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  1. Thanks for your comments Saul. Today, I found this reference to the study https://www.inverse.com/mind-body/fruit-fly-study-reveals-the-hidden-costs-of-intermittent-fasting which strives to warn readers about the hazards of IF even though they ran several articles last year on the benefits of IF. Perhaps as humor, in the Dec article, they wrote “…much of that research was conducted in animal models, so the evidence that intermittent fasting holds miracle health benefits for humans is thin.” while embracing embracing the current study using fruit flies. Looking at the source article, I found “ rich media [8% autolyzed yeast, 13% table sugar, 6% cornmeal, 1% agar, and nipagin 0.225% (w/v)] … restricted media (2% autolyzed yeast) “ To my untrained eye, it looks like they were abruptly shifted by 75% (2% vs 8% autolyzed yeast). IIRC, a 75% restriction is generally short lived. Also, abrupt changes are not good. I’d say they successfully confirmed the rationale for the Minnesota Starvation Experiment. As you noted, the article has little relevance to sensible restriction and IF. I apologize for wasting bandwidth on it.
  2. There is a puzzling article at https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-02-theory-effects-diet-lifespan.html New research challenges theory explaining the effects of diet on lifespan If the results are confirmed in humans, it would seem to imply that intermittent fasting could be damaging to health. I do have some questions and doubts about their results. The theory that they challenge is that in times of reduced nutrition, the body goes into a maintenance and repair mode to await times when food is more available. To test this they switched fruit flies from a low calorie diet to a rich diet for testing. They report that the flies switched were “more likely to die and laid less eggs” than flies whose whole life was on a rich diet. They also suggest “changing diet repeatedly or abruptly could be harmful to health.” They claim their “results have now pointed us towards a more refined explanation of why it occurs” (It refers to what they call the dietary restriction paradox. Some questions I have are 1) How restricted was the diet? 2) How rich was the diet? 3) How abruptly was the switch? 4) I did not see any explanation in the MedicalXpress article. So, I’ll watch for confirming results in mammals before I stop dabbling with intermittent fasting. Cory
  3. Medical Xpress has an article at https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-01-ancient-cancer-secrets.html Some highlights: This project looked at two major signaling networks. Often referred to as the body's fuel gauge; a protein called AMP-Kinase, or AMPK, regulates cellular energy, slowing cell growth down when they don't have enough nutrients or energy to divide. The other, that of a protein complex called mTORC1/TORC1, which also regulates cell growth, increases cell proliferation when it senses high levels of nutrients . . . AMPK can 'put the brakes on' mTORC1, preventing cell proliferation ... mTORC1 can reciprocally also inhibit AMPK and keep it in a suppressed state "yeast cells became highly sensitive to nutrient shortages when we disrupted the ability of mTORC1 to inhibit AMPK." Starving cancerous mammalian cells of amino acids and energy increases growth rate due to the cells entering a starvation mode. transition to survival mode was lost when we again removed the ability of mTORC1 to inhibit AMPK Blocking mTORC1-mediated negative feedback to AMPK is likely to protect against cancer, as poorly vascularized solid tumors cells are be expected to be nutritionally stressed," she says.
  4. corybroo

    The Ultimate Purpose of Life

    A different philosophy was voiced by a comedian. He said did not fear death because he thought it was like being stupid – you don’t know it. It may bother people around you but you’re in a state where it doesn’t bother you.
  5. corybroo

    The Ultimate Purpose of Life

    Suppose some SB did create us, wouldn't it be fair to ask what is the purpose of the SB? And the SB's creator, etc.
  6. corybroo

    Altering exercise modality to benefit brain health

    I enjoy audiobooks when exercising, especially on the Jacob's ladder. It's possible to adjust the speed, so I can listen at around reading speed. Our library has a large (and growing) selection.
  7. For a bit of levity, I recommend Marion Nestle's Industry-funded study of the week: a live-forever dietary supplement at https://www.foodpolitics.com/2019/12/industry-funded-study-of-the-week-a-live-forever-dietary-supplement/
  8. Scientists Find Surprising Age-Related Protein Waves In Blood https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2019/12/05/785065299/scientists-find-surprising-age-related-protein-waves-in-blood I thought aging was a linear process. The above article reports finding three distinct waves of change. First wave in 30s, second around 60, and third around 80. One hope is to develop a personalized aging clock. "With this flood of new data about blood proteins, it's a daunting task to figure out whether each one causes aging, slows it down or is merely a result of the aging process." This research "is really the first step in categorizing and cataloging the age-related biomarkers,"
  9. A corroborating report at MedicalXpress: Eating only during a 10-hour window improved health for those with metabolic syndrome https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-12-clinical-hour-window-stave-diabetes.html
  10. Medicalxpress has an article Simulating amino acid starvation may improve dengue vaccines https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-11-simulating-amino-acid-starvation-dengue.html Eating a low-calorie diet can … improve the immune system's function. A new study finds that, in mice, a compound used in herbal medicine can give a similar immune boost if given before vaccination—no dieting required. plant-based compound called halofuginone improves the immune response to a potential vaccine against dengue virus. Halofuginone tricks the body into thinking it is starving for amino acids, which activates a pathway that results in more, and better, antibodies that are better at neutralizing the virus. halofuginone activates a pathway called the amino acid starvation response It mimics amino acid starvation in the body by blocking the enzyme that links amino acids to the molecules that deliver them to the site of protein production. In the current study, researchers injected some mice with halofuginone and some with an innocuous salt solution, then inoculated all of the mice with a potential dengue vaccine. Then they looked for differences in the immune response to the vaccine in the two groups. Mice that received halofuginone produced twice as many antibodies against the virus … halofuginone resulted in antibodies that more effectively neutralized the virus. halofuginone works specifically by encouraging the formation of germinal centers in the lymph nodes and spleen.
  11. I saw “Study: Sugar binges increase risk of inflammatory bowel disease” at https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-11-sugar-binges-inflammatory-bowel-disease.html Some highlights mice had an increased susceptibility to chemically induced colitis and more severe symptoms after only two days of a high-sugar diet Eating high-sugar diets and decreasing intake of fibre feeds "bad" microbes, such as E. coli, that are associated with inflammation and a defective immune response. so this idea that it's OK to eat well all week and indulge in junk food on the weekend is flawed showed that just two days on the high-sugar diet and the absence of short-chain fatty acids caused an increase in gut permeability, opening interesting avenues of research on how diet may affect the bacteria in our gastrointestinal tract and brain health study showed that gut permeability increased quite dramatically in the mice on the high-sugar diet—which means that bacterial products are free to move from the gut, where they normally stay, to the rest of the body
  12. A study done on brain development in tadpoles showed that limited food restriction (< 9 days) halts brain development but the development catches up when food becomes available. Clearly not tested in the experiment is whether this applies to humans and to adults. It does make me wonder if intermittent fasting would have similar effects in people who are trying it. Starvation halts brain development, but hungry cells jump-start growth when food becomes available https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-10-starvation-halts-brain-hungry-cells.html Surprisingly, if tadpoles were able to access food within about nine days, neural progenitor cells in the brain started dividing again and the tadpoles caught up to the growth state where they would have been if food had always been available. even without providing the tadpoles with any food, their brains could be relaunched into growth mode by activating the insulin receptor that sits on the surface of neuronal progenitor cells By carefully tracking the neural progenitor cells over time, McKeown also discovered that they were poised to divide as soon as the nutrient signals reached them. This meant the cells had halted their progression when they were right on the verge of dividing. This is typically seen in cells under stress, and clearly starvation is a type of stress.
  13. Medical Xpress has a nice review of theories of aging: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-10-age-theories-gaining-ground.html Spoiler alert: The article leans toward hyperfunction of TOR.
  14. Medical Xpress has an article Cellular aging is linked to structural changes in the brain https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-09-cellular-aging-linked-brain.html Telomere length is therefore regarded as a marker for the biological age … person with shorter telomeres has an increased risk of developing age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's or cancer, and even a shorter life expectancy. Recent studies suggest that telomeres can change faster than previously thought, possibly taking just one to six months of mental or physical training to elongate. "To explore whether a short-term change in telomere length, after only a few months, might actually be associated with changes in a person's biological age, we linked it to another biomarker of aging and health: brain structure," Four MRIs and blood draws for leukocyte DNA three months apart If the telomeres changed in length, this was associated with structural changes in the brain. In a period when participants' telomeres lengthened during the study, it was also more likely that their cortex had thickened at the same time. On the other hand, telomere shortening was associated with reductions of gray matter. This association occurred specifically in a brain region called the precuneus, which is a central metabolic and connectional hub. Open questions: it remains unclear if telomere elongation actually reflects any improvement in a person's overall health and aging trajectory. Future studies will need to continue to address the question of which measures or behaviors most effectively stop or even reverse telomere shortening, and the biological aging process.
  15. corybroo

    Blog post for a non-CR audience

    A nice introduction to the variables we can control to best play the genetic hand we've been dealt. To the benefits of exercise, you may want to add the possible modification of telomere length. Do a google search for HIIT telomere length https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325134827_The_effect_of_high_intensity_interval_training_on_telomere_length_and_telomerase_activity_in_non-athlete_young_men Conclusion: It seems that HIIT can alter telomerase activity and telomere length. Therefore, these training may have a positive effect on cell biology. To the section on IF, you may want to add something about preservation vs repair mode in different states. And possibly, as inspiration for others, how you're choosing to bring all this together for your self. As much as anything, that's to avoid the old cartoon of an overweight doctor telling his patient to lose weight. HTH, Cory