width Is Directly Associated with Poor Cognitive Performance among Nonanemic, Middle-Aged, Urban Adults. Beydoun MA, Hossain S, Beydoun HA, Shaked D, Weiss J, Evans MK, Zonderman AB. J Nutr. 2020 Jan 1;150(1):128-139. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxz182. PMID: 31912144 https://watermark.silverchair.com/nxz182.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAlQwggJQBgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggJBMIICPQIBADCCAjYGCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQM2w8Uzw19FIgDKgLEAgEQgIICB2ulZd0jP61koX9hfWrJhwnEJLHLAsOW9JWnf_sZPQI87JuoRORbgtOK6b8My8ojlRDqsTKa1zhFW2JlZlw6SU5kG_KVPLCRiWJTA1Tw1KkMTK26sqWeA3ruBeDXxTheqDMG1vt7HKTrxvLzmToHAl6hcTn8ym7jcSFypUUbxxN0XttsDYboP3D8_yjAvfxrvJ7g35C4FC5e0rPkglv2Xy0C09AfbG3Ciif1xdA4ZZVstJ2iUDSte9ZzfyOhpuNMjhSXcVUlUlQ6qhFfFFC2-GZ7POU8sXiz_4LbN7Bg0AFiSvPiL7SaKOnv47vafj4vhRD-isHAaiORrEObsD2OUUeOoxG9FEy_bLBOXeaweYAkY1z-fh3Gq5yPUTZxUObkzYEiLNOr7GC1TyV-_0slQc1jhVdQAA9--S1-M-vaM2CzspCNHJkN1mMu_tuEUnYaw_sAu0RDAwBR39b75mpXAqZkYHW_TPhPRIb5AFGGUzwrSKZb7PbXmxYIxmzSl2MD7KE4teulJ68ecZqFnKGy68OJbnB2VCFPQmOydc7_VHmt918a97fSuc-m8KCoNTQ6dmE0CQQjzqsRN4yFJxdbenUec9kVoW39dZDFrn04hG8ENUxRK6VItr1FwzDNr_gfEF3tHbvOqw70JMnm4PWK07qR3gWUwZyku20tVW2EyxwDi4rWQMyfDQ Abstract BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests that both anemia and elevated red cell distribution width (RDW) are associated with cognitive impairment. However, the interplay between these 2 predictors has been understudied. OBJECTIVES: We examined sex- and anemia-specific associations between RDW and cognitive performance among urban adults in the United States. METHODS: Data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span Study (Baltimore, MD; participants aged 30-65 y at baseline, ∼59% African-American, 45% men) were used. Participants were selected based on the completion of 11 cognitive tasks at baseline (2004-2009) and follow-up (2009-2013) visits (mean time between visits: 4.64 ± 0.93 y) and availability of exposure and covariate data, yielding a sample of between 1526 and 1646 adults out of the initial 3720 adults recruited at baseline. Multiple linear mixed-effects regression models were conducted with RDW as the main exposure of interest and anemia/sex as the key effect modifiers. RESULTS: Overall, high RDWs were linked to poorer baseline performance on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) List A (per 1 unit increase in RDW %, main effect: γ01 = -0.369 ± 0.114; P = 0.001) and to slower rates of decline on the CVLT Delayed Free Recall (per 1 unit increase in RDW %, RDW × time: γ11 = +0.036 ± 0.013; P = 0.007). Among nonanemic participants, RDWs were consistently associated with poorer baseline performance on the Trailmaking Test, Part A (γ01 = +3.11 ± 0.89; P < 0.001) and on the CVLT List A (γ01 = -0.560 ± 0.158; P < 0.001). Moreover, RDWs were associated with poorer baseline performance on the Brief Test of Attention in the total population (γ01 = -0.123 ± 0.039; P = 0.001) and among men (γ01 = -0.221 ± 0.068; P = 0.001). We did not detect an association between hemoglobin (Hb) and baseline cognitive performance or changes over time. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated RDW had a consistent cross-sectional association with poor cognitive performance in the domains of verbal memory and attention among the nonanemic group in a sample of middle-aged, urban adults. Anemia and Hb concentrations were not associated with cognition. More longitudinal studies are needed to replicate our findings. KEYWORDS: anemia; cognitive performance; red cell distribution width; urban adults; aging Carbohydrate-restricted diet alters the gut microbiota, promotes senescence and shortens the life span in senescence-accelerated prone mice. He C, Wu Q, Hayashi N, Nakano F, Nakatsukasa E, Tsuduki T. J Nutr Biochem. 2019 Dec 20;78:108326. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2019.108326. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31952014 Abstract This study examined the effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet on aging, brain function, intestinal bacteria and the life span to determine long-term carbohydrate-restriction effects on the aging process in senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8). Three-week-old male SAMP8 were divided into three groups after a week of preliminary feeding. One group was given a controlled diet, while the others fed on high-fat and carbohydrate-restricted diets, respectively. The mice in each group were further divided into two subgroups, of which one was the longevity measurement group. The other groups fed ad libitum until the mice were 50 weeks old. Before the test period termination, passive avoidance test evaluated the learning and memory abilities. Following the test period, serum and various mice organs were obtained and submitted for analysis. The carbohydrate-restricted diet group exhibited significant decrease in the survival rate as compared to the other two diet groups. The passive avoidance test revealed a remarkable decrease in the learning and memory ability of carbohydrate-restricted diet group as compared to the control-diet group. Measurement of lipid peroxide level in tissues displayed a marked increase in the brain and spleen of carbohydrate-restricted diet group than the control-diet and high-fat diet groups. Furthermore, notable serum IL-6 and IL-1β level (inflammation indicators) elevations, decrease in Enterobacteria (with anti-inflammatory action), increase in inflammation-inducing Enterobacteria and lowering of short-chain fatty acids levels in cecum were observed in the carbohydrate-restricted diet group. Hence, carbohydrate-restricted diet was revealed to promote aging and shortening of life in SAMP8. KEYWORDS: Aging; Carbohydrate-restricted diet; Gut microbiota; Senescence-accelerated mice; Short-chain fatty acids Association between breastfeeding and osteoporotic hip fracture in women: a dose-response meta-analysis. Xiao H, Zhou Q, Niu G, Han G, Zhang Z, Zhang Q, Bai J, Zhu X. J Orthop Surg Res. 2020 Jan 16;15(1):15. doi: 10.1186/s13018-019-1541-y. PMID: 31948457 Abstract OBJECTIVE: Approximately 300 mg of calcium a day is provided into infants to maintain the physical development of infants, and 5 to 10% bone loss occurs in women during breastfeeding. Hip fractures are considered the most serious type of osteoporotic fracture. We performed this meta-analysis to investigate the association between breastfeeding and osteoporotic hip fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched until May 1, 2019, for studies evaluating the relationship between breastfeeding and osteoporotic hip fracture in women. The quality of the included studies was evaluated by the methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINORS). For the dose-response meta-analysis, we used the "generalized least squares for trend estimation" method proposed by Greenland and Longnecker to take into account the correlation with the log RR estimates across the duration of breastfeeding. RESULTS: Seven studies were moderate or high quality, enrolling a total of 103,898 subjects. The pooled outcomes suggested that breastfeeding can decrease the incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture (RR = 0.64 (95% CI 0.43, 0.95), P = 0.027). Dose-response analysis demonstrated that the incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture decreased with the increase of breastfeeding time. The RR and 95% CI for 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months were RR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.88, 0.98; RR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.79, 0.96; RR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.67, 0.92; and RR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.59, 0.98, respectively, whereas no significant relationship was found between them when the duration of breastfeeding time was more than 25 months. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that the incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture decreased with the extension of breastfeeding time. However, there is no significant relationship between them when the duration of breastfeeding time was more than 25 months. KEYWORDS: Breast feeding; Hip fractures; Meta-analysis
  13. AlPater

    Al's CR updates

    Deletion of Nrf2 shortens lifespan in C57BL6/J male mice but does not alter the health and survival benefits of caloric restriction. Pomatto LCD, Dill T, Carboneau B, Levan S, Kato J, Mercken EM, Pearson KJ, Bernier M, de Cabo R. Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 Jan 14. pii: S0891-5849(19)32365-2. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.01.005. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31953150 https://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.01.005 Abstract Caloric restriction (CR) is the leading non-pharmaceutical dietary intervention to improve health- and lifespan in most model organisms. A wide array of cellular pathways is induced in response to CR and CR-mimetics, including the transcriptional activator Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is essential in the upregulation of multiple stress-responsive and mitochondrial enzymes. Nrf2 is necessary in tumor protection but is not essential for the lifespan extending properties of CR in outbred mice. Here, we sought to study Nrf2-knockout (KO) mice and littermate controls in male C57BL6/J, an inbred mouse strain. Deletion of Nrf2 resulted in shortened lifespan compared to littermate controls only under ad libitum conditions. CR-mediated lifespan extension and physical performance improvements did not require Nrf2. Metabolic and protein homeostasis and activation of tissue-specific cytoprotective proteins were dependent on Nrf2 expression. These results highlight an important contribution of Nrf2 for normal lifespan and stress response.
  14. Clinton

    I Biohacked for 10 Weeks to Try to Live Forever

    Thanks Ron!! That was hilarious- I enjoyed it all.
  15. I think we should do studies to get result from extreme survival mode One group of men keeps their fat percentage 0-3%, another keeps 3-6% another 6-10% another 10-15% another 15-20% another 20-30% another 30-40% and the last more than 40% and women 0-5% 5-10%, 10-20%, 20-30% 30-40%, 40-50% and 50% or more. People in the 0-3% 0-5% group are expected to increase the fat percentage when they are close to zero and people in all groups will measure their fat percentage on the bioimpedance scale every day and do not let the percentage pass the limit of the limit of group if they will not be disqualified.None of these groups should do physical activities that increase muscle as this can alter the results and should be sedentary to avoid gaining lean mass. If the group of 0 to 3% of men and 0 to 5% of women with more longevity and more longevity means that Zeta is true, until the result is released, I will keep my percentage at the healthier level 10-12%.
  16. I Biohacked for 10 Weeks to Try to Live Forever Interesting reading and a good example of how easy it is to make fun of the "longevity" fad, and also what click-bait journalism can do to generally sound theories proposing benefits from intermittent fasting and autophagy. The focus on David Asprey's rather nutty marketing spiel is also fitting the presentation.
  17. You think this technology will be able to prolong life by how many years. You think it would clear the arteries, eliminate the stroke, eliminate the cancer and leave us free of infections.
  18. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load during pregnancy and offspring risk of congenital heart defects: a prospective cohort study. Schmidt AB, Lund M, Corn G, Halldorsson TI, Øyen N, Wohlfahrt J, Olsen SF, Melbye M. Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 Jan 14. pii: nqz342. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz342. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31942930 Abstract BACKGROUND: Prepregnancy diabetes, especially when severely dysregulated, is associated with an increased risk of congenital heart defects in offspring. This suggests that glucose plays a role in embryonic heart development. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the association between midpregnancy dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and sugar-sweetened beverages and the risk of congenital heart defects in the offspring. METHODS: Offspring of mothers from the Danish National Birth Cohort who filled out a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) covering midpregnancy dietary intake were included. Individual-level information on GI and GL, offspring congenital heart defects, and health and lifestyle covariates was linked. The association between GI and GL and offspring congenital heart defects was estimated by logistic regression. Further, we evaluated whether maternal intake of sugar-sweetened drinks increased the risk of offspring congenital heart defects. RESULTS: In total, 66,387 offspring of women who responded to the FFQ were included; among offspring, 543 had a congenital heart defect. The adjusted OR (aOR) of congenital heart defects among offspring of mothers belonging to the highest versus the lowest GI quintile was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.34; P-trend = 0.86). Results were similar for GL (aOR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.24). A high intake of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects (highest vs lowest intake-aOR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.26, 4.64; P-trend = 0.03). No association was found with other types of beverages. CONCLUSIONS: The study does not support an association between a high GI and GL in midpregnancy and increased offspring risk of congenital heart defects. Nevertheless, a statistically significant association between sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages and a moderately increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects was observed. KEYWORDS: Danish National Birth Cohort; congenital heart defects; food-frequency questionnaire; glycemic index; glycemic load; pregnancy; sugar-sweetened beverages Dietary Phospholipids: Role in Cognitive Processes Across the Lifespan. Schverer M, O'Mahony SM, O'Riordan KJ, Donoso F, Roy BL, Stanton C, Dinan TG, Schellekens H, Cryan JF. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2020 Jan 13. pii: S0149-7634(19)31034-6. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.01.012. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PMID: 31945391 https://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.01.012 Abstract Chronic stress and ageing are two of the most important factors that negatively affect cognitive processes such as learning and memory across the lifespan. To date, pharmacological agents have been insufficient in reducing the impact of both on brain health, and thus, novel therapeutic strategies are required. Recent research has focused on nutritional interventions to modify behaviour and reduce the deleterious consequences of both stress and ageing. In this context, emerging evidence indicate that phospholipids, a specific type of fat, are capable of improving a variety of cognitive processes in both animals and humans. The mechanisms underlying these positive effects are actively being investigated but as of yet are not fully elucidated. In this review, we summarise the preclinical and clinical studies available on phospholipid-based strategies for improved brain health across the lifespan. Moreover, we summarize the hypothesized direct and indirect mechanisms of action of these lipid-based interventions which may be used to promote resilience to stress and improve age-related cognitive decline in vulnerable populations. KEYWORDS: ageing; brain health; cognition; dietary phospholipids; gut; microbiota; stress Low-fat dietary pattern and global cognitive function: Exploratory analyses of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized Dietary Modification trial. Chlebowski RT, Rapp S, Aragaki AK, Pan K, Neuhouser ML, Snetselaar LG, Manson JE, Wactawski-Wende J, Johnson KC, Hayden K, Baker LD, Henderson VW, Garcia L, Qi L, Prentice RL. EClinicalMedicine. 2020 Jan 8;18:100240. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2019.100240. eCollection 2020 Jan. PMID: 31938786 Abstract BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of observational studies associate adherence to several dietary patterns with cognitive health. However, limited evidence from full scale, randomized controlled trials precludes causal inference regarding dietary effects on cognitive function. METHODS: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Dietary Modification (DM) randomized trial, in 48,835 postmenopausal women, included a subset of 1,606 WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) participants >= 65 years old, to assess low-fat dietary pattern influence on global cognitive function, evaluated with annual screening (Modified Mini-Mental State Examinations [3MSE]). Participants were randomized by a computerized, permuted block algorithm, stratified by age group and center, to a dietary intervention (40%) to reduce fat intake to 20% of energy and increase fruit, vegetable and grain intake or usual diet comparison groups (60%). The study outcome was possible cognition impairment (failed cognitive function screening) through the 8.5 year (median) dietary intervention. Those failing screening received a comprehensive, multi-phase cognitive function assessment to classify as: no cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment, or probable dementia. Exploratory analyses examined the composite endpoint of death after possible cognitive impairment through 18.7 years (median) follow-up. The WHI trials are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT00000611. FINDINGS: Among the 1,606 WHIMS participants, the dietary intervention statistically significantly reduced the incidence of possible cognitive impairment (n = 126; hazard ratio 0.59 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-0. 91, P = 0.01) with HR for dietary influence on subsequent mild cognitive impairment of 0.65 (95% CI 0.35-1.19) and HR of 0.63 (95% CI 0.19-2.10) for probable dementia (PD). Through 18.7 years, deaths from all-causes after possible cognitive impairment were non-significantly lower in the dietary intervention group (0.56% vs 0.77%, HR 0.83 95% CI 0.35 to 2.00, P = 0.16). INTERPRETATION: Adoption of a low-fat eating pattern, representing dietary moderation, significantly reduced risk of possible cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women. KEYWORDS: Cognition; Dietary modification; Low-fat dietary pattern; Randomized clinical trial; Women's Health Initiative Food consumption and depression among Brazilian adults: results from the Brazilian National Health Survey, 2013. Sousa KT, Marques ES, Levy RB, Azeredo CM. Cad Saude Publica. 2019 Dec 20;36(1):e00245818. doi: 10.1590/0102-311X00245818. eCollection 2019. PMID: 31939555 Abstract Our study aimed to evaluate the association between food consumption and depression. We used data from the Brazilian National Health Survey; a cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 among 46,785 Brazilian adults. The exposures were regular consumption (≥ 5 times/week) of the markers of healthy (beans, vegetables, fruits, and natural fruit juices) and unhealthy food (sugar sweetened beverages; sweets and the substitution of lunch or dinner for snacks); and a nutritional score elaborated by combining the frequency of consumption of markers of healthy and unhealthy food, the higher the value, the better the diet. The outcome was depression, assessed through the PHQ-9 questionnaire answered by the participants. Those with PHQ-9 scores greater than or equal to 10 were classified as presenting depression. We performed logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Regular consumption of sweets (OR = 1.53; 95%CI: 1.33-1.76) and regular replacement of meals for snacks (OR = 1.52; 95%CI: 1.21-1.90) were positively associated with depression. Regular consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was positively associated with depression among women (OR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.10-1.48). Regular consumption of beans was negatively associated with depression (OR = 0.74; 95%CI: 0.65-0.84), consistent for both sexes. Comparing the top quintile of the nutritional score (healthier diet) to the bottom quintile (less healthy) we found a negative association with depression (OR = 0.63; 95%CI: 0.52-0.75). Our results add evidence on a possible role of food consumption in depression; future longitudinal studies should explore the mechanisms of these associations. Impact of intermittent vs. continuous energy restriction on weight and cardiometabolic factors: a 12-month follow-up. Headland ML, Clifton PM, Keogh JB. Int J Obes (Lond). 2020 Jan 14. doi: 10.1038/s41366-020-0525-7. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31937907 Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intermittent energy restriction continues to gain popularity as a weight loss strategy; however, data assessing it's long-term viability is limited. The objective of this study was to follow up with participants 12 months after they had completed a 12-month dietary intervention trial involving continuous energy restriction and two forms of intermittent energy restriction; a week-on-week-off energy restriction and a 5:2 programme, assessing long-term changes on weight, body composition, blood lipids and glucose. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 109 overweight and obese adults, aged 18-72 years, attended a 12-month follow-up after completing a 12-month dietary intervention involving three groups: continuous energy restriction (1000 kcal/day for women and 1200 kcal/day for men), week-on-week-off energy restriction (alternating between the same energy restriction as the continuous group for one week and one week of habitual diet), or 5:2 (500 kcal/day on modified fast days each week for women and 600 kcal/day for men). The primary outcome was weight change at 24 months from baseline, with secondary outcomes of change in body composition, blood lipids and glucose. RESULTS: For the 109 individuals who completed the 12-month follow-up (82 female, 15 male, mean BMI 33 kg/m2), weight decreased over time with no differences between week-on and week-off and continuous energy restriction or 5:2 and continuous energy restriction with -4.5 ± 4.9 kg for continuous energy restriction, -2.8 ± 6.5 kg for week-on, week-off and -3.5 ± 5.1 kg for 5:2. Total cholesterol reduced over time and glucose, HDL, LDL and triglycerides were unchanged. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Intermittent energy restriction was as successful in achieving modest weight loss over a 24-month period as continuous energy restriction.
  19. AlPater

    Al's CR updates

    Lifestyle vs. pharmacological interventions for healthy aging. Furrer R, Handschin C. Aging (Albany NY). 2020 Jan 10:5-7. doi: 10.18632/aging.102741. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available. PMID: 31937689 https://www.aging-us.com/article/102741/text KEYWORDS: aging; caloric restriction; exercise; metformin; rapamycin
  20. Ari

    Slowly getting into CR

    Alright, after having been interested in it for a long time, sort of forgotten about it for some time, and recently getting my interest up again, I'm going to start some measure of CR to see how I like it. I'm currently 36 and have never been overweight, though I'm not extremely skinny, either. I'm non-American, so I'm using SI units, and by that measure I'm 176 cm tall and weight somewhere around 75-80 kg. I don't have a scale, but when I hang from the pulldown exercise machine at the gym, I pull down 75 kg but can hang freely from 80 kg. Maybe that's not an optimal way of measuring? I've been interested in longevity for a long time, so that's definitely part of my motivation. Another part is that I have contracted, since about a year and a half back, an inflammatory bowel disease. Still waiting on a diagnosis, but something like Crohn's disease. So, lots of inflammation in the colon, and since CR is anti-inflammatory, I'm hoping it will help with this. I'm not sure I'll have the patience to keep measuring my calories, so to some extent I'll use blood tests to keep me on track. I took one a week ago and uploaded the results to labtestanalyzer.com. I'm generally healthy, most values in the optimal range, but signs of inflammation can certainly be seen. Maybe I'll post some actual values later. I'll start to slowly decrease calories and take regular blood tests to track any changes. At some point I might also try some supplements. I've been interested in Alive By Nature's NAD+ Defender, which should be anti-inflammatory, to see if it helps me, but I think I'll start with CR and see how that affects me. I don't want to confound my variables and not know what is actually helping. I have a background in engineering, so I'm analytical but not well versed in metabolism and biology, though having an interest in life extension has led me to at least some basic knowledge. The purpose of this thread is basically to log my progress and hopefully get some tips from more experienced practitioners. And we'll see how successful I will be on the whole "log my progress" thing ...
  21. mccoy

    The Ultimate Purpose of Life

    First and foremost, if we assign to the SB the attributes of the more familiar GOD, then it is by definition 'non-created'. Otherwise, we may be stuck in the concept of an infinite regression of creators. The purpose of the SB may be diverse: simple entertainment, scientific experiment, whatever. Even reasons unfathomable to us. Other relevant questions would be: what are we supposed to do (rules of the game or of the simulation), is there a way to contact the SB, has our logic been injected by the SB with a degree of similarity to it, what happens when a layer of the simulation (our physical body) ends its cycle, and so on and so forth
  22. mccoy

    Living Bricks that Reproduce

    It would also be useful to program the bacteria in such a way that they can build a complete house. I don't know if I would feel safe in it, though...
  23. Saul

    Living Bricks that Reproduce

    I found this article fascinating: Living building materials that reproduce. Part photosynthetic bacteria, sand and gelatin. https://www.insidescience.org/news/research-harnesses-bacterial-power-generate-self-reproducing-building-material -- Saul
  24. I have been on the CR Diet / OMAD with frequent IM constantly since 1990, when I was just 29. I turn 60 this year. Has anyone else been practicing the CR Diet for 30 years or longer as I'd like to compare notes?

    1. Saul

      Saul

      I've been practicing for a little under 24 years.  I'm 80 1/2 yo.

        --  Saul

  25. corybroo

    The Ultimate Purpose of Life

    Suppose some SB did create us, wouldn't it be fair to ask what is the purpose of the SB? And the SB's creator, etc.
  26. A few thoughts of Sinclair and his use of Shannon's information theory (I haven't read the book; only going by the Google talk).... Sinclair uses CDs as examples of information carriers. First, that the music signal can be reconstructed if you use enough samples (based on highest freq. in the audio signal). Second, that CDs can get scratched, but may be re-polished to make them workable. The audio fidelity of CDs is matter of huge debate in the high-end audiophile world. Many claim vinyl LPs sound better despite specs (measurements) being "worse". Also, and even as metaphor, "equating" biological information to digital (signal) information is pretty big stretch. I hate to use yet another Star Trek example, but ... from episode The Ultimate Computer (1968)... Mr Spock's logic prevails, of course ;) KIRK: Have you located the malfunction, Doctor? DAYSTROM: As I suspected, it is not a malfunction. M-5 was merely shutting down power to areas of the ship that do not require it. Decks four and six are living quarters, are they not? KIRK: Yes, that's correct. DAYSTROM: And currently unoccupied. SPOCK: I am not familiar with these instruments, Doctor. You are using an entirely new type of control mechanism. However, it appears to me this unit is drawing more power than before. DAYSTROM: Quite right. As the unit is called upon to do more work, it pulls more power to enable it to do what is required of it, just as the human body draws more energy to run than to stand still. SPOCK: Doctor, this unit is not a human body. The computer can process information, but only the information which is put into it. KIRK: Granted, it can work a thousand, a million times faster than the human brain, but it can't make a value judgment. It hasn't intuition. It can't think. DAYSTROM: Can't you understand? The multitronic unit is a revolution in computer science. I designed the duotronic elements used in your ship right now, and I know they are as archaic as dinosaurs compared to the M-5. A whole new approach. http://www.chakoteya.net/StarTrek/53.htm
  27. The 17β-oestradiol treatment minimizes the adverse effects of protein restriction on bone parameters in ovariectomized Wistar rats: Relevance to osteoporosis and the menopause. de Quadros VP, Tobar N, Viana LR, Dos Santos RW, Kiyataka PHM, Gomes-Marcondes MCC. Bone Joint Res. 2020 Jan 8;8(12):573-581. doi: 10.1302/2046-3758.812.BJR-2018-0259.R2. eCollection 2019 Dec. PMID: 31934328 https://online.boneandjoint.org.uk/doi/epub/10.1302/2046-3758.812.BJR-2018-0259.R2 Abstract OBJECTIVES: Insufficient protein ingestion may affect muscle and bone mass, increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures in the elderly, and especially in postmenopausal women. We evaluated how a low-protein diet affects bone parameters under gonadal hormone deficiency and the improvement led by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with 17β-oestradiol. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were divided into control (C), ovariectomized (OVX), and 17β-oestradiol-treated ovariectomized (OVX-HRT) groups, which were fed a control or an isocaloric low-protein diet (LP; 6.6% protein; seven animals per group). Morphometric, serum, and body composition parameters were assessed, as well as bone parameters, mechanical resistance, and mineralogy. RESULTS: The results showed that protein restriction negatively affected body chemical composition and bone metabolism by the sex hormone deficiency condition in the OVX group. The association between undernutrition and hormone deficiency led to bone and muscle mass loss and increased the fragility of the bone (as well as decreasing relative femoral weight, bone mineral density, femoral elasticity, peak stress, and stress at offset yield). Although protein restriction induced more severe adverse effects compared with the controls, the combination with HRT showed an improvement in minimizing these damaging effects, as it was seen that HRT had some efficacy in maintaining muscle and bone mass, preserving the bone resistance and minimizing some deleterious processes during the menopause. CONCLUSION: Protein restriction has adverse effects on metabolism, leading to more severe menopausal symptoms, and HRT could minimize these effects. Therefore, special attention should be given to a balanced diet during menopause and HRT.Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2019;8:573-581. KEYWORDS: Hormone replacement therapy; Ovariectomy; Postmenopausal osteoporosis; Protein restriction; Rat Associations of Perfluoroalkyl substances with blood lipids and Apolipoproteins in lipoprotein subspecies: the POUNDS-lost study. Liu G, Zhang B, Hu Y, Rood J, Liang L, Qi L, Bray GA, DeJonge L, Coull B, Grandjean P, Furtado JD, Sun Q. Environ Health. 2020 Jan 13;19(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s12940-020-0561-8. PMID: 31931806 Abstract BACKGROUND: The associations of perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure with blood lipids and lipoproteins are inconsistent, and existing studies did not account for metabolic heterogeneity of lipoprotein subspecies. This study aimed to examine the associations between plasma PFAS concentrations and lipoprotein and apolipoprotein subspecies. METHODS: The study included 326 men and women from the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) Lost randomized trial. Five PFASs, including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), were measured in plasma at baseline. For lipoprotein and apolipoprotein subspecies, total plasma was fractionated first by apolipoprotein (apo) C-III content and then by density. Each subfraction was then measured for apoB, apoC-III, and apoE concentrations, as well as triglyceride and cholesterol contents, both at baseline and at 2 years. RESULTS: For lipids and apolipoproteins in total plasma at baseline, elevated plasma PFAS concentrations were significantly associated with higher apoB and apoC-III concentrations, but not with total cholesterol or triglycerides. After multivariate adjustment of lifestyle factors, lipid-lowering medication use, and dietary intervention groups, PFAS concentrations were primarily associated with lipids or apolipoprotein concentrations in intermediate-to-low density lipoprotein (IDL + LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that contain apoC-III. Comparing the highest and lowest tertiles of PFOA, the least-square means (SE) (mg/dl) were 4.16 (0.4) vs 3.47 (0.4) for apoB (P trend = 0.04), 2.03 (0.2) vs 1.66 (0.2) for apoC-III (P trend = 0.04), and 8.4 (0.8) vs 6.8 (0.8) for triglycerides (P trend = 0.03) in IDL + LDL fraction that contains apoC-III. For HDL that contains apoC-III, comparing the highest and lowest tertiles of PFOA, the least-square means (SE) (mg/dl) of apoC-III were 11.9 (0.7) vs 10.4 (0.7) (P trend = 0.01). In addition, elevated PFNA and PFDA concentrations were also significantly associated with higher concentrations of apoE in HDL that contains apoC-III (P trend< 0.01). Similar patterns of associations were demonstrated between baseline PFAS concentrations and lipoprotein subspecies measured at 2 years. Baseline PFAS levels were not associated with changes in lipoprotein subspecies during the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that plasma PFAS concentrations are primarily associated with blood lipids and apolipoproteins in subspecies of IDL, LDL, and HDL that contain apoC-III, which are associated with elevated cardiovascular risk in epidemiological studies. Future studies of PFAS-associated cardiovascular risk should focus on lipid subfractions. KEYWORDS: Epidemiology; Lipid subfractions; Perfluoroalkyl substance Nutrient-wide association study of 92 foods and nutrients and breast cancer risk. Heath AK, Muller DC, van den Brandt PA, Papadimitriou N, Critselis E, Gunter M, Vineis P, Weiderpass E, Fagherazzi G, Boeing H, Ferrari P, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Arveux P, Boutron-Ruault MC, Mancini FR, Kühn T, Turzanski-Fortner R, Schulze MB, Karakatsani A, Thriskos P, Trichopoulou A, Masala G, Contiero P, Ricceri F, Panico S, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Bakker MF, van Gils CH, Olsen KS, Skeie G, Lasheras C, Agudo A, Rodríguez-Barranco M, Sánchez MJ, Amiano P, Chirlaque MD, Barricarte A, Drake I, Ericson U, Johansson I, Winkvist A, Key T, Freisling H, His M, Huybrechts I, Christakoudi S, Ellingjord-Dale M, Riboli E, Tsilidis KK, Tzoulaki I. Breast Cancer Res. 2020 Jan 13;22(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s13058-019-1244-7. PMID: 31931881 https://breast-cancer-research.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s13058-019-1244-7 Abstract BACKGROUND: Several dietary factors have been reported to be associated with risk of breast cancer, but to date, unequivocal evidence only exists for alcohol consumption. We sought to systematically assess the association between intake of 92 foods and nutrients and breast cancer risk using a nutrient-wide association study. METHODS: Using data from 272,098 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, we assessed dietary intake of 92 foods and nutrients estimated by dietary questionnaires. Cox regression was used to quantify the association between each food/nutrient and risk of breast cancer. A false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05 was used to select the set of foods and nutrients to be replicated in the independent Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). RESULTS: Six foods and nutrients were identified as associated with risk of breast cancer in the EPIC study (10,979 cases). Higher intake of alcohol overall was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio (HR) for a 1 SD increment in intake = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07), as was beer/cider intake and wine intake (HRs per 1 SD increment = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.06 and 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06, respectively), whereas higher intakes of fibre, apple/pear, and carbohydrates were associated with a lower risk of breast cancer (HRs per 1 SD increment = 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98; 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99; and 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.98, respectively). When evaluated in the NLCS (2368 cases), estimates for each of these foods and nutrients were similar in magnitude and direction, with the exception of beer/cider intake, which was not associated with risk in the NLCS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association of alcohol consumption and suggest an inverse association of dietary fibre and possibly fruit intake with breast cancer risk. KEYWORDS: Alcohol; Breast cancer; Diet; Fibre; Foods; Nutrients Mitochondrial DNA copy number variation and pancreatic cancer risk in the prospective EPIC cohort. Gentiluomo M, Katzke VA, Kaaks R, Tjonneland A, Severi G, Perduca V, Boutron-Ruault MC, Weiderpass E, Ferrari P, Johnson T, Schulze MB, Bergmann M, Trichopoulou A, Karakatsani A, La Vecchia C, Palli D, Grioni S, Panico S, Tumino R, Sacerdote C, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Vermeulen R, Sandanger TM, Quirós JR, Rodríguez-Barranco M, Amiano P, Colorado-Yohar S, Ardanaz E, Sund M, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Schmidt JA, Jakszyn P, Morelli L, Canzian F, Campa D. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2020 Jan 13. pii: cebp.0868.2019. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0868. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31932413 Abstract BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in peripheral blood has been found to be associated with risk of developing several cancers. However, data on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are very limited. METHODS: To further our knowledge on this topic we measured relative mtDNA copy number by a quantitative real-time PCR assay in peripheral leukocyte samples of 476 PDAC cases and 357 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. RESULTS: We observed lower mtDNA copy number with advancing age (p=6.54×10-5) and with a high BMI level (p=0.004) and no association with sex, smoking behavior and alcohol consumption. We found an association between increased mtDNA copy number and decreased risk of developing PDAC with an OR=0.35 (95% C.I 0.16-0.79), p=0.01 when comparing the 5th quintile with the 1st using an unconditional logistic regression and OR=0.19 (95% C.I 0.07-0.52), p=0.001 with a conditional analysis. Analyses stratified by BMI showed an association between high mtDNA copy number and decreased risk in the stratum of normal weight, consistent with the main analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our results, suggest a protective effect of a higher number of mitochondria, measured in peripheral blood leukocytes, on PDAC risk. IMPACT: Our findings highlight the importance of understanding the mitochondrial biology in pancreatic cancer. The effects of low-carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular risk factors: A meta-analysis. Dong T, Guo M, Zhang P, Sun G, Chen B. PLoS One. 2020 Jan 14;15(1):e0225348. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225348. eCollection 2020. PMID: 31935216 Abstract BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets are associated with cardiovascular risk factors; however, the results of different studies are inconsistent. PURPOSE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the relationship between low-carbohydrate diets and cardiovascular risk factors. METHOD: Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library) were searched from their inception to November 2018. We collected data from 12 randomized trials on low-carbohydrate diets including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, and blood pressure levels, as well as weight as the endpoints. The average difference (MD) was used as the index to measure the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on cardiovascular risk factors with a fixed-effects model or random-effects model. The analysis was further stratified by factors that might affect the results of the intervention. RESULTS: From 1292 studies identified in the initial search results, 12 randomized studies were included in the final analysis, which showed that a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with a decrease in triglyceride levels of -0.15mmol/l (95% confidence interval -0.23 to -0.07). Low-carbohydrate diet interventions lasting less than 6 months were associated with a decrease of -0.23mmol/l (95% confidence interval -0.32 to -0.15), while those lasting 12-23 months were associated with a decrease of -0.17mmol/l (95% confidence interval -0.32 to -0.01). The change in the body weight in the observation groups was -1.58kg (95% confidence interval -1.58 to -0.75); with for less than 6 months of intervention,this change was -1.14 kg (95% confidence interval -1.65 to -0.63),and with for 6-11 months of intervention, this change was -1.73kg (95% confidence interval -2.7 to -0.76). The change in the systolic blood pressure of the observation group was -1.41mmHg (95% confidence interval-2.26 to -0.56); the change in diastolic blood pressure was -1.71mmHg (95% confidence interval-2.36 to -1.06); the change in plasma HDL-C levels was 0.1mmHg (95% confidence interval 0.08 to 0.12); and the change in serum total cholesterol was 0.13mmol/l (95% confidence interval 0.08 to 0.19). The plasma LDL-C level increased by 0.11mmol/l (95% confidence interval 0.02 to 0.19), and the fasting blood glucose level changed 0.03mmol/l (95% confidence interval -0.05 to 0.12),which was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis confirms that low-carbohydrate diets have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk factors but that the long-term effects on cardiovascular risk factors require further research.
  28. mccoy

    The Ultimate Purpose of Life

    To link all the reasonings to the ultimate purpose of life, the hypothesized existence of a supernatural being (SB) may not even grant a clear purpose in life. That requires further reasoning. Our purpose may be to play the simulation as desidered by the SB, which would require to know the intent of a SB. Our purpose may even just be random. Everything can be hypothesized and discussed, but simply dismissing the hypothesis as fairy tales may be interpreted as a sign of intellectual arrogance.
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