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  1. https://gizmodo.com/intermittent-fasting-not-better-than-regular-dieting-y-1848823438
  2. Moderate alcohol used to be recommended for its health benefits, and a prominent member of the CR Society once encouraged many fellow members to follow him in imbibing. The research story of the last several years has been the growing accumulation of evidence to do just the opposite -- avoid alcohol or at least severely limit it. The following article is from the September 2021 issue of the Harvard Health Letter. -- RAS *** Alcohol and atrial fibrillation Question: I started drinking more during the pandemic. But I’ve heard that alcohol can increase the risk of atrial fibril- lation, a condition that my mother already has. How much alcohol is dangerous in terms of atrial fibrillation? Answer: We’ve long known that binge drinking (consuming large amounts of alcohol in a short time period) can trigger a bout of atrial fibrillation, the rapid, irregular heart rhythm commonly known as afib. Doctors refer to this phenomenon as “holiday heart” because they see more cases of it around the holidays, when people are more likely to overindulge in alcohol. However, growing evidence suggests that in general, the more you drink on a daily basis, the more likely you are to be diagnosed with afib. Even small amounts make a difference. One observational study that tracked people over an average of 14 years found that even a single drink per day—a glass of wine, a beer, or a shot of whiskey, gin, or other spirits—was linked to a 16% higher risk of developing afib compared with not drinking at all. For people who already have afib, alcohol appears to have a nearly instantaneous effect on their heart rhythm, according to a recent study. People in the study wore heart rate monitors and special ankle sensors to measure their alcohol intake. Researchers found that a single drink doubled the odds of a bout of afib occurring within the next four hours. In yet another study, researchers created three-dimensional structural maps of the left atrium (one of the two upper chambers of the heart) in people with afib. Compared with light drinkers and nondrinkers, moderate drinkers had more evidence of scarring and electrical signaling problems in their atria. The severity of those problems was directly linked to the severity of afib among the participants. The bottom line is that even small amounts of alcohol may harm your heart, which is why avoiding alcohol or limiting yourself to an occasional drink on special occasions may be the safest approach. [emphasis added --RAS] Alcohol use is linked to many other health threats, including car accidents, violence, high blood pressure, and various cancers, and the risks rise in tandem with the amount you drink. By the way, afib does appear to have a genetic component, although the degree of added risk to family members of people who have afib isn’t entirely clear. As for other ways to lower your personal risk, maintaining a healthy weight and getting regular exercise can help.
  3. As reported in ScienceAlert (https://www.sciencealert.com/oxygen-therapy-found-to-turn-back-the-sands-of-time-on-our-body-s-aging-cells) -- Richard Schulman
  4. Protein restriction -- consuming no more than the minimum daily requirement for protein -- seems to be essential for effective calorie restriction. But CR practitioners need to think twice before assuming that veganism would be a good way of practicing a protein restrictive diet, for reasons explained in this article, the heading and sub-head of which read How a vegan diet could affect your intelligence.The vegan diet is low in – or, in some cases, entirely devoid of – several important brain nutrients. Could these shortcomings be affecting vegans' abilities to think?
  5. "Longevity Linked to Proteins That Calm Overexcited Neurons": https://www.quantamagazine.org/longevity-linked-to-proteins-that-calm-overexcited-neurons-20191126/
  6. ras

    Al's CR updates

    This will be of great concern to those of us who started CR relatively late in their lives. By all means keep us posted, Al!
  7. " "Zullo and colleagues2 [have uncovered] an unexpected link between the nervous system and ageing. They show that overall neuronal excitation is a major determinant of lifespan, and that it is higher in short-lived individuals and lower in the long-lived. The authors also characterize some of the molecular players in this effect, and tie it to a well-known regulator of lifespan: signalling by the hormone insulin or by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)." The full news article is here. --Richard Schulman
  8. ras

    Theories of aging

    [Moderator's Note: I moved this post by ras to this thread started by corybroo since they are both covering the same article - DP] This article on theories of aging will not surprise CRS members. Nevertheless, it's a a worthwhile read: https://www.realclearscience.com/articles/2019/10/01/new_theories_for_why_we_age_111123.html
  9. ras

    Al's CR updates

    This post today of Al's ("Exercise degrades Bone in Calorie Restriction") is very concerning. I'm assuming similar effects accrue to humans. The previous concerns among CR practitioners, if I recall correctly, were that CR could cause bone fragility. That exercise doesn't counterbalance the effect but instead makes matters worse is an even greater concern. Informed comments and relevant research would be appreciated.
  10. Many thanks to Saul, corybroo, and Sibiriak for their comments. The suggestions of follow-up on HIIT and telomere length will definitely be pursued. But now I'm wondering whether telomere length is really a reliable marker for biological age. If not, what are we to make of the Nature / Aging Cell study I posted in this forum today?
  11. Nine healthy subjects who took a three-drug cocktail for a year seem to have reversed their biological ages by 2 1/2 years, as indicated by changes to their epigenetic clocks. The news write-up in Nature is here.
  12. In this blog post, I attempt to describe some recent research in the benefits of dietary restriction and exercise. The blog post is aimed at an educated but largely non-technical audience. Most of the content will be familiar to members of this forum. Nevertheless, comments are invited, because I hope to publish such updates several times a year. Suggestions regarding topics and treatment would be welcome.
  13. I think the "take home" message for the obese is to both right-size calories as well as optimize the microbiome (at least as much as this can be done at this early stage of research into the subject). Here's a short article from Nature Research:
  14. This fascinating article describes the relationship between your immune system and your microbiome and how important this is in terms of what you digest, what you don't, and whether you become obese: https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2019/08/inflammations-immune-system-obesity-microbiome/595384/
  15. The latest issue of Nature reports that "Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of ACMSD boosts de novo NAD+ synthesis and sirtuin 1 activity, ultimately enhancing mitochondrial function." The abstract is available here for non-subscribers. A related complete article by the lead author of the Nature report is available here for download. According to its abstract: "Altered NAD + metabolism is associated with aging and many pathological conditions, such as metabolic diseases and disorders of the muscular and neuronal systems. Conversely, increased NAD + levels have shown to be beneficial in a broad spectrum of diseases. Here, we review the fundamental aspects of NAD + biochemistry and metabolism and discuss how boosting NAD + content can help ameliorate mitochondrial homeostasis and as such improve healthspan and lifespan."