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AlPater

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  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Epoch_Times A media/newspaper provider should have the integrity to exclude stories about QAnon and vaccinine misinfomation. The author's ideas have been presented in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Barrington_Declaration#Critical_commentaries and widely criticized by the scientific community.
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Epoch_Times
  3. AlPater

    Video vs. print/paper

    Video/audio requires too much of a time commitment when I am at my desktop and is a distraction when I am driving or walking.
  4. Biomarker-Calibrated Macronutrient Intake and Chronic Disease Risk among Postmenopausal Women. Prentice RL, Pettinger M, Neuhouser ML, Raftery D, Zheng C, Gowda GAN, Huang Y, Tinker LF, Howard BV, Manson JE, Wallace R, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Johnson KC, Lampe JW. J Nutr. 2021 Aug 7;151(8):2330-2341. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxab091. PMID: 33880504 Abstract Background: Knowledge about macronutrient intake and chronic disease risk has been limited by the absence of objective macronutrient measures. Recently, we proposed novel biomarkers for protein, protein density, carbohydrate, and carbohydrate density, using established biomarkers and serum and urine metabolomics profiles in a human feeding study. Objectives: We aimed to use these biomarkers to develop calibration equations for macronutrient variables using dietary self-reports and personal characteristics and to study the association between biomarker-calibrated intake estimates and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes risk in Women's Health Initiative (WHI) cohorts. Methods: Prospective disease association analyses are based on WHI cohorts of postmenopausal US women aged 50-79 y when enrolled at 40 US clinical centers (n = 81,954). We used biomarker intake values in a WHI nutritional biomarker study (n = 436) to develop calibration equations for each macronutrient variable, leading to calibrated macronutrient intake estimates throughout WHI cohorts. We then examined the association of these intakes with chronic disease incidence over a 20-y (median) follow-up period using HR regression methods. Results: In analyses that included doubly labeled water-calibrated total energy, HRs for cardiovascular diseases and cancers were mostly unrelated to calibrated protein density. However, many were inversely related to carbohydrate density, with HRs (95% CIs) for a 20% increment in carbohydrate density of 0.81 (0.69, 0.95) and 0.83 (0.74, 0.93), respectively, for primary outcomes of coronary heart disease and breast cancer, as well as 0.74 (0.60, 0.91) and 0.87 (0.81, 0.93) for secondary outcomes of heart failure and total invasive cancer. Corresponding HRs (95% CIs) for type 2 diabetes incidence in relation to protein density and carbohydrate density were 1.17 (1.09, 1.75) and 0.73 (0.66, 0.80), respectively. Conclusions: At specific energy intake, a diet high in carbohydrate density is associated with substantially reduced risk of major chronic diseases in a population of US postmenopausal women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611. Keywords: biomarker; cancer; cardiovascular disease; diabetes; diet; macronutrient; measurement error; metabolomics. Citicoline and Memory Function in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Nakazaki E, Mah E, Sanoshy K, Citrolo D, Watanabe F. J Nutr. 2021 Aug 7;151(8):2153-2160. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxab119. PMID: 33978188 Free PMC article. Abstract Background: Supplementation of citicoline (CDP-choline), a naturally occurring mononucleotide, has shown beneficial effects on memory function and behavior in populations with a wide range of impairments. However, few studies have investigated its effect in healthy older populations. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of citicoline (Cognizin®), on memory in healthy elderly populations with age-associated memory impairment (AAMI). Methods: A total of 100 healthy men and women aged between 50 and 85 y with AAMI participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomized to receive placebo (n = 51) or citicoline (n = 49; 500 mg/d) for 12 wk. Memory function was assessed at baseline and end of the intervention (12 wk) using computerized tests (Cambridge Brain Sciences, Ontario, Canada). Safety measurements included adverse events query, body weight, blood pressure, and hematology and metabolic panel. Intent-to-treat analysis was conducted using ANCOVA for the primary and secondary outcome variables with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Results: A total of 99 out of 100 participants completed the study in its entirety. After the 12-wk intervention, participants supplemented with citicoline showed significantly greater improvements in secondary outcomes of episodic memory (assessed by the Paired Associate test), compared with those on placebo (mean: 0.15 vs. 0.06, respectively, P = 0.0025). Composite memory (secondary outcome), calculated using the scores of 4 memory tests, also significantly improved to a greater extent following citicoline supplementation (mean: 3.78) compared with placebo (mean: 0.72, P = 0.0052). Conclusions: Dietary supplementation of citicoline for 12 wk improved overall memory performance, especially episodic memory, in healthy older males and females with AAMI. The findings suggest that regular consumption of citicoline may be safe and potentially beneficial against memory loss due to aging. Keywords: 5′-cytidine diphosphate choline; aging; brain; citicoline; memory loss. Dietary Acid Load and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: results from the Golestan Cohort Study. Hejazi E, Emamat H, Sharafkhah M, Saidpour A, Poustchi H, Sepanlou SG, Sotoudeh M, Dawsey SM, Boffetta P, Abnet CC, Kamangar F, Etemadi A, Pourshams A, Fazeltabar-Malekshah A, Brennan P, Malekzadeh R, Hekmatdoost A. Br J Nutr. 2021 Aug 16:1-20. doi: 10.1017/S0007114521003135. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34392847 Abstract Given the limited studies, and controversial results on association between dietary acid load and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancers, we aimed to investigate this association in a large population cohort study in Middle-East, with a wide range of dietary acid load.The study was conducted on the platform of the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), which enrolled 50,045 participants in 2004-2008. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) score was calculated from nutrient intake. Death and its causes were identified, and confirmed by two or three physicians. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for total and cause specific mortalities. Then, the associations were modeled using restricted cubic splines.PRAL range was -57.36 to +53.81 mEq/d for men and -76.70 to +49.08 for women. During 555,142 person-years of follow-up, we documented 6830 deaths, including 3070 cardiovascular deaths, 1502 cancer deaths and 2258 deaths from other causes. For overall deaths, in final model after adjustment for confounders, participants in the first and 5th quintiles of PRAL had a higher risk of mortality compared to the second quintile of PRAL (HR: 1.08; 95% CI:1.01-1.16 and HR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.15, respectively); P for trend <0.05). Participants in the first and 5th quintiles of PRAL had a 12% higher risk of CVD mortality compared to the Q2 of PRAL (HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01-1.25 and HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01-1.26, respectively; P for trend <0.05). We found that all-cause and CVD mortality rates were higher in the lowest and highest PRAL values, in an approximately U-shaped relation (P-values for the overall association and the non-linear association of energy-adjusted PRAL with total mortality were <0.001 and <0.001, and with CVD mortality were 0.008 and 0.003, respectively).Our results highlight unfavorable associations of high acidity and alkalinity of diet with the increased total and CVD mortality risk. It may be important to consider a balanced acid-base diet as a protective strategy to prevent premature death, especially from CVD. Keywords: GCS; Mortality; cancer; cardiovascular; cohort. Estimating Under-recognized COVID-19 Deaths, United States, March 2020-May 2021 using an Excess Mortality Modelling Approach. Iuliano AD, Chang HH, Patel NN, Threlkel R, Kniss K, Reich J, Steele M, Hall AJ, Fry AM, Reed C. Lancet Reg Health Am. 2021 Jul 13:100019. doi: 10.1016/j.lana.2021.100019. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34386789 Free PMC article. Abstract Background: In the United States, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) deaths are captured through the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System and death certificates reported to the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). However, not all COVID-19 deaths are recognized and reported because of limitations in testing, exacerbation of chronic health conditions that are listed as the cause of death, or delays in reporting. Estimating deaths may provide a more comprehensive understanding of total COVID-19-attributable deaths. Methods: We estimated COVID-19 unrecognized attributable deaths, from March 2020-April 2021, using all-cause deaths reported to NVSS by week and six age groups (0-17, 18-49, 50-64, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85 years) for 50 states, New York City, and the District of Columbia using a linear time series regression model. Reported COVID-19 deaths were subtracted from all-cause deaths before applying the model. Weekly expected deaths, assuming no SARS-CoV-2 circulation and predicted all-cause deaths using SARS-CoV-2 weekly percent positive as a covariate were modelled by age group and including state as a random intercept. COVID-19-attributable unrecognized deaths were calculated for each state and age group by subtracting the expected all-cause deaths from the predicted deaths. Findings: We estimated that 766,611 deaths attributable to COVID-19 occurred in the United States from March 8, 2020-May 29, 2021. Of these, 184,477 (24%) deaths were not documented on death certificates. Eighty-two percent of unrecognized deaths were among persons aged ≥65 years; the proportion of unrecognized deaths were 0•24-0•31 times lower among those 0-17 years relative to all other age groups. More COVID-19-attributable deaths were not captured during the early months of the pandemic (March-May 2020) and during increases in SARS-CoV-2 activity (July 2020, November 2020-February 2021). Discussion: Estimating COVID-19-attributable unrecognized deaths provides a better understanding of the COVID-19 mortality burden and may better quantify the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic. Keywords: COVID-19; Excess mortality; Mortality; SARS-CoV-2; Unrecognized deaths. METABOLISM CHANGES WITH AGE, JUST NOT WHEN YOU MIGHT THINK Researchers have precisely measured life’s metabolic highs and lows, from birth to old age, and the findings might surprise you. https://today.duke.edu/2021/08/metabolism-changes-age-just-not-when-you-might-think >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Daily energy expenditure through the human life course. Pontzer H, Yamada Y, Sagayama H, Ainslie PN, Andersen LF, Anderson LJ, Arab L, Baddou I, Bedu-Addo K, Blaak EE, Blanc S, Bonomi AG, Bouten CVC, Bovet P, Buchowski MS, Butte NF, Camps SG, Close GL, Cooper JA, Cooper R, Das SK, Dugas LR, Ekelund U, Entringer S, Forrester T, Fudge BW, Goris AH, Gurven M, Hambly C, El Hamdouchi A, Hoos MB, Hu S, Joonas N, Joosen AM, Katzmarzyk P, Kempen KP, Kimura M, Kraus WE, Kushner RF, Lambert EV, Leonard WR, Lessan N, Martin C, Medin AC, Meijer EP, Morehen JC, Morton JP, Neuhouser ML, Nicklas TA, Ojiambo RM, Pietiläinen KH, Pitsiladis YP, Plange-Rhule J, Plasqui G, Prentice RL, Rabinovich RA, Racette SB, Raichlen DA, Ravussin E, Reynolds RM, Roberts SB, Schuit AJ, Sjödin AM, Stice E, Urlacher SS, Valenti G, Van Etten LM, Van Mil EA, Wells JCK, Wilson G, Wood BM, Yanovski J, Yoshida T, Zhang X, Murphy-Alford AJ, Loechl C, Luke AH, Rood J, Schoeller DA, Westerterp KR, Wong WW, Speakman JR; IAEA DLW Database Consortium. Science. 2021 Aug 13;373(6556):808-812. doi: 10.1126/science.abe5017. PMID: 34385400 Abstract Total daily energy expenditure ("total expenditure") reflects daily energy needs and is a critical variable in human health and physiology, but its trajectory over the life course is poorly studied. We analyzed a large, diverse database of total expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method for males and females aged 8 days to 95 years. Total expenditure increased with fat-free mass in a power-law manner, with four distinct life stages. Fat-free mass-adjusted expenditure accelerates rapidly in neonates to ~50% above adult values at ~1 year; declines slowly to adult levels by ~20 years; remains stable in adulthood (20 to 60 years), even during pregnancy; then declines in older adults. These changes shed light on human development and aging and should help shape nutrition and health strategies across the life span.
  5. AlPater

    Al's CR updates

    Protective Features of Calorie Restriction on Cuprizone-induced Demyelination via Modulating Microglial Phenotype. Zarini D, Pasbakhsh P, Nekoonam S, Mojaverrostami S, Ghasemi S, Shabani M, Kashani IR. J Chem Neuroanat. 2021 Aug 12:102013. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2021.102013. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34391881 Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder in the central nervous system (CNS) with no definitive treatment, but it can be alleviated by changing life habits. Calorie restriction (CR) is effective in preventing or treating metabolic and autoimmune disorders. CR is one of the helpful approaches to control the progression of MS. In the present study, we investigated the preventive effect of caloric restriction on cuprizone induced-demyelination, a model of multiple sclerosis. To induce acute demyelination in C57/BL6 mice, we added 0.2% Cuprizone (CPZ) to their diet for 6 weeks. To induce calorie restriction, 10% Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was added to the diet as a dietary cellulose fiber for 6 weeks. Remyelination was studied by luxol fast blue (LFB) staining. Microglia activity, M1 and M2 microglial/macrophage phenotypes were assessed by immunohistochemistry of Iba-1, iNOS and Arg-1, respectively. The expression of targeted genes was assessed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Luxol fast blue (LFB) staining showed that the CR regimen could decrease the cuprizone-induced demyelination process (p < 0.01). Moreover, the CR application could improve balance and motor performance in cuprizone-intoxicated mice by significantly enhancing protein and gene expression of Sirt1, M2 microglial phenotype marker (Arg-1) and Akt1 gene expression, also decreased M1 microglial phenotype marker (iNOS), Akt2 and P53 gene expressions (p < 0.05). Cumulatively, it can be concluded that caloric restriction was able to counteract MS symptoms through alleviating inflammatory responses. Keywords: Calorie restriction; Cuprizone; Demyelination; Microglia; Multiple Sclerosis. Lamin regulates the dietary restriction response via the mTOR pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans. Charar C, Metsuyanim-Cohen S, Bar DZ. J Cell Sci. 2021 Aug 12:jcs.258428. doi: 10.1242/jcs.258428. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34383046 Abstract Animals subjected to dietary restriction (DR) have reduced body size, low fecundity, slower development, lower fat content and longer life span. We identified lamin as a regulator of multiple dietary restriction phenotypes. Downregulation of lmn-1, the single Caenorhabditis elegans lamin gene, increased animal size and fat content, specifically in DR animals. The LMN-1 protein acts in the mTOR pathway, upstream to RAPTOR and S6K, key component and target of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), respectively. DR excludes the mTORC1 activator RAGC-1 from the nucleus. Downregulation of lmn-1 restores RAGC-1 to the nucleus, a necessary step for the activation of the mTOR pathway. These findings further link lamin to metabolic regulation. Keywords: Caenorhabditis elegans; Dietary restriction; Lamin; mTOR.
  6. AlPater

    Are potatoes wrongly vilified?

    I think potatoes are okay. They contain much less sugars than carrots and their nutritiondata rating for "Optimal health" is slightly better than carrots: https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/vegetables-and-vegetable-products/2550/2 https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/vegetables-and-vegetable-products/2383/2 But their GI is higher: https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/food-beverages/glycemic-index-glycemic-load
  7. J Natl Med Assoc. 2002 Feb;94(2):88-99. Less is better Thomas T Samaras, Harold Elrick PMID: 11853051 PMCID: PMC2594131 Free PMC article Abstract The "more is better" credo is evaluated in terms of its harmful ramifications on human health, the environment, and the survival of the human race. The trend towards greater height and body weight in developed countries is evaluated in terms of its negative aspects on health and longevity. The benefits of reduced caloric intake are discussed. Countries that survive on lower food intakes are shown to have much less heart disease, such as South Africa, where rural blacks outlive whites and also have a higher percentage of centenarians. The risks of increasing birth weight are discussed in terms of promoting cancer and overweight in adulthood. Rapid childhood growth also is shown to have risks because rapid maturity is in conflict with the need to have more time to learn about our complex world before reaching reproductive capability. The increase in the average size of humans aggravates our burgeoning population numbers, placing even greater demands on our need for fresh water, energy, resources, and a clean invironment. Many good things come in large packages, such as elephants, whales, and trees. While Sumo wrestlers, football players, and basketball players play an important role in our world, their small numbers do not pose a threat to our survival. However, their body habitus should not be the goal for the average male of the future.
  8. Yes, I got two shots of Pfizer. BTW, my wife got COVID some months ago; I got my first shot on the same trip before she was tested and I was tested the next day when she got her results (I should have got tested when she did); I was surprised not to test positive the next day after she did, despite kissing her in her pre-symptomatic stage and until she tested positive after she had symptoms for a while; and my never having symptoms thereafter.
  9. I agree with you, Saul. This pandemic has brought out characteristics of quite a few people that surprise me in their susceptibility to misinformation, and their views on vaccines, some held even before this pandemic. I was skeptical that vaccines could be developed with the speed which with they were, but here we are with multiple vaccines that have been rigorously tested by the manufacturers and in the field. Infections, hospitalizations, ICU admissions, deaths and long COVID cases have diminished in parallel with vaccinations. All the while, some people are presenting scenarios for COVID vaccines that have not been found for vaccines for other diseases, some of which vaccines use similar methods for vaccine development.
  10. https://www.kff.org/policy-watch/covid-19-vaccine-breakthrough-cases-data-from-the-states/ gives the import of vaccination on cases, hospitalizations, and deaths for individual states. About half of Californians are vaccinated, and the vast majority of the sick are unvaccinated. And vaccinations are preventing many others from becoming infected, while the unvaccinated are like typhoid Mary.
  11. I strongly disagree with your opinions. I think selection is most likely to occur in individual infections. There are a huge number of virus particles produced in each infection in unvaccinated people, which are then met with an immune response which over many days kill off virus particles while they continue to propagate until the immune system wins or the host dies. The virus particles are in overwhelming numbers compared to the hosts once the infection gets going. Vaccines will cut the viral propagation short; vaccines are highly effective at preventing any kind of propagation at all. And, getting herd immunity stops the virus. It was done with small pox and polio. If worse comes to worse, modified vaccines can be readily generated, depending the degree intransidence of the unvaccinated in keeping this pestilence going.
  12. Alcohol use and cardiometabolic risk in the UK Biobank: A Mendelian randomization study. Lankester J, Zanetti D, Ingelsson E, Assimes TL. PLoS One. 2021 Aug 11;16(8):e0255801. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0255801. eCollection 2021. PMID: 34379647 Abstract Observational studies suggest alcohol use promotes the development of some adverse cardiometabolic traits but protects against others including outcomes related to coronary artery disease. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to explore causal relationships between the degree of alcohol consumption and several cardiometabolic traits in the UK Biobank. Using the well-established ADH1B Arg47His variant (rs1229984) and up to 24 additional SNPs recently found to be associated with alcohol consumption in an independent dataset as instruments, we conducted two-stage least squares and inverse weighted variance MR analyses, both as one-sample analyses in the UK Biobank and as two-sample analyses in external consortia. In the UK Biobank inverse variance weighted analyses, we found that one additional drink of alcohol per day was positively associated with systolic blood pressure (beta = 2.65 mmHg [1.40, 3.89]), hemorrhagic stroke (OR = 2.25 [1.41, 3.60]), and atrial fibrillation (OR = 1.26 [1.07, 1.48]), which were replicated in multivariable analyses. Alcohol was also associated with all cardiovascular disease and all-cause death. A positive association with myocardial infarction did not replicate in multivariable analysis, with suggestive mediation through blood pressure; similarly, a positive association between alcohol use with type 2 diabetes was mitigated by BMI in multivariable analysis. Findings were generally null in replication with two-sample analyses. Alcohol was not protective for any disease outcome with any analysis method, dataset, or strata. Stratifications by sex and smoking in the UK Biobank revealed higher point estimates of risk for several outcomes for men and mixed results for smoking strata, but no statistically significant heterogeneity. Our results are consistent with an overall harmful and/or null effect of alcohol on cardiometabolic health at all levels of use and suggest that even moderate alcohol use should not be promoted as a part of a healthy diet and lifestyle. Revisiting the association of sedentary behavior and physical activity with all-cause mortality using a compositional approach: the Women's Health Study. Migueles JH, Lee IM, Sanchez CC, Ortega FB, Buring JE, Shiroma EJ. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2021 Aug 10;18(1):104. doi: 10.1186/s12966-021-01173-0. PMID: 34376213 Abstract Background: While physical activity has consistently been associated with decreased mortality rates, it remains unknown if there is a single "ideal" combination of time in physical activities of different intensities and sedentary behavior (SB) associated with the lowest rate. This study examined the associations of combinations of time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVPA), higher-light intensity (HLPA), lower-light intensity activities (LLPA), and SB with mortality rates in older women. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 16,676 older women from throughout the United States enrolled in the Women's Health Study. Women wore accelerometers on their hip from 2011 to 2015 and were followed through 2017 (mean (SD) of 4.3 (1.1) years). Deaths were confirmed with medical records, death certificates, or the National Death Index. Compositional Cox regression models were used. Results: The mean (SD) age was 72 (5.7) years at accelerometer wear; 503 women died. Compared to the least active women (mean, 3 min/day MVPA, 27 min/day HLPA, 162 min/day LLPA, and 701 min/day SB): compositional models showed an inverse L-shaped dose-response association of MVPA replacing other behaviors with mortality rates mortality rates (P = .02); SB relative to LLPA, HLPA, and MVPA was directly associated with mortality rates in a curvilinear dose-response manner (P < .001); replacing 10 min of SB for MVPA (HR (95% CI) = .86 (.73-.98)) or for HLPA (HR (95% CI.94 (.88-1.00)) associated with 14 and 6% lower mortality rates, respectively; a 47% risk reduction (HR [95% CI] = .53 [.42-.64]) was observed among women meeting physical activity guidelines (mean, 36 min/day MVPA, 79 min/day HLPA, 227 min/day LLPA and 549 min/day SB); and similar mortality rate reductions of 43% (HR (95% CI) = .57 (.41-.73)) were observed with increases in HLPA and LLPA without increasing MVPA, e.g., reallocating SB to 90 min/day of HLPA plus 120 min/day of LLPA. Conclusions: There was no "ideal" combination of physical activities of different intensities and SB associated with the lowest mortality rates. Of particular relevance to older women, replacing SB with light intensity activity was associated with lower mortality rates, and "mixing and matching" times in different intensities yielded equivalent mortality risk reductions. Familial factors, diet, and risk of cardiovascular disease: a cohort analysis of the UK Biobank. Zhang H, Zeng Y, Yang H, Hu Y, Hu Y, Chen W, Ying Z, Sun Y, Qu Y, Li Q, Valdimarsdóttir UA, Song H. Am J Clin Nutr. 2021 Aug 10:nqab261. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqab261. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34375391 Abstract Background: Both diet and familial factors have a major role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it remains unclear whether familial predisposition to CVD modifies the association between dietary factors and CVD. Objectives: The aim was to assess whether the association between diet and CVD varies with familial predisposition to CVD. Methods: In this prospective cohort of the UK Biobank, 462,155 CVD-free participants were included in 2006-2010 and followed for CVD incidence until 2020. Food intake was measured using a short food-frequency questionnaire. Familial predisposition was measured by self-reported family history of CVD and by polygenic risk score (PRS) for CVD based on summary statistics of independent genome-wide association studies. Results: During a median follow-up of 11.2 y, 46,164 incident CVD cases were identified. A moderately higher risk of CVD was associated with more frequent processed-meat consumption, with an adjusted HR of 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.11; highest vs. lowest level). Conversely, intakes of fish, cheese, vegetables, and fruit were each associated with reduced CVD risk [HR (95% CI): 0.92 (0.89, 0.96), 0.90 (0.86, 0.94), 0.98 (0.95, 1.00), and 0.93 (0.89, 0.96), respectively]. Stratification analyses by family history of CVD and by PRS for CVD revealed an inverse association between CVD and intakes of fish and cheese, for both subgroups with and without a familial predisposition to CVD. Notably, while the association between processed-meat intake and CVD was restricted to individuals with a familial predisposition to CVD [e.g., HR: 1.11 (1.05, 1.16) and 1.03 (0.97, 1.10) for with and without a family history, respectively, P-interaction < 0.001], the risk reduction of CVD associated with vegetable and fruit intake was only noted among participants without a CVD familial predisposition [e.g., HR for fruit consumption: 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) and 0.91 (0.87, 0.95), respectively, P < 0.001]. Conclusions: Familial factors modify the association between diet and CVD, underscoring the need for personalized dietary guidelines for CVD prevention. Keywords: cardiovascular disease; family history of cardiovascular disease; food intake; modification effect; polygenic risk score; risk factor. Time-restricted feeding prevents metabolic diseases through the regulation of galanin/GALR1 expression in the hypothalamus of mice. Sun J, She Y, Fang P, Gu X, Zhang Z. Eat Weight Disord. 2021 Aug 9. doi: 10.1007/s40519-021-01280-8. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34370270 Abstract Purpose: Time-restricted feeding (TRF) reverses obesity and insulin resistance, yet the central mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Recent studies suggest a critical role of hypothalamic galanin and its receptors in the regulation of energy balance. It is yet unclear whether TRF could regulate the expression of galanin and its receptors in the hypothalamus of mice fed a high-fat diet. Methods: To test this effect, we subjected mice to either ad lib or TRF of a high-fat diet for 8 h per day. After 4 weeks, galanin and many neuropeptides associated with the function of metabolism were examined. Results: The present findings showed that mice under TRF consume equivalent calories from a high-fat diet as those with ad lib access, yet are protected against obesity and have improved glucose metabolism. Plasma galanin, orexin A, irisin and adropin levels were significantly reversed by TRF regimen. Besides, TRF regimen reversed the progression of metabolic disorders in mice by increasing GLUT4 and PGC-1α expression in skeletal muscles. Moreover, the levels of galanin and GALR1 expression were severely diminished in the hypothalamus of the TRF mice, whereas GALR2 was highly expressed. Conclusions: TRF diminished galanin and GALR1 expression, and increased GALR2 expression in the hypothalamus of mice fed a high-fat diet. The current studies provide additional evidence that TRF is effective in improving HFD-induced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in mice, and this effect could be associated with TRF-induced changes of the galanin systems in the hypothalamus. Association between body mass index, its change and cognitive impairment among Chinese older adults: a community-based, 9-year prospective cohort study. Wu S, Lv X, Shen J, Chen H, Ma Y, Jin X, Yang J, Cao Y, Zong G, Wang H, Yuan C. Eur J Epidemiol. 2021 Aug 9. doi: 10.1007/s10654-021-00792-y. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34370136 Abstract To examine the association of baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI change with cognitive impairment among older adults in China. The study included data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study, a national community-based prospective cohort study from 2002 to 2018. Baseline BMI and BMI change were available for 12,027 adults aged older than 65 years. Cognitive impairment was defined as Chinese version of the Mini Mental State Examination score lower than 18. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was used. Among 12,027 participants (mean age was 81.23 years old and 47.48% were male), the proportion of underweight, normal, overweight and obese at baseline was 33.87%, 51.39%, 11.39% and 3.34%, respectively. During an average of 5.9 years' follow-up, 3086 participants (4.35 per 100 person-years) with incident cognitive impairment were identified. Compared with normal weight group, adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) for cognitive impairment was 0.86 (95% CI 0.75-0.99) among overweight group, whereas corresponding AHR was 1.02 (95% CI 0.94-1.10) in underweight and 1.01 (95% CI 0.80-1.28) in obese participants. Large weight loss (< -10%) was significantly associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment (AHR, 1.42, 95% CI 1.29-1.56), compared to stable weight status group (-5% ~ 5%). In the restricted cubic spline models, BMI change showed a reverse J-shaped association with cognitive impairment. BMI-defined overweight, but not obesity, was associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment among elderly Chinese adults, while large weight loss was associated with an increased risk. These findings are consistent with weight loss in the prodromal phase of dementia. Keywords: BMI; BMI change; Chinese; Cognitive impairment; Cohort; Older adults. Associations of plasma metal concentrations with the risks of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in Chinese adults. Shi L, Yuan Y, Xiao Y, Long P, Li W, Yu Y, Liu Y, Liu K, Wang H, Zhou L, Yang H, Li X, He M, Wu T. Environ Int. 2021 Aug 5;157:106808. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.106808. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34365319 Abstract Background: Exposure to metals/metalloids from both the natural environment and anthropogenic sources have a complex influence on human health. However, relatively few studies have explored the relations of exposure to multiple metals/metalloids with mortality. Therefore, this prospective study aims to examine the relations of multiple metal/metalloids exposures with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Methods: A total of 6155 participants within the Dongfeng-Tongji (DF-TJ) cohort were involved in this analysis, which were followed for mortality until December 31, 2018. We applied inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure baseline plasma concentrations of 23 metals. We utilized Cox regression models to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and CVD mortality associated with metal concentrations. We proposed plasma metal score to assess the simultaneous exposure to multiple metals through summing each metal concentration weighted by the regression coefficients with all-cause mortality. Results: During the follow-up (mean duration, 9.8 years), we ascertained 876 deaths, including 416 deaths of CVD (157 deaths of coronary heart disease and 259 deaths of stroke). In the multiple-metals model, after adjusting for potential confounders, plasma copper, molybdenum, and vanadium were positively associated with all-cause mortality, whereas manganese, selenium, and thallium were negatively associated with the risk of all-cause mortality, with adjusted HRs (95% Confidence Interval, CI) of the fourth quartiles were 1.73 (1.42-2.11, P-trend < 0.001) for copper, 1.33 (1.09-1.63, P-trend = 0.005) for molybdenum, 1.43 (1.16-1.77, P-trend < 0.001) for vanadium, 0.74 (0.58-0.94, P-trend = 0.005) for manganese, 0.68 (0.56-0.83, P-trend < 0.001) for selenium, and 0.74 (0.59-0.92, P-trend = 0.002) for thallium, respectively. Positive associations were observed between plasma copper, molybdenum, vanadium concentrations and CVD mortality, whereas negative associations were found for plasma selenium and thallium concentrations with CVD mortality in the multiple-metals model. Compared with the first quartiles, the HRs of fourth quartiles were 1.94 (1.45-2.58, P-trend < 0.001) for copper, 1.72 (1.26-2.35, P-trend < 0.001) for molybdenum, 1.81 (1.32-2.47, P-trend < 0.001) for vanadium, 0.67 (0.50-0.89, P-trend = 0.003) for selenium, and 0.58 (0.41-0.81, P-trend < 0.001) for thallium, respectively. The plasma metal score was significantly associated with higher risks of all-cause and CVD death in dose-response fashions. When compared with the first quartiles of plasma metal score, the HRs of fourth quartiles were 2.16 (1.76-2.64; P-trend < 0.001) for all-cause mortality and 3.00 (2.24-4.02; P-trend < 0.001) for CVD mortality. Conclusions: The study indicated that several plasma metals/metalloids were key determinants and predictors of all-cause and CVD death in the Chinese population. Our findings highlighted the importance to comprehensively assess and monitor multiple metals/metalloids exposures. Keywords: All-cause mortality; CVD mortality; Manganese; Molybdenum; Plasma metal score; Prospective study.
  13. AlPater

    Spicy food and dementia risk?

    Holy hot hedes. 50 g chili/day. No wonder so few ate that much chili. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6566199/pdf/nutrients-11-01183.pdf
  14. On a quick read of your article, this sounds like another case of a beautiful theory slain by the ugly facts. Prostate cancer patients did not get more metastasis if they ate more peanuts, for example. “Reassuringly though, a large US study reported no significant impact of peanut consumption on cancer mortality. In another study, peanut consumption was reported to have no significant effect on prognosis in men with established prostate cancer.
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