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  2. Habitual Meat Consumption and Changes in Sleep Duration and Quality in Older Adults. Lana A, Struijk EA, Arias-Fernandez L, Graciani A, Mesas AE, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Lopez-Garcia E. Aging Dis. 2019 Apr 1;10(2):267-277. doi: 10.14336/AD.2018.0503. eCollection 2019 Apr. PMID: 31011478 Abstract Dietary proteins are sources of some amino acid precursors of two neurotransmitters relevant for biological rhythms, serotonin and melatonin, which are involved in sleep and alertness. Meat is the main source of proteins in many countries. Furthermore, meat consumption is of special interest because it provides high-quality protein as well as saturated and trans fatty acids. However, its effect on sleep patterns is unclear. Thereby, the aim was to examine the association of habitual meat consumption with changes in sleep duration and with sleep quality in older adults. We used data from 1,341 participants in the Seniors-ENRICA cohort aged ≥60 years, followed from 2012 through 2015. Habitual meat consumption was assessed at baseline with a validated diet history. Sleep duration and quality were ascertained both in 2012 and 2015. Analyses were performed with logistic regression and adjusted for socio-demographic variables, lifestyle, morbidity, sleep duration and poor sleep indicators at baseline. During follow-up, 9.0% of individuals increased and 7.9% decreased their sleep duration by ≥2 hours/night. Compared with individuals in the lowest tertile of meat consumption (<87 g/d), those in the highest tertile (≥128 g/d) showed increased incidence of a large decrease (≥2 h) in sleep duration (OR: 1.93; 95% CI:1.01-3.72; p-trend:0.04). Higher consumption of meat was also associated with incidence of snoring (OR:2.06; 95% CI:1.17-3.60; p-trend:0.01) and poor general sleep quality (OR:1.71; 95% CI:1.04-2.82; p-trend:0.03). Each 100 g/d increment in meat intake was associated with a 60% higher risk of both large sleep duration changes and poor sleep quality (OR:1.60; 95% CI:1.07-2.40). Results were in the same direction for red and processed meat and for white meat separately, and among individuals with physical impairment. Higher meat consumption (≥128 g/d) was associated with changes in sleep duration and with poor sleep in older adults. KEYWORDS: aging; cohort study; diet; meat; sleep Prepregnancy Habitual Intakes of Total, Supplemental, and Food Folate and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study. Li M, Li S, Chavarro JE, Gaskins AJ, Ley SH, Hinkle SN, Wang X, Ding M, Bell G, Bjerregaard AA, Olsen SF, Mills JL, Hu FB, Zhang C. Diabetes Care. 2019 Apr 22. pii: dc182198. doi: 10.2337/dc18-2198. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31010874 Abstract OBJECTIVE: To identify novel modifiable risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by examining the association between prepregnancy habitual folate intake and GDM risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study included 14,553 women in the Nurses' Health Study II who reported at least one singleton pregnancy between the 1991 and 2001 questionnaires. Prepregnancy intakes of total folate, supplemental folate, and food folate were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire administered every 4 years. Incident GDM was ascertained from a self-reported physician diagnosis. Relative risks (RRs) of GDM were estimated using log-binomial models, with adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. RESULTS: Over the study follow-up, 824 incident GDM cases were reported among 20,199 pregnancies. Women with adequate total folate intake (≥400 μg/day) had an RR of GDM of 0.83 (95% CI 0.72, 0,95, P = 0.007) compared with women with inadequate intake (<400 μg/day). This association was entirely driven by supplemental folate intake. The RRs of GDM for 1-399, 400-599, and ≥600 μg/day of supplemental folate intake were 0.83, 0.77, and 0.70, respectively, compared with no supplemental folate intake (P trend = 0.002). The association between supplemental folate intake and GDM risk largely persisted after additional adjustment for intake of multivitamins and other micronutrients, as well as among women who likely planned for the pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Higher habitual intakes of supplemental folate before pregnancy were significantly associated with lower GDM risk. If confirmed, these findings indicate that prepregnancy folic acid supplementation could offer a novel and low-cost avenue to reduce GDM risk.
  3. Today
  4. Sun Exposure and Its Effects on Human Health: Mechanisms through Which Sun Exposure Could Reduce the Risk of Developing Obesity and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction Naomi Fleury, Sian Geldenhuys, and Shelley Gorman* Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Oct; 13(10): 999. Published online 2016 Oct 11. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13100999 PMCID: PMC5086738 PMID: 27727191 Excerpt: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7.5.2. UVR-Induced Nitric Oxide Skin exposure to UVR triggers the release of nitric oxide from dermal storage sites into the blood stream [110], which can be measured by increases in serum nitrite [111,112] (Figure 4). Anti-hypertensive and vasodilatative effects are induced by treatment with nitric oxide and compounds that increase local levels of nitric oxide-related metabolites, such as nitrite or nitrate [110,113]. Whole-body irradiation of healthy adult volunteers to UVA radiation reduced blood pressure in healthy young adult males, which was sustained for 30 min. These effects were associated with an increase in circulating nitrite [111]. The effects of UVA radiation were independent of nitric oxide synthase, suggesting a role for the release of preformed nitric oxide stores from cutaneous tissue through the alternate nitrate-nitrite nitric oxide pathway. Nitric oxide induced by eye exposure to UVR can suppress immunity in a systemic fashion [114,115]. Figure 4 Mediators other than vitamin D are produced or released by exposure to UVR and may play a role in reducing weight gain and signs of cardiometabolic dysfunction. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) results in the production of heme oxygenase, which causes the breakdown of heme, catalysing the production of carbon monoxide (CO), iron (Fe) and biliverdin; however, the role of this pathway on the development of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction is still to be defined. Nitric oxide stores in skin are released into the blood stream as nitrite potentially reducing blood pressure and increasing vasodilation. When skin and the eye are exposed to UVR there is a release of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), which activates pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-responsive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, and hypothetically could reduce appetite and food intake. Our studies suggest that UVR-induced nitric oxide can have benefits for the control of the cardiometabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. To demonstrate a role for UVR-induced nitric oxide, a nitric oxide scavenger (2-(4-Carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt, cPTIO) was applied to irradiated skin immediately following exposure to UVB radiation (1 kJ/m2) also administered to mice fed a high fat diet [75]. As an alternative to UVR, some mice received a topical treatment twice a week with a nitric oxide donor (S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, SNAP). The UVR or SNAP treatments (alone) increased skin nitric oxide levels 5 min after skin exposure, while cPTIO treatment post-UVR reduced skin nitric oxide levels. In mice fed a high fat diet, the SNAP treatment reduced mouse weights and the development of insulin resistance, while topical cPTIO reversed some of the positive effects of UVR, specifically, fasting glucose levels and hepatic steatosis; suggesting that some of the benefits of UVR may be dependent on skin release of nitric oxide [75]. Results from other rodent studies suggest that dietary nitrate causes browning of WAT and increased expression of thermogenesis (heat production)-related genes in brown adipose tissue [116], providing a mode of action through which dietary nitrate has anti-obesogenic effects [117]. Other studies support the notion that increasing the bioavailability of nitric oxide may have benefits for obesity, with reported benefits of nitrate-rich supplements in reducing circulating triglyceride levels [118]. However, the relationships between obesity and nitric oxide are complex, where bioavailability of nitric oxide may be reduced in obese individuals compared to healthy age- and gender-matched counterparts [119], and excessive expression of nitric oxide (known as nitrosative stress) is associated with tissue inflammation in conditions like NAFLD [120].
  5. " I would assume it would work for nitric oxide" - is that really the case. As vitamin D and NO production are through entirely different mechanisms they could require very different UV wavelengths and intensities to produce them. Does anybody know of any research about NO production and characteristics of the UV required?
  6. it’s not just about lipid panels. Fats interfere with hdl processing see the above article I posted. Also high fat diets corrupt the vasodilation potential which leads to endothelial compromise. Compromised endothelium becomes more vulnerable to oxidized ldl particles. Heart disease is a result of a highly complex physiological process. There are numerous factors at play including genetics. That is why these myths about cholesterol not being a factor persist.
  7. Yesterday
  8. Well, that's an example of application of the prudential principle... The decisional aspect remains: LDL-p and trygs in the low percentiles to keep CV hazard low.
  9. A Meta-Analysis of 46 Studies Identified by the FDA Demonstrates that Soy Protein Decreases Circulating LDL and Total Cholesterol Concentrations in Adults. Blanco Mejia S, Messina M, Li SS, Viguiliouk E, Chiavaroli L, Khan TA, Srichaikul K, Mirrahimi A, Sievenpiper JL, Kris-Etherton P, Jenkins DJA. J Nutr. 2019 Apr 22. pii: nxz020. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxz020. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31006811 Abstract BACKGROUND: Certain plant foods (nuts and soy protein) and food components (viscous fibers and plant sterols) have been permitted by the FDA to carry a heart health claim based on their cholesterol-lowering ability. The FDA is currently considering revoking the heart health claim for soy protein due to a perceived lack of consistent LDL cholesterol reduction in randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis of the 46 controlled trials on which the FDA will base its decision to revoke the heart health claim for soy protein. METHODS: We included the 46 trials on adult men and women, with baseline circulating LDL cholesterol concentrations ranging from 110 to 201 mg/dL, as identified by the FDA, that studied the effects of soy protein on LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol (TC) compared with non-soy protein. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method with a random effects model and expressed as mean differences with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was assessed and quantified. RESULTS: Of the 46 trials identified by the FDA, 43 provided data for meta-analyses. Of these, 41 provided data for LDL cholesterol, and all 43 provided data for TC. Soy protein at a median dose of 25 g/d during a median follow-up of 6 wk decreased LDL cholesterol by 4.76 mg/dL (95% CI: -6.71, -2.80 mg/dL, P < 0.0001; I2 = 55%, P < 0.0001) and decreased TC by 6.41 mg/dL (95% CI: -9.30, -3.52 mg/dL, P < 0.0001; I2 = 74%, P < 0.0001) compared with non-soy protein controls. There was no dose-response effect or evidence of publication bias for either outcome. Inspection of the individual trial estimates indicated most trials (∼75%) showed a reduction in LDL cholesterol (range: -0.77 to -58.60 mg/dL), although only a minority of these were individually statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Soy protein significantly reduced LDL cholesterol by approximately 3-4% in adults. Our data support the advice given to the general public internationally to increase plant protein intake. KEYWORDS: LDL cholesterol; cardiovascular disease prevention; lipids; meta-analysis; soy protein; total cholesterol Consumption of Meat, Fish, Dairy Products, Eggs and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease: A Prospective Study of 7198 Incident Cases Among 409,885 Participants in the Pan-European EPIC Cohort. Key TJ, Appleby PN, Bradbury KE, Sweeting M, Wood A, Johansson I, Kühn T, Steur M, Weiderpass E, Wennberg M, Würtz AML, Agudo A, Andersson J, Arriola L, Boeing H, Boer JMA, Bonnet F, Boutron-Ruault MC, Cross AJ, Ericson U, Fagherazzi G, Ferrari P, Gunter M, Huerta JM, Katzke V, Khaw KT, Krogh V, La Vecchia C, Matullo G, Moreno-Iribas C, Naska A, Nilsson LM, Olsen A, Overvad K, Palli D, Panico S, Molina-Portillo E, Quirós JR, Skeie G, Sluijs I, Sonestedt E, Stepien M, Tjønneland A, Trichopoulou A, Tumino R, Tzoulaki I, van der Schouw YT, Verschuren WMM, Di Angelantonio E, Langenberg C, Forouhi N, Wareham N, Butterworth A, Riboli E, Danesh J. Circulation. 2019 Apr 22. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.038813. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31006335 Abstract BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about the relevance of animal foods to the etiology of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined meat, fish, dairy products and eggs and risk for IHD in the pan-European EPIC cohort. METHODS: A prospective study of 409,885 men and women in nine European countries. Diet was assessed using validated questionnaires, calibrated using 24-hour recalls. Lipids and blood pressure were measured in a subsample. During 12.6 years mean follow up, 7198 participants had a myocardial infarction or died from IHD. The relationships of animal foods with risk were examined using Cox regression with adjustment for other animal foods and relevant covariates. RESULTS: The hazard ratio (HR) for IHD was 1.19 (95% CI 1.06-1.33) for a 100 g/d increment in intake of red and processed meat, and this remained significant after excluding the first 4 years of follow-up (HR 1.25 [1.09-1.42]). Risk was inversely associated with intakes of yogurt (HR 0.93 [0.89-0.98] per 100 g/d increment), cheese (HR 0.92 [0.86-0.98] per 30 g/d increment) and eggs (HR 0.93 [0.88-0.99] per 20 g/d increment); the associations with yogurt and eggs were attenuated and non-significant after excluding the first 4 years of follow-up. Risk was not significantly associated with intakes of poultry, fish or milk. In analyses modelling dietary substitutions, replacement of 100 kcal/d from red and processed meat with 100 kcal/d from fatty fish, yogurt, cheese or eggs was associated with approximately 20% lower risk of IHD. Consumption of red and processed meat was positively associated with serum non-HDL cholesterol concentration and systolic blood pressure, and consumption of cheese was inversely associated with serum non-HDL cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: Risk for IHD was positively associated with consumption of red and processed meat, and inversely associated with consumption of yogurt, cheese and eggs, although the associations with yogurt and eggs may be influenced by reverse causation bias. It is not clear whether the associations with red and processed meat and cheese reflect causality, but they were consistent with the associations of these foods with plasma non-HDL cholesterol, and for red and processed meat with systolic blood pressure, which could mediate such effects. KEYWORDS: dairy products; eggs; fish; meat Time of Exercise Specifies the Impact on Muscle Metabolic Pathways and Systemic Energy Homeostasis. Sato S, Basse AL, Schönke M, Chen S, Samad M, Altıntaş A, Laker RC, Dalbram E, Barrès R, Baldi P, Treebak JT, Zierath JR, Sassone-Corsi P. Cell Metab. 2019 Apr 12. pii: S1550-4131(19)30183-4. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.03.013. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31006592 https://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.cmet.2019.03.013 Abstract While the timing of food intake is important, it is unclear whether the effects of exercise on energy metabolism are restricted to unique time windows. As circadian regulation is key to controlling metabolism, understanding the impact of exercise performed at different times of the day is relevant for physiology and homeostasis. Using high-throughput transcriptomic and metabolomic approaches, we identify distinct responses of metabolic oscillations that characterize exercise in either the early rest phase or the early active phase in mice. Notably, glycolytic activation is specific to exercise at the active phase. At the molecular level, HIF1α, a central regulator of glycolysis during hypoxia, is selectively activated in a time-dependent manner upon exercise, resulting in carbohydrate exhaustion, usage of alternative energy sources, and adaptation of systemic energy expenditure. Our findings demonstrate that the time of day is a critical factor to amplify the beneficial impact of exercise on both metabolic pathways within skeletal muscle and systemic energy homeostasis. KEYWORDS: HIF1α; circadian rhythms; energy homeostasis; exercise metabolism; glycolysis; lipid oxidation; metabolomics; skeletal muscle; transcriptomics
  10. I'm wondering you guys watched the entire video? From what I remember, most of what they talked about was clinical data in humans. Which parts of the video do you disagree with?
  11. Mccoy, if you go back and listen to Dr. Attia closely his position is high LDL-p is problematic in the context of compromised endothelium but high LDL does not cause the compromised endothelium. Since evaluating endothelial health accurately is not currently possible short of an autopsy he believes it is prudent to maintain low LDL as that is something we can readily track.
  12. Well, objectively, his credentials are such that we are guaranteed he's not a charlatan. I agree that not everything he says may hold for everyone, especially so the alleged very inexorable need for many hours of sleep. But the details he delves into are incredible. Also, pls provide other references on sleep, I know about Kirk Parsley and none else, I'd like to dive more into this fascinating subject.
  13. My take is that if Dr. Peter Attia, a lowcarber himself, reasons that LDL and Trygs must be kept in the lower percentiles for longevity, then SAFAs must be potentially hazardous, unless the individual can show that hir lipid panel remains good (at least LDL-p and tryglicerides, if we are deniers about other parameters). Some guys tolerate fats pretty well, others simply don't.
  14. mccoy

    Romaine Lettuce vs. Cabbage Slaw

    One useful reference is Dr fuhrman's ANDI score, which is probably what you wish, micronutrients density per calorie. I think that does not consider specific content like sulphoraphane or other phytochemicals. But it is a good suggestion, the veggies with higher scores are the best as far as micronutrient/calories ratio is concerned. It is not complete and some entries are not present in all countries. Also, I believe you should pick the most convenient solution for you as a base, then also rotate a little when possible. Some of thsoe entries cannot be eaten in large amounts raw. Also, oxalates are high in many.
  15. Another point, according to Michel Horlick a sun exposure proponent and vitamin D researcher is to watch your shadow. When it’s your height or less that indicates adequate sun rays for efficient vitamin D production. I would assume it would work for nitric oxide etc. A simple method for sure. Here in Pittsburgh Pa. you can even get this as early as March and as late as November but the hours are very limited of course in those two months. But it’s so simple and I can be outdoors and simply know by looking at my shadow.
  16. Spot on Tom, these self promoters just recycle what we already know and spin it this way or that. They are all over the place. The basics for diet and sleep are not a mystery. However the underlying dynamics wrt sleep are still not fully understood. There are also hucksters selling worthless supplements/tools like the dreem headband etc. for diet/health and sleep.
  17. Todd Allen

    The thread on keto (and low carb) diet

    Mike, one must read a study to make an informed judgement of its worth. Here's a link to the full paper: http://sci-hub.tw/https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz174 Here are a few of the study's weaknesses as identified by the authors. Studies based on epidemiological data are notoriously weak and inconsistent. In the intro and discussion they point out other studies of this type with conflicting findings. This study based on admittedly inaccurate data focused on dietary composition of carbohydrates versus non-carbohydrates. They lump fiber in with carbohydrates as if there was no difference between fiber and sugar. Most consider fiber healthy and refined sugar unhealthy, including the authors. Regardless of where one stands on the question of the healthfulness of fiber and sugar there is no questioning that fiber by definition is complex carbohydrates that we do not directly digest. Our digestion of fiber is mostly limited to fermentation by gut microbes resulting in short chain fatty acids such as acetate, butyrate and propionate. Equally stupid is lumping everything non-carbohydrate together. Proteins and fats have very different properties and roles in a thoughtful diet. There doesn't appear to be any consideration given to dietary quality, to how food was produced, processed or prepared, or to whether diets were nutritionally complete. This study's cohort are not practicing caloric restriction. They aren't attempting to optimize nutrition for longevity or any other purpose. I fail to see how it has any relevance to myself or any other person who prioritizes health when choosing what to eat. This is a study for people who think taking a daily multivitamin is a good alternative to a nutritionally complete diet.
  18. Last week
  19. I don't know about this guy. He certainly is promoting himself all over the place. But I'm quite sceptical about his assertions. Yes, sleep is important, but I don't see this guy as any kind of trustworthy guide here. I've followed quite a bit of research on sleep, and there are studies that contradict his assertions, which he does not address. Just another self-promoter as far as I can see. Any subject that's a big concern to people, whether sleep, obesity, longevity, cancer or whatnot will attract its share of self promoters and hucksters. You've got to be very discriminating in whom you place your trust. Personally I trust this guy not at all. YMMV, and to each his/her own.
  20. https://www.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.00345.2006?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dpubmed& Tom excellent and on the mark. Cholesterol as a risk factor is incontrovertible but like climate change deniers it still persists that cholesterol has nothing to do with it. Also the fact that fat tends to raise Hdl has been often hailed as a plus see the above. Long ago it was shown that fats cripple the positive effects of hdl
  21. Thanks for sharing, Matt, Keith Baar has been active in research on muscle hypertrophy, I'm going to see this tonight on the threadmill!
  22. I think I remember that he said there are genetic variations where one phenotype has early optimum sleeping times (early bird), whereas another sleeps better late (night owl). And the middle ground. And that of course presently society favours the early birds phenotype.
  23. FrederickSebastian

    Romaine Lettuce vs. Cabbage Slaw

    OK Thomas. I'll check that out later today!
  24. Thomas G

    Romaine Lettuce vs. Cabbage Slaw

    Cruciferous vegetables include cabbages, kale, broccoli, arugula, brussels sprouts, collard greens, mustard greens and more: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cruciferous_vegetables#List_of_cruciferous_vegetables Definitely in addition to dark green leafys which are also great. But cruciferous are special because they produce sulforaphane as you eat them (so long as you are eating them raw, although there are a few tricks you can do to get sulforaphane from cooked cruciferous vegetables like adding a little bit of mustard or horseradish to them). Surprisingly I wasn't able to find a short quick intro. This is long and super in depth.
  25. Hi all! In case you missed it, I did an interview with David Fisher, who you probably all know! He hasn't been in the media for quite a long time and I had literally hundreds of messages from people asking about him. http://www.crvitality.com/2019/04/david-fisher-interview-calorie-restriction-2019/ I'll be looking to do some more CR-related interviews with CRONies soon. 🙂
  26. I've tried to make improvements to my sleep since listening to his interviews. I stop drinking caffeine earlier in the day and try to not shift my sleep too much in either direction. Naturally, I am a night person and fall to sleep around 4 am, so it's hard to always get perfect sleep because of the noise around the house. But most of the time I sleep well... if I'm allowed to sleep on my own schedule. One interesting thing I learned from the discussion was that you lose deep sleep if you stay awake beyond your natural bedtime. I thought you would still go through all the cycles, regardless. And it works the other way too. That was eye-opening to me and I keep it in mind now. But I still find it difficult to be strict about going to bed when I'm tired. I often find myself staying up a few hours later than my normal bedtime from watching a movie, podcast, gaming, or working. But yeah, he has some super interesting interviews. Easy to listen to as well. 🙂 I think this is one of the best discussions from the ones I've seen of him being interviewed.
  27. FrederickSebastian

    Romaine Lettuce vs. Cabbage Slaw

    Thomas -- yes I like all green leafy vegetables... mesculin and spinach included... Wow I did not know that red and purple cabbage has more nutrients... nice to know... Cabbage slaw does not have mayo in it -- it is basically like closeslaw without the dressing -- or just sliced cabbage... You say it is a terrific cruciferous vegetable -- does this mean it is nutrient rich? should I be eating this AS WELL AS or IN PLACE OF green leafy vegetables? I would appreciate any help... Fred
  28. [Rapamycin is one of the most promising "anti-aging" drugs today. In one study, it extended the lifespan of mice by 33%. By intermittent fasting or following the keto diet, can we regulate our mTor & achieve similar results without the side effects of a drug? We reference mTor frequently on our podcast, particularly when we discuss fasting or keto and their potential for extending health & lifespan. mTor is a pathway that helps controls cell growth. In the most simplest terms: When you have high mTor activation, you promote growth in the body. When you have low mTor activation, you promote repair and maintenance.... ]
  29. Habitual coffee consumption and risk of falls in 2 European cohorts of older adults. Machado-Fragua MD, Struijk EA, Ballesteros JM, Ortolá R, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Lopez-Garcia E. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Apr 21. pii: nqy369. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy369. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31005970 https://sci-hub.tw/10.1093/ajcn/nqy369 Abstract BACKGROUND: Habitual coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and sarcopenia, which are strong risk factors of falls. In addition, caffeine intake stimulates attention and vigilance, and reduces reaction time. Therefore, a protective effect of coffee on the risk of falling can be hypothesized. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association between habitual coffee consumption and the risk of ≥1 falls, injurious falls, and falls with fracture in older people. METHODS: Data were taken from 2964 participants aged ≥60 y from the Seniors-ENRICA (Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain) cohort and 8999 participants aged ≥60 y from the UK Biobank cohort. In the Seniors-ENRICA study, habitual coffee consumption was assessed with a validated diet history in 2008-2010, and falls were ascertained up to 2015. In the UK Biobank study, coffee was measured with 3-5 multiple-pass 24-h food records starting in 2006, and falls were assessed up to 2016. RESULTS: A total of 793 individuals in Seniors-ENRICA and 199 in UK Biobank experienced ≥1 fall during follow-up. After multivariable adjustment for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors and compared with daily consumption of <1 cup of coffee, the pooled HR for ≥1 fall was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.52, 1.07) for total coffee consumption of 1 cup/d and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.90) for ≥2 cups/d (P-trend = 0.001). The corresponding figures for caffeinated coffee were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.42, 1.07) and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.87) (P-trend < 0.001). Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with risk of falling in the analyzed cohorts. In Seniors-ENRICA, there was a tendency to lower risk of injurious falls among those consuming caffeinated coffee (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.00 for 1 cup/d; HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.09 for ≥2 cups/d; P-trend = 0.09). No association was observed between caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee consumption and risk of falls with fracture. CONCLUSIONS: Habitual coffee consumption was associated with lower risk of falling in older adults in Spain and the United Kingdom.
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