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  1. Yesterday
  2. Hope your family, and you with the exposure, do well Matt. You have statistics in your favor for a milder course.
  3. My mum tested positive for COVID-19 after getting sick on Friday. My dad's test was inconclusive so he had to have it done again... but had a fever for a day on the weekend. My sister just got her result back and she is positive for it. And I live with my parents... so I'm guessing I've certainly been exposed and probably have it. No symptoms though...
  4. Todd Allen

    Intermittent Fasting

    I think you are getting your hucksters confused, this sounds a bit more like Asprey than Longo.
  5. Forest

    Intermittent Fasting

    Is Longo the one who says up to 6 cups of coffee with heavy cream or butter (!) and multiple servings of bone broth is ok during fasting periods? Some fast.
  6. Forest

    Simple Daily Menu,

    I am new here and in search of the ideal daily diet. Something simple, no more than 1000 calories per day. (Petite female here) I am doing hi fiber bran cereal & the whole grain English muffin than contains 8 gms fiber and protein in the forms or tuna and drinks, such as the one that has 30 grams of protein and 160 calories. Vitamins enriched. Love cheese and am limiting it to 1/4 cup Blue Cheese which has 100 calories. Basically, I am in search of the optimum diet without any fuss or prep. To be followed most of the time. I do have the occasional cheesecake vacation day. Also take a multivitamin, B complex, calcium and a few others. Has anyone else created a similar daily plan?
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6139866/ James O'Keefe also published a paper in 2018 which expands on the TED Talk you've referenced above.
  8. Todd Allen

    LDL CHOLESTEROL AND LONGEVITY

    New drug free way to lower cholesterol! Covid-19! Hypolipidemia is associated with the severity of COVID-19
  9. Exercise type, frequency and duration seem to be very tricky to balance correctly. This TEDx Talk warns very eloquently about the dangers of overtraining.
  10. Large UK Study Delivers Big Blow to Covid Herd Immunity Thesis, Raises Concerns About Vaccine Strategies
  11. Last week
  12. I really believe if you are active enough in your everyday lifestyle, there really is no need to do anything extra. There may be some benefits to physical exercise if you are really sedentary, but you should be active enough without needing to actually go and exercise. The other thing is the reason you feel better when you exercise is I believe that is your body actually numbing the pain. This is similar to a runners high. Your body evolved to want you to do that extra exertion to get the food you need. However, just because it numbs your physical pains does not mean it is actually good in the long run, you may be doing more damage than good. I noticed this numbing effect rather quickly when forcing myself through pain, and it surely is not because my body healed the real reason for the pain. Some other risks from exercising are damaged joints and other permanent damage to the body. This is from damaged ligaments, joints, etc. Just ask anyone who plays sports or even weight lifts, they all have injuries. You have to come to the understanding that your body is like a machine, it wears out with use. There is nothing beneficial about your cells dividing more often to repair itself and the extra stresses on your whole body, plus the extra calories your body needs to process for the extra energy exerted from exercising. I'm not saying to not move around at all. What I'm saying is that a normal active lifestyle is all you need, anything extra is just wear and tear and exposes yourself to injury. For example, many people are getting more than enough exercise in their daily life, they should not think that they need to go to the gym or run. Its usually all about the diet.
  13. This might be a key issue. It's fairly clear young healthy people are capable of developing a robust immune response. A vaccine which is 100% effective in the young and healthy might have minimal impact on Covid-19 death rates if it isn't effective in high risk individuals.
  14. This might be a key issue. It's fairly clear young healthy people are capable of developing a robust immune response. A vaccine which is 100% effective in the young and healthy might have minimal impact on Covid-19 death rates if it isn't effective in high risk individuals.
  15. Has Covid killed off the flu? Experts pose the intriguing question as influenza cases nosedive by 98% across the globe
  16. Lucius

    Olive oil? Healthy or not?!

    I've done some research like you suggested and found this study from 2014 https://www.longdom.org/open-access/understanding-the-characteristics-of-oleuropein-for-table-olive-processing-2157-7110.1000328.pdf The most interesting part was this: "The fundamental and most important step of table olive processing is debittering. During debittering processes, the levels of oleuropein are markedly reduced either by leaching or hydrolysis, hence the olive is debittered [6,20]. Keeping in brine and treatment with NaOH are used two main methods in table olive industry. However, these two methods have disadvantages. These disadvantages of brine debittering need a long time (6-8 months) and the final product has high salt content (%5-7). The disadvantages of debittering by NaOH are degradation of other phenolic compounds with oleuropein, nutrient losses caused by washing for removing the excess NaOH from olive and the formation of high amounts of waste water. For this reason, there is a need to develop new debittering methods to produce table olive. New technologies are needed in order to reduce the length of the debittering process and to reduce or complete replace the use of NaOH and the subsequent neutralizing washes or brine debittering processes. As oleuropein is water-soluble, it is extracted from the raw flesh by diffusion when olives are soaked in water or brine during processing. Slitting, cracking or bruising the olives facilitates extraction of oleuropein. However, important to processing, oleuropein is degraded by lye but not in the acid environments created by fermentation" So it seems that there would be a huge difference between eating whole (processed) olives and drinking EVOO, which retains its oleuropein content. I guess the healthiest thing to do should then be to eat whole bitter unprocessed olives 🙂 Which unfortunately most people aren't going to do, because they taste so disgusting, but if they want to make sure that they are eating an absolutely healthy food that hasn't been processed and retained all of its goodness, bitter olives are the way to go.
  17. I'm not sure it's so simple. When olives are picked unripe, they are usually cured in a NaOH solution, which may destroy some of the beneficial secoiridoids. When they are picked riper, as probably in the case of kalamata greek olives, and then boiled or cooked, they have less secoiridoids to begin with and thermal processing almost assuredly will destroy a significant amount of what's left. It depends on variety, time of picking, processing. Unless the olives have been tested for polyphenols, it's hard to say, you might do specific research on the secoiridoids content of processed olives and see what comes up.
  18. Mike41

    Olive oil? Healthy or not?!

    It’s important to point out there was NO LOW FAT GROUP, PERIOD! Unless you consider 39% of calories from fat a low fat diet. As for whole olives, absolutely of course
  19. Mike41

    Reaching optimal health

    Ultimately yes I believe humanity will pull through and hopefully grow as a result. It’s an interesting ploy I think. Humanity learns who and what it really is. Perhaps there is a meaning after all. Certainly, at least, that we are all one and these idiotic divisions need to be transcended.
  20. Serum testosterone is inversely, and sex hormone-binding globulin directly, associated with all-cause mortality in men. Yeap BB, Marriott RJ, Antonio L, Chan YX, Raj S, Dwivedi G, Reid CM, Anawalt BD, Bhasin S, Dobs AS, Hankey GJ, Matsumoto AM, Norman PE, O'Neill TW, Ohlsson C, Orwoll ES, Vanderschueren D, Wittert GA, Wu FCW, Murray K. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Oct 16:dgaa743. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa743. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33059368 Abstract Context: Serum testosterone concentrations decline with age, while serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations increase. Objective: To analyse associations of baseline serum testosterone and SHBG concentrations, and calculated free testosterone (cFT) values, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in men. Design, setting and participants: The UK Biobank prospective cohort study of community-dwelling men 40-69 years-old, followed for 11 years. Main outcome measures: All-cause, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer-related mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed, adjusting for age, waist circumference, medical conditions and other covariates. Models for testosterone included SHBG, and vice versa. Results: In complete case analysis of 149,436 men with 10,053 deaths (1,925 CVD and 4,927 cancer-related), men with lower testosterone had higher mortality from any cause (lowest vs highest quintile, Q1 vs Q5, fully-adjusted hazard ratio HR =1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.06-1.22, overall trend P<0.001), and cancer (HR=1.20, CI=1.09-1.33, P<0.001), with no association for CVD deaths. Similar results were seen for cFT. Men with lower SHBG had lower mortality from any cause (Q1 vs Q5, HR=0.68, CI=0.63-0.73, P<0.001), CVD (HR=0.70, CI=0.59-0.83, P<0.001), and cancer (HR=0.80, CI=0.72-0.89, P<0.001). A multiply-imputed dataset (N=208,425, 15,914 deaths, 3,128 CVD and 7,468 cancer-related) and analysis excluding deaths within first two years (9,261, 1,734 and 4,534 events) yielded similar results. Conclusions: Lower serum testosterone is independently associated with higher all-cause and cancer-related, but not CVD-related, mortality in middle-aged to older men. Lower SHBG is independently associated with lower all-cause, CVD-related and cancer-related mortality. Confirmation and determination of causality requires mechanistic studies and prospective trials. Keywords: : Testosterone; cancer; cardiovascular disease; mortality; sex hormone-binding globulin. Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time with the Risk of Stroke, Myocardial Infarction or All-Cause Mortality in 70-Year-Old Men and Women: A Prospective Cohort Study. Ballin M, Nordström P, Niklasson J, Nordström A. Sports Med. 2020 Oct 15. doi: 10.1007/s40279-020-01356-y. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33063268 Abstract Objective: To study the associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) with the combined outcome of incident stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) or all-cause mortality in older adults. Methods: N = 3343 men and women aged 70 who participated in a health survey between 2012 and 2017 were included. Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers were used to measure light-intensity PA (LPA), moderate-intensity PA (MPA) and ST for 1 week. Incident cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in terms of stroke or MI, and all-cause mortality were identified using national registers. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions. Results: During a mean follow-up of 2.7 years (0.1-5.6), there were 124 events of CVD or all-cause mortality. After adjusting for potential confounders and mediators, every 30-min/day increment in LPA was associated with 11% lower risk of CVD or all-cause mortality (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.97), and every 30-min/day increment in MPA was associated with 36% lower risk (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48-0.84). Every 1-h/day increment in ST increased the risk of the outcomes by 33% (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14-1.56), although there was no significant association among participants who performed ≥ 30 min/day MPA (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.82-1.50, P = 0.034 for interaction). None of the associations were modified by sex (P > 0.4 for all). Conclusion: Objectively measured LPA and MPA are each associated with lower risk of stroke, MI or all-cause mortality in 70-year-old individuals, while ST is associated with increased risk. The greatest risk reduction is observed for MPA, which also appears to attenuate some of the increased risks associated with ST. Selenium, antioxidants, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Jenkins DJA, Kitts D, Giovannucci EL, Sahye-Pudaruth S, Paquette M, Blanco Mejia S, Patel D, Kavanagh M, Tsirakis T, Kendall CWC, Pichika SC, Sievenpiper JL. Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 Oct 14:nqaa245. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa245. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33053149 Abstract Background: Antioxidants have been promoted for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction and for the prevention of cancer. Our preliminary analysis suggested that only when selenium was present were antioxidant mixtures associated with reduced all-cause mortality. Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the effect of selenium supplementation alone and of antioxidant mixtures with or without selenium on the risk of CVD, cancer, and mortality. Methods: We identified studies using the Cochrane Library, Medline, and Embase for potential CVD outcomes, cancer, and all-cause mortality following selenium supplementation alone or after antioxidant supplement mixtures with and without selenium up to June 5, 2020. RCTs of ≥24 wk were included and data were analyzed using random-effects models and classified by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results: The meta-analysis identified 9423 studies, of which 43 were used in the final analysis. Overall, no association of selenium alone or antioxidants was seen with CVD and all-cause mortality. However, a decreased risk with antioxidant mixtures was seen for CVD mortality when selenium was part of the mix (RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.97; P = 0.02), with no association when selenium was absent. Similarly, when selenium was part of the antioxidant mixture, a decreased risk was seen for all-cause mortality (RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.98; P = 0.02) as opposed to an increased risk when selenium was absent (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13; P = 0.0002). Conclusion: The addition of selenium should be considered for supplements containing antioxidant mixtures if they are to be associated with CVD and all-cause mortality risk reduction. Keywords: all-cause mortality; antioxidants; cardiovascular disease; meta-analysis; selenium; supplements. The Coffee-Acrylamide Apparent Paradox: An Example of Why the Health Impact of a Specific Compound in a Complex Mixture Should Not Be Evaluated in Isolation. Nehlig A, Cunha RA. Nutrients. 2020 Oct 14;12(10):E3141. doi: 10.3390/nu12103141. PMID: 33066651 Free article. Abstract The health implications of acrylamide in food are a matter of concern based on toxicological studies in rodents, which showed that doses of acrylamide more than 100 times higher than those estimated to result from dietary exposure in humans are carcinogenic; however, the cancer types reported in rodents are species-specific, and whether these results can be extrapolated to humans is still in question. In fact, human epidemiological studies revealed a general lack of association between dietary acrylamide exposure and the incidence of different cancer types. Even occupational exposure to acrylamide, resulting in acrylamide exposure nearly 10 times higher than dietary exposure, did not increase tumor occurrence. Furthermore, the consumption of coffee, which is a main contributor of dietary acrylamide exposure, actually decreases the overall incidence of cancer in humans and afford global health benefits, increasing both lifespan and healthspan on ageing. This paradox clearly illustrates the risk of evaluating an individual molecule independently of its complete food matrix, which may have other components that completely override the effects of the considered molecule. Keywords: acrylamide; cancer; coffee; consumption; contaminant; exposure. Short-term protein restriction at advanced age stimulates FGF21 signalling, energy expenditure and browning of white adipose tissue. Dommerholt MB, Blankestijn M, Vieira-Lara MA, van Dijk TH, Wolters H, Koster MH, Gerding A, van Os RP, Bloks VW, Bakker BM, Kruit JK, Jonker JW. FEBS J. 2020 Oct 22. doi: 10.1111/febs.15604. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33089625 Abstract Dietary protein restriction has been demonstrated to improve metabolic health under various conditions. However, the relevance of ageing and age-related decline in metabolic flexibility on the effects of dietary protein restriction have not been addressed. Therefore, we investigated the effect of short-term dietary protein restriction on metabolic health in young and aged mice. Young adult (3 months old) and aged (18 months old) C57Bl/6J mice were subjected to a 3-month dietary protein restriction. Outcome parameters included FGF21 levels, muscle strength, glucose tolerance, energy expenditure, and transcriptomics of brown- and white adipose tissue. Here we report that a low protein diet had beneficial effects in aged mice by reducing some aspects of age-related metabolic decline. These effects were characterized by increased plasma levels of FGF21, browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue, increased body temperature and energy expenditure, while no changes were observed in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Moreover, the low protein diet used in this study was well tolerated in aged mice indicated by the absence of adverse effects on body weight, locomotor activity, and muscle performance. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that a short-term reduction in dietary protein intake can impact age-related metabolic health alongside increased FGF21 signalling, without negatively affecting muscle function. These findings highlight the potential of protein restriction as a strategy to induce energy expenditure and browning of white adipose tissue in aged individuals. Keywords: Dietary protein restriction; FGF21 signalling; browning of white adipose tissue; energy metabolism; thermogenesis. U.S. Decennial Life Tables for 2009-2011, United States Life Tables. Arias E, Miniño A, Curtin S, Tejada-Vera B. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2020 Aug;69(8):1-73. PMID: 33054929 Abstract Objectives-This report presents period life tables for the United States, based on age-specific death rates for the period 2009-2011. These tables are the most recent in a 110-year series of decennial life tables for the United States. Methods-This report presents complete life tables for the United States by race, Hispanic origin, and sex, based on age- specific death rates during 2009-2011. This is the first set of life tables by Hispanic origin presented in the U.S. decennial life table series. Data used to prepare these life tables include population estimates based on the 2010 decennial census; deaths occurring in the United States to U.S. residents in the 3 years 2009 through 2011; counts of U.S. resident births in the years 2007 through 2011; and population and death counts from the Medicare program for years 2009 through 2011. The methodology used to estimate life tables for the Hispanic population is based on the method first implemented with the 2006 annual U.S. life tables by Hispanic origin. The methodology used to estimate the life tables for all other groups is based on the method first implemented with the 2008 annual U.S. life tables. Results-During 2009-2011, life expectancy at birth was 78.60 years for the total U.S. population, representing an increase of 29.36 years from a life expectancy of 49.24 years in 1900. Between 1900 and 2010, life expectancy increased by 42.88 years for black females (from 35.04 to 77.92), by 39.21 years for black males (from 32.54 to 71.75), by 30.15 years for white females (from 51.08 to 81.23), and by 28.26 years for white males (from 48.23 to 76.49). During 2009-2011, Hispanic females had the highest life expectancy at birth (84.05), followed by non-Hispanic white females (81.06), Hispanic males (78.83), non-Hispanic black females (77.62), non-Hispanic white males (76.30), and non-Hispanic black males (71.41). Time-restricted feeding prevents depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors in male rats exposed to an experimental model of shift-work. Guerrero-Vargas NN, Zárate-Mozo C, Guzmán-Ruiz MA, Cárdenas-Rivera A, Escobar C. J Neurosci Res. 2020 Oct 20. doi: 10.1002/jnr.24741. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33078850 Abstract Individuals who regularly shift their sleep timing, like night and/or shift-workers suffer from circadian desynchrony and are at risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases and cancer. Also, shift-work is are suggested to be a risk factor for the development of mood disorders such as the burn out syndrome, anxiety, and depression. Experimental and clinical studies provide evidence that food intake restricted to the normal activity phase is a potent synchronizer for the circadian system and can prevent the detrimental health effects associated with circadian disruption. Here, we explored whether adult male Wistar rats exposed to an experimental model of shift-work (W-AL) developed depressive and/or anxiety-like behaviors and whether this was associated with neuroinflammation in brain areas involved with mood regulation. We also tested whether time-restricted feeding (TRF) to the active phase could ameliorate circadian disruption and therefore would prevent depressive and anxiety-like behaviors as well as neuroinflammation. In male Wistar rats, W-AL induced depressive-like behavior characterized by hypoactivity and anhedonia and induced increased anxiety-like behavior in the open field test. This was associated with increased number of glial fibrillary acidic protein and IBA-1-positive cells in the prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala. Moreover W-AL caused morphological changes in the microglia in the CA3 area of the hippocampus indicating microglial activation. Importantly, TRF prevented behavioral changes and decreased neuroinflammation markers in the brain. Present results add up evidence about the importance that TRF in synchrony with the light-dark cycle can prevent neuroinflammation leading to healthy mood states in spite of circadian disruptive conditions. Keywords: RRID:AB_10972670; RRID:AB_2109645; RRID:AB_2313606; RRID:AB_2336126; RRID:RGD_13508588; RRID:SCR_002285; RRID:SCR_003070; anxiety-like behavior; circadian; depression-like behavior; entrainment; neuroinflammation; time-restricted feeding. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hemoglobin A1c and breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study from Alberta's Tomorrow Project cohort. Price TR, Friedenreich CM, Robson PJ, Li H, Brenner DR. Cancer Causes Control. 2020 Dec;31(12):1057-1068. doi: 10.1007/s10552-020-01329-6. Epub 2020 Sep 21. PMID: 32959132 32959132 Abstract Purpose: Our aim is to examine the associations between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), common biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance, respectively, with breast cancer risk, while adjusting for measures of excess body size. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study within the Alberta's Tomorrow Project cohort (Alberta, Canada) including 197 incident breast cancer cases and 394 matched controls. The sample population included both pre- and postmenopausal women. Serum concentrations of hsCRP and HbA1c were measured from blood samples collected at baseline, along with anthropometric measurements, general health and lifestyle data. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between hsCRP, HbA1c, and breast cancer risk adjusted for excess body size (body fat percentage) and other risk factors for breast cancer. Results: Higher concentrations of hsCRP were associated with elevated breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.27; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.03-1.55). The observed associations were unchanged with adjustment for body fat percentage. Higher HbA1c concentrations were not significantly associated with an increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.22; 95% CI 0.17-8.75). Conclusion: These data suggest that hsCRP may be associated with elevated breast cancer risk, independent of excess body size. However, elevated concentrations of HbA1c did not appear to increase breast cancer risk in apparently healthy women. Keywords: Alberta’s Tomorrow Project cohort; Breast cancer; Hemoglobin A1c; High-sensitivity C-reactive protein; Nested case–control study. Adiposity over the life course and prostate cancer: unraveling the complexities. Giovannucci E. Cancer Causes Control. 2020 Dec;31(12):1051-1055. doi: 10.1007/s10552-020-01353-6. Epub 2020 Oct 14. PMID: 33057873 Abstract The association between obesity and prostate cancer has been extensively studied, but clear answers have evaded us. Most of the studies have been based on a single time-point measure, most commonly of body mass index (BMI) during adulthood. Emerging data suggest a complex pattern that may be better understood through a life course approach. The data suggest that early life adiposity, possibly before or during puberty, as being associated with lower risk of advanced prostate cancer. In contrast, moderate weight gain in men who were initially lean during pre-adulthood or early adulthood may increase risk of advanced prostate cancer. This pattern suggests competing factors associated with overall adiposity, some protective and some adverse. Factors that may increase risk appear to show more strongly in men who maintain a relatively low BMI but have a high waist circumference or waist:hip ratio. Possibly, this pattern may be associated with relatively high levels of factors associated with insulin resistance and related metabolic abnormalities (mostly central adiposity) while avoiding the protective factors (mostly generalized or subcutaneous adiposity). Broad measures at one time-point, such as adult BMI, are not likely to contribute further to our understanding. Instead, direct measures of visceral fat might be useful. For feasibility, combined measures, such as examining waist:hip ratio among men with normal BMI in relation to risk, might be useful. It may be informative to better determine the precise point in early life when adiposity may be protective and through what mechanisms, such as delay in puberty. Keywords: Adiposity; Body mass index; Prostate cancer; Visceral fat. Dietary Carbohydrates Restriction Inhibits The Development Of Cardiac Hypertrophy And Heart Failure. Nakamura M, Odanovic N, Nakada Y, Dohi S, Zhai P, Ivessa A, Yang Z, Abdellatif M, Sadoshima J. Cardiovasc Res. 2020 Oct 18:cvaa298. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa298. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33070172 Abstract Aims: A diet with modified components, such as a ketogenic low-carbohydrate (LC) diet, potentially extends longevity and healthspan. However, how a LC diet impacts on cardiac pathology during hemodynamic stress remains elusive. This study evaluated the effects of a LC diet high in either fat (Fat-LC) or protein (Pro-LC) in a mouse model of chronic hypertensive cardiac remodeling. Methods and results: Wild-type mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction, followed by feeding with the Fat-LC, the Pro-LC, or a high-carbohydrate control diet. After 4 weeks, echocardiographic, hemodynamic, histological and biochemical analyses were performed. LC diet consumption after pressure overload inhibited the development of pathological hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction compared to the control diet. An anti-hypertrophic serine/threonine kinase, GSK-3β, was re-activated by both LC diets; however, the Fat-LC, but not the Pro-LC, diet exerted cardioprotection in GSK-3β cardiac-specific knockout mice. β-hydroxybutyrate, a major ketone body in mammals, was increased in the hearts of mice fed the Fat-LC, but not the Pro-LC, diet. In cardiomyocytes, ketone body supplementation inhibited phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy, in part by suppressing mTOR signaling. Conclusions: Strict carbohydrate restriction suppresses pathological cardiac growth and heart failure after pressure overload through distinct anti-hypertrophic mechanisms elicited by supplemented macronutrients. Translational perspective: Hemodynamic stress, such as hypertension, induces pathological cardiac hypertrophy, leading to heart failure. There is growing evidence that modulating components of diet affects cardiac function in humans, although the causality and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Our study demonstrates that strict restriction of dietary carbohydrates supplemented with either fat or proteins during acute hemodynamic stress attenuates the development and progression of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure by activating distinct anti-hypertrophic and cardioprotective signaling mechanisms. The study suggests that it would be useful to investigate the therapeutic benefit of carbohydrate restriction in patients with hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in clinical studies. Keywords: Low carbohydrate diet; cardiac hypertrophy; heart failure; ketone body.
  21. AlPater

    Al's CR updates

    The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: XVI. Metabolomic changes in the cerebellum indicate activation of hypothalamocerebellar connections driven by hunger responses. Green CL, Mitchell SE, Derous D, García-Flores LA, Wang Y, Chen L, Han JJ, Promislow DEL, Lusseau D, Douglas A, Speakman JR. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2020 Oct 14:glaa261. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glaa261. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33053185 Abstract Calorie restriction (CR) remains the most robust intervention to extend lifespan and improve healthspan. Though the cerebellum is more commonly associated with motor control, it has strong links with the hypothalamus and is thought to be associated with nutritional regulation and adiposity. Using a global mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach, we identified 756 metabolites that were significantly differentially expressed (SDE) in the cerebellar region of the brain of C57BL/6J mice, fed graded levels of calorie restriction (10, 20, 30 and 40% CR) compared to mice fed ad libitum for 12 hours a day. Pathway enrichment indicated changes in the pathways of adenosine and guanine, which are precursors of DNA production, in addition to changes in pathways of metabolism of in aromatic amino acids, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan, and the sulphur-containing amino acid methionine. We also saw increases in TCA cycle, electron donor, and dopamine and histamine pathways. In particular, changes in L-histidine and homocarnosine correlated positively with level of CR and food anticipatory activity and negatively with insulin and body temperature. Several metabolic and pathway changes acted against changes seen in age-associated neurodegenerative disorders, including increases in the TCA cycle and reduced L-proline. Carnitine metabolites contributed to discrimination between CR groups, which corroborates previous work in the liver and plasma. These results indicate the conservation of certain aspects of metabolism across tissues with CR. Moreover, this is the first study to indicate CR alters the cerebellar metabolome, and does so in a graded fashion, after only a short period of restriction. Keywords: Brain; Mass-spectrometry; Metabolome; Neurodegeneration; Nutritional regulation. Fasting and refeeding cycles alter subcutaneous white depot growth dynamics and the morphology of brown adipose tissue in female rats. Rosas Fernández M, Concha Vilca C, Batista LO, Souza Figueiredo L, Ribeiro RA, Tavares do Carmo MDG, de Albuquerque KT. Br J Nutr. 2020 Oct 15:1-23. doi: 10.1017/S0007114520004055. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33054875 Abstract Intermittent food restriction (IFR) is used mainly for weight loss, however, its effects on adipose tissue are not known when alternating with obesogenic diet. To demonstrate its effects on morphological dynamics of fat deposits, female Wistar were distributed into the groups: standard control (ST-C), with commercial diet; DIO control (DIO-C), with a diet that induces obesity (DIO) during the first and last 15 days, replaced by a standard diet for 30 intermediate days; standard restricted (ST-R), with standard diet during the first and last 15 days, with six cycles of IFR at 50% of ST-C; and DIO restricted (DIO-R), in DIO during the first and last 15 days, with six cycles of IFR at 50% of DIO-C. At 105 days of life, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) deposits were collected, weighed and histology performed. IFR groups showed higher food intake (DIO-R: 670.8±31.86kcal/g vs DIO-C: 606.5±26.23kcal/g, p<0.0001), energy efficiency (DIO-R: 3.80±0.15 g/kcal vs DIO-C: 3.26±0.17 g/kcal, p<0.0001), WAT (DIO-R: 5.65±0.30g/100g, ST-R: 3.64±0.23g/100g vs. DIO-C: 4.56±0.30g/100g, ST-C: 2.87±0.31g/100g, p<0.0001) and BAT (DIO-R: 0.13±0.004g/100g vs DIO-C: 0.13±0.005g/100g, p<0.0001) than its respective controls. Furthermore, IFR groups presented hypertrophy of WAT and BAT, as well as fibrosis in BAT. Thus, IFR can establish prospective resistance to weight loss by favoring changes in adipose tissue morphology, increased energy intake, and efficiency. Finally, the DIO diet before and after IFR aggravates the damages caused by the restriction. Keywords: Brown adipose tissue fibrosis; Diet-induced obesity (DIO) model; Energy efficiency; Fat tissue; Intermittent fasting. The Potential of Fasting and Caloric Restriction to Mitigate Radiation Damage-A Systematic Review. Valayer S, Kim D, Fogtman A, Straube U, Winnard A, Caplan N, Green DA, van Leeuwen FHP, Weber T. Front Nutr. 2020 Sep 18;7:584543. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2020.584543. eCollection 2020. PMID: 33072801 Free PMC article. Abstract Detrimental health effects from ionizing radiation to living organisms is one of the key concerns identified and addressed by Radiation Protection institutions, nationally and internationally on Earth and for human spaceflight. Thus, new methods for mitigating the adverse effects of ionizing radiation are urgently needed for terrestrial health and deep space exploration. Caloric restriction and (intermittent-) fasting have been reported to elicit a variety of immediate and long-term physiological effects. The rapidly growing body of evidence of research studies investigating the effects of caloric restriction and dietary fasting points toward a multitude of benefits affecting numerous physiological systems. Therefore, a systematic review was performed to evaluate the evidence of caloric restriction and dietary fasting on the physiological response to ionizing radiation in humans and animals. All experimental studies of humans, animals, and eukaryotic cell lines available in PubMed, Cochrane library, and specialized databases were searched comparing irradiation post-caloric restriction or fasting to a non-nutritionally restricted control group on a broad range of outcomes from molecular to clinical responses. The initial search yielded 2,653 records. The final analysis included 11 studies. Most studies investigated survival rate or cancer occurrence in animals. Included studies did not reveal any benefit from pre exposure caloric restriction, except when performed with post radiation caloric restriction. However, the effects of pre-exposure fasting suggest increased resilience to ionizing radiation. Keywords: SIRTUIN; caloric restriction; deep space; fasting; irradation; radio-protection; radiology; space flight. Dietary Restriction Suppresses Steatosis-Associated Hepatic Tumorigenesis in Hepatitis C Virus Core Gene Transgenic Mice. Jia F, Diao P, Wang X, Hu X, Kimura T, Nakamuta M, Nakamura I, Shirotori S, Sato Y, Moriya K, Koike K, Gonzalez FJ, Nakayama J, Aoyama T, Tanaka N. Liver Cancer. 2020 Sep;9(5):529-548. doi: 10.1159/000508308. Epub 2020 Jul 10. PMID: 33083279 Free PMC article. Abstract Background and aims: Dietary restriction (DR) is a preventive strategy for obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Although an interconnection between obesity, metabolic syndrome, fatty liver, and hepatocellular carcinoma has been documented, the mechanism and impact of DR on steatosis-derived hepatocarcinogenesis are not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate whether DR can prevent hepatic tumorigenesis. Methods: Male hepatitis C virus core gene transgenic (HCVcpTg) mice that develop spontaneous age-dependent insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and ensuing liver tumor development without apparent hepatic fibrosis, were fed with either a control diet ad libitum (control group) or 70% of the same control diet (DR group) for 15 months, and liver phenotypes were investigated. Results: DR significantly reduced the number and volume of liver tumors. DR attenuated hepatic oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress and markedly suppressed nuclear factor-κB, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and STAT5, and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, leading to downregulation of several pro-oncogenic mediators, such as cyclin D1. Serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels, as well as hepatic expression of insulin receptor substrate 1/2, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, and serine/threonine-protein kinase AKT, were downregulated by DR. A transcriptome analysis revealed that STAT3 signaling and lipogenesis were the most suppressed hepatocarcinogenic pathways affected by DR. Additionally, DR stimulated autophagy and p62/sequestosome 1 degradation, enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase α, increased fibroblast growth factor 21 expression, and attenuated expression of senescence-associated secretory phenotypes. Conclusion: DR suppressed steatosis-associated hepatic tumorigenesis in HCVcpTg mice, mainly due to attenuation of pathways involved in inflammation, cellular stress, cell proliferation, insulin signaling, and senescence. These findings support the notion that persistent 30% reduction of daily food intake is beneficial for preventing steatosis-associated hepatocarcinogenesis caused by HCV core protein. Keywords: Cyclin D1; NF-κB; STAT3; Senescence; p62/SQSTM1.
  22. Whatever tests you decide to get, it wouldn't be a bad idea to get tested now to get a baseline that subsequent results can be compared against.
  23. Lucius

    Olive oil? Healthy or not?!

    Allow me to revive this thread and ask one simple question. Why, instead of arguing about whether olive oil is processed junk or a life extending medicine, don't we just consume whole olives? There seem to be no issues with them, except for the fact that they are usually soaked in brine, which is an issue I've been able to circumvent within 5 seconds by googling "olives without salt" and clicking on the first link.
  24. Something is not adding up here. Dairy seems protective against colon cancer in most studies, so I don't know why they say a "dairy diet" would be especially bad for colocrectal cancers.
  25. TomBAvoider

    Reaching optimal health

    Well, maybe it is too late, I don't know. But I do know it won't be my problem, because by the time when the ish really hits the fan, I'll be long dead. As will be my wife and anyone else I care about. I'm not happy about it, I wish civilization would last, since there is so much beauty and glory in the human being, but in the end nature will take its course. Admittedly, I'm an optimist, so I reckon somehow things will work themselves out. I'm not saying the situation isn't dire, but perhaps I have too much faith in human inventiveness.
  26. A new company called OneSkin has released a skin product they claim acts as a senolytic, reducing senescent cells and reducing the biological age of skin as measured via methylation clock. Some data charts in this video, where they claim better effects than retinoic acid:
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