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  1. For a bit of levity, I recommend Marion Nestle's Industry-funded study of the week: a live-forever dietary supplement at https://www.foodpolitics.com/2019/12/industry-funded-study-of-the-week-a-live-forever-dietary-supplement/
  2. Scientists Find Surprising Age-Related Protein Waves In Blood https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2019/12/05/785065299/scientists-find-surprising-age-related-protein-waves-in-blood I thought aging was a linear process. The above article reports finding three distinct waves of change. First wave in 30s, second around 60, and third around 80. One hope is to develop a personalized aging clock. "With this flood of new data about blood proteins, it's a daunting task to figure out whether each one causes aging, slows it down or is merely a result of the aging process." This research "is really the first step in categorizing and cataloging the age-related biomarkers,"
  3. A corroborating report at MedicalXpress: Eating only during a 10-hour window improved health for those with metabolic syndrome https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-12-clinical-hour-window-stave-diabetes.html
  4. Medicalxpress has an article Simulating amino acid starvation may improve dengue vaccines https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-11-simulating-amino-acid-starvation-dengue.html Eating a low-calorie diet can … improve the immune system's function. A new study finds that, in mice, a compound used in herbal medicine can give a similar immune boost if given before vaccination—no dieting required. plant-based compound called halofuginone improves the immune response to a potential vaccine against dengue virus. Halofuginone tricks the body into thinking it is starving for amino acids, which activates a pathway that results in more, and better, antibodies that are better at neutralizing the virus. halofuginone activates a pathway called the amino acid starvation response It mimics amino acid starvation in the body by blocking the enzyme that links amino acids to the molecules that deliver them to the site of protein production. In the current study, researchers injected some mice with halofuginone and some with an innocuous salt solution, then inoculated all of the mice with a potential dengue vaccine. Then they looked for differences in the immune response to the vaccine in the two groups. Mice that received halofuginone produced twice as many antibodies against the virus … halofuginone resulted in antibodies that more effectively neutralized the virus. halofuginone works specifically by encouraging the formation of germinal centers in the lymph nodes and spleen.
  5. I saw “Study: Sugar binges increase risk of inflammatory bowel disease” at https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-11-sugar-binges-inflammatory-bowel-disease.html Some highlights mice had an increased susceptibility to chemically induced colitis and more severe symptoms after only two days of a high-sugar diet Eating high-sugar diets and decreasing intake of fibre feeds "bad" microbes, such as E. coli, that are associated with inflammation and a defective immune response. so this idea that it's OK to eat well all week and indulge in junk food on the weekend is flawed showed that just two days on the high-sugar diet and the absence of short-chain fatty acids caused an increase in gut permeability, opening interesting avenues of research on how diet may affect the bacteria in our gastrointestinal tract and brain health study showed that gut permeability increased quite dramatically in the mice on the high-sugar diet—which means that bacterial products are free to move from the gut, where they normally stay, to the rest of the body
  6. A study done on brain development in tadpoles showed that limited food restriction (< 9 days) halts brain development but the development catches up when food becomes available. Clearly not tested in the experiment is whether this applies to humans and to adults. It does make me wonder if intermittent fasting would have similar effects in people who are trying it. Starvation halts brain development, but hungry cells jump-start growth when food becomes available https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-10-starvation-halts-brain-hungry-cells.html Surprisingly, if tadpoles were able to access food within about nine days, neural progenitor cells in the brain started dividing again and the tadpoles caught up to the growth state where they would have been if food had always been available. even without providing the tadpoles with any food, their brains could be relaunched into growth mode by activating the insulin receptor that sits on the surface of neuronal progenitor cells By carefully tracking the neural progenitor cells over time, McKeown also discovered that they were poised to divide as soon as the nutrient signals reached them. This meant the cells had halted their progression when they were right on the verge of dividing. This is typically seen in cells under stress, and clearly starvation is a type of stress.
  7. Medical Xpress has a nice review of theories of aging: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-10-age-theories-gaining-ground.html Spoiler alert: The article leans toward hyperfunction of TOR.
  8. Medical Xpress has an article Cellular aging is linked to structural changes in the brain https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-09-cellular-aging-linked-brain.html Telomere length is therefore regarded as a marker for the biological age … person with shorter telomeres has an increased risk of developing age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's or cancer, and even a shorter life expectancy. Recent studies suggest that telomeres can change faster than previously thought, possibly taking just one to six months of mental or physical training to elongate. "To explore whether a short-term change in telomere length, after only a few months, might actually be associated with changes in a person's biological age, we linked it to another biomarker of aging and health: brain structure," Four MRIs and blood draws for leukocyte DNA three months apart If the telomeres changed in length, this was associated with structural changes in the brain. In a period when participants' telomeres lengthened during the study, it was also more likely that their cortex had thickened at the same time. On the other hand, telomere shortening was associated with reductions of gray matter. This association occurred specifically in a brain region called the precuneus, which is a central metabolic and connectional hub. Open questions: it remains unclear if telomere elongation actually reflects any improvement in a person's overall health and aging trajectory. Future studies will need to continue to address the question of which measures or behaviors most effectively stop or even reverse telomere shortening, and the biological aging process.
  9. corybroo

    Blog post for a non-CR audience

    A nice introduction to the variables we can control to best play the genetic hand we've been dealt. To the benefits of exercise, you may want to add the possible modification of telomere length. Do a google search for HIIT telomere length https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325134827_The_effect_of_high_intensity_interval_training_on_telomere_length_and_telomerase_activity_in_non-athlete_young_men Conclusion: It seems that HIIT can alter telomerase activity and telomere length. Therefore, these training may have a positive effect on cell biology. To the section on IF, you may want to add something about preservation vs repair mode in different states. And possibly, as inspiration for others, how you're choosing to bring all this together for your self. As much as anything, that's to avoid the old cartoon of an overweight doctor telling his patient to lose weight. HTH, Cory
  10. https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-08-memory-cells-bone-marrow-boosting.html Memory T cells shelter in bone marrow, boosting immunity in mice with restricted diets Discusses how immunity is maintained while calories are restricted. "... previously observed that fat tissue harbors memory T cells in mice. They investigated whether this phenomenon helped preserve immune memory when calorie intake was reduced. To investigate, they restricted the diet of mice previously given full access to food. While receiving less food, mice had fewer memory T cells in their lymphoid tissues, where they normally linger, and more of the T cells in bone marrow that became enriched with fat tissue." "Mice with restricted diets had more robust memory T cell responses and were better protected from illness. The researchers repeated this experiment using a vaccine that trains immune cells to fight melanomas and found that memory T cells were more protective against tumors in mice receiving less food."
  11. A moderate dose of novel form of stress promotes longevity https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-07-moderate-dose-stress-longevity.html moderate chromatin stress levels set off a stress response in yeast, the tiny laboratory worm C. elegans, the fruit fly and mouse embryonic stem cells, and in yeast and C. elegans the response promotes longevity. "Unexpectedly, we found that yeast with fewer copies of histone genes lived longer than the controls," Yeast with a moderately low dose of histone genes showed a moderate reduction of histone gene expression and significant chromatin stress. Their response to chromatin disruption was changes in the activation of a number of genes that eventually promoted longevity. In previous work Dang and colleagues had shown that in aging cells chromatin structure progressively falls apart. Histone alterations, such as a decrease in their protein levels, are a characteristic of the aging process, but the researchers showed that if they compensated for this age-related decrease in histone levels by overexpressing certain histone genes they extended the lifespan of aging yeast cells. In this study they discovered that moderately reducing the number of copies of histone genes in young yeast also promoted longevity. "The mechanism underlying the chromatin stress response generated by moderate reduction of histone dosage is different from the one triggered by histone overexpression we had previously described, as shown by their different profiles of protein expression responses."
  12. Medical Express has an article about a recently found link between amyloid and tau leading to Alzheimer's https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-06-alzheimer-link-idd-brain-decline.html Alzheimer's missing link ID'd, answering what tips brain's decline Years before symptoms of Alzheimer's disease appear, two kinds of damaging proteins silently collect in the brain: amyloid beta and tau. Clumps of amyloid accumulate first, but tau is particularly noxious. Wherever tangles of the tau protein appear, brain tissue dies, triggering the confusion and memory loss that are hallmarks of Alzheimer's. … the link between the two proteins may lie in the brain's immune cells that hem in clumps of amyloid. If the immune cells falter, amyloid clumps, or plaques, injure nearby neurons and create a toxic environment that accelerates the formation and spread of tau tangles… Powering up microglia might slow the spread of tau tangles and forestall cognitive decline. The last line might be a little confusing. I found references to CR down regulating microglia and yet other articles suggesting that CR can reduce amyloid. I hope to learn a lot more before incorporating any changes. Cory
  13. corybroo

    Molecular aging midlife crisis

    Just saw the article New Study Identifies Molecular Aging "Midlife Crisis" https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-06-molecular-aging-midlife-crisis.html Some interesting statements: molecular programs known to promote longevity do not last beyond midlife. study provides a possible new reason why human disease burden increases so sharply from the sixth decade of life onward as health-protective mechanisms disappear key biochemical events regulate the longevity of small short-lived animals ... humans appear to stop using these pathways from about 50 years of age onward a dominant role for the so-called mTOR protein complex—a mechanism that regulates numerous protective cell programs—as well as mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. These two cellular mechanisms combined to explain about two-thirds of the molecular aging profile in humans While the key protein regulators of longevity and health-span in short-lived animals have been found for the first time to be central to human molecular aging, this new study also determined that many little-studied so-called non-protein-coding genes are involved in human aging. "We've demonstrated that the most valid of 'anti-aging' programs are naturally active in humans and for some reason stop when we reach our 50s," Dr. Wahlestedt said. "This not only provides a specific time window to now study human aging, it also indicates that these established anti-aging strategies may no longer be effective (if too active there can be side effects) and so new approaches will be needed in long-lived humans."
  14. corybroo

    Hong Kong beats the blue zones

    It's good to see improvements somewhere in the world after this news a few days ago. https://www.ajmc.com/focus-of-the-week/millennials-have-worse-health-than-gen-xers-did-at-same-age-driven-by-mental-health
  15. Medical News Today has an article Increased muscle power may prolong life which begins with "Increasing muscle strength is good, but increasing muscle power may be even better for enjoying a longer life" https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/325004.php What's the difference between power and strength? "Muscle power differs from muscle strength in that it relies on generating force and velocity while coordinating movement. For example, lifting a weight one time requires strength, but lifting it several times as quickly as possible requires power." What is the benefit? "participants in quartile one had a risk of dying that was 10 to 13 times higher than that of those in quartiles three and four, while the risk for those in quartile two was still four to five times higher" How to increase power: "choose a weight that is neither easy to lift nor so immense that the person cannot lift it at all. Focus on doing 1 to 3 sets of 6 to 8 repetitions each while moving the weight as quickly as possible"