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  1. This paper shows brown fat activity is higher in the morning. Taking a cold shower or eating breakfast earlier in the day can trigger brown fat function much more than in the evening. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41366-021-00927-x Abstract Background/objectives Disturbed circadian rhythm is associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a site of nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and plays a role in regulating whole-body energy expenditure (EE), substrate metabolism, and body fatness. In this study, we examined diurnal variations of NST in healthy humans by focusing on their relation to BAT activity. Methods Forty-four healthy men underwent 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography and were divided into Low-BAT and High-BAT groups. In STUDY 1, EE, diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and fat oxidation (FO) were measured using a whole-room indirect calorimeter at 27 °C. In STUDY 2, EE, FO, and skin temperature in the region close to BAT depots (Tscv) and in the control region (Tc) were measured at 27 °C and after 90 min cold exposure at 19 °C in the morning and in the evening. Results In STUDY 1, DIT and FO after breakfast was higher in the High-BAT group than in the Low-BAT group (P < 0.05), whereas those after dinner were comparable in the two groups. FO in the High-BAT group was higher after breakfast than after dinner (P < 0.01). In STUDY 2, cold-induced increases in EE (CIT), FO, and Tscv relative to Tc in the morning were higher in the High-BAT group than in the Low-BAT group (P < 0.05), whereas those after dinner were comparable in the two groups. CIT in the High-BAT group tended to be higher in the morning than in the evening (P = 0.056). Conclusion BAT-associated NST and FO were evident in the morning, but not in the evening, suggesting that the activity of human BAT is higher in the morning than in the evening, and thus may be involved in the association of an eating habit of breakfast skipping with obesity and related metabolic disorders.
  2. You have clung to this strange idea that the Polish government is some kind of a freedom champion targeting Facebook with anti-censorship law. Do you think political gangsters can be freedom fighters simply because they officially declare that? For the umpteenth time, the assumption of the proposed legislature is prevention of censorship (you’re right here), but the devil is in the details – actual regulations will allow “the freedom of speech council” to punish any media criticizing the government – I’ve repeatedly pointed this out and, strangely, you don’t seem to grasp that. The discussion started with Gordo quoting Poland as an example of a country fighting for free speech, which I opposed by explaining the real motives behind the proposed laws and also quoting the planned new tax on media (Facebook among others). In the last few posts I’ve been trying to hone you in on this hypocrisy, but you dodge my explanations and keep repeating the same thing. Of course you’re free to believe what you want, but at this stage I’m done with this pointless, off-topic discussion.
  3. For somebody who doesn’t know jack about Poland, they may seem like 2 different issues, but they’re just 2 sides of the same coin – they lead to the same goal. On the one hand, the ‘Facebook censorship’ talk is a smoke screen. The government doesn’t care about Facebook censorship, and certainly doesn’t support free discourse (LOL), but it’s using the company to as a curve ball to establish “the freedom of speech council” to censor and stifle any unfavourable media. On the other hand, the tax is meant to achieve the same: financially drain independent media and eliminate them or take them over so that nobody criticizes and exposes the government’s dirty politics. So the ultimate purpose of both moves is to curb freedom of speech. Judging by how many people applaud the government for being freedom fighters, the propaganda seems to be working…
  4. Ron, if you believe that, you're very naive. The government uses Facebook as a cover story to fool its stupid, uneducated voters that it's acting for their benefit to prevent censorship, but in reality it'll be a blow to domestic free media. If an oppressive, anti-democratic government wants to create a “five-member freedom of speech council” (elected exclusively by the ruling party) do you really believe it's for the lofty purpose of defending free speech? Especially when you couple this with a long list of things (innumerable examples of breaking the law, corruption, nepotism, violating the constitution) the government is trying to sweep under the carpet.
  5. Sorry Ron, but it’s you who is conflating the Polish government’s crude, shameless propaganda with their true motives. We’re going OT here, but let me briefly say this: I know what I’m talking about because I live in Poland, and someone living thousands of miles away and reading only superficial news will never be aware of the real situation. The current populist, ultra-right government is like a plague – damaging the economy, democratic institutions (read about the Polish Supreme Court and Constitutional Tribunal, illegally taken over by the party apparatchiks), imposing some of the harshest anti-abortion laws in the world, curbing free speech and independent media, just like Orban did in Hungary. This government is Putin’s fifth column and Goebbels and Kim Jong-un would be proud of the state TV’s propaganda. The Daily Mail article you quoted is laughable – presenting the official line (lies) of the government. The real purpose of the “five-member freedom of speech council” (chosen exclusively by the ruling party) is to censor independent media exposing the ruling politicians’ corruption and inaptitude. AFAIK Facebook has never censored anything major that would justify such steps. The Polish PM saying “he wants EU rules to defend free speech online and warned against "political correctness" by tech giants” is like a statement from Orwell’s 1984’s Ministry of Truth. LOL The real purpose of the tax the government wants to levy on independent media is to totally suppress free media and control all news outlets. Already now billions are spent on state TV, and recently the biggest (state-owned) oil company has taken over 120 local newspaper and a media house, thus getting access to 17.5 million readers/users. It has been calculated that due to the new tax Facebook and other big international players would pay only ca. PLN 50 million, whereas local, independent media would pay ca. PLN 700 million – apart from the normal corporate taxes they pay. So the government effectively kills free media and at the same time subsidizes (advertising + subsidies) the government-controlled media. Look at what happened in Hungary – a few days ago the last independent radio was closed: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klubrádió Poland is unfortunately going the same way.
  6. Gordo, it's exactly the opposite: the Polish anti-democratic, authoritarian government wants to curb free speech by imposing unfair taxes on independent media and take them over to spread its propaganda
  7. Thanks Mike. Writing a summary before a video is much better than just posting a video
  8. When I see a text I can skim it and focus on and read parts which I find interesting. It's (nearly) impossible with a video. Personally, I used to read your blog, but when you changed the format to videos, I stopped.
  9. It's quite a high level of exertion. Can you maintain your concentration level on what you're reading? I guess with time and your level of fitness it's not a big deal...
  10. Dean, at what speed (and possibly incline) do you walk on the treadmill?
  11. Proc Nutr Soc. 2020 Apr 15:1-19. doi: 10.1017/S0029665120006928. [Epub ahead of print] Feeding brown fat: dietary phytochemicals targeting non-shivering thermogenesis to control body weight. Horvath C1, Wolfrum C1. Author information Abstract Excessive adipose accumulation, which is the main driver for the development of secondary metabolic complications, has reached epidemic proportions and combined pharmaceutical, educational and nutritional approaches are required to reverse the current rise in global obesity prevalence rates. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a unique organ able to dissipate energy and thus a promising target to enhance BMR to counteract a positive energy balance. In addition, active BAT might support body weight maintenance after weight loss to prevent/reduce relapse. Natural products deliver valuable bioactive compounds that have historically helped to alleviate disease symptoms. Interest in recent years has focused on identifying nutritional constituents that are able to induce BAT activity and thereby enhance energy expenditure. This review provides a summary of selected dietary phytochemicals, including isoflavones, catechins, stilbenes, the flavonoids quercetin, luteolin and resveratrol as well as the alkaloids berberine and capsaicin. Most of the discussed phytochemicals act through distinct molecular pathways e.g. sympathetic nerve activation, AMP-kinase signalling, SIRT1 activity or stimulation of oestrogen receptors. Thus, it might be possible to utilise this multitude of pathways to co-activate BAT using a fine-tuned combination of foods or combined nutritional supplements. KEYWORDS: Brown adipose tissue; Browning; Energy expenditure; Phytochemicals; Weight management PMID: 32290888 DOI: 10.1017/S0029665120006928
  12. Another New Zoonotic Virus Disease Emerging In China - Orthohantavirus
  13. Do you know if they ship outside Russia? Could you provide a link to that shop?
  14. Hi Sibiriak Are the masks you bought available online?
  15. We will have to add chronic high-sucrose diet to the list 😉 Chronic high-sucrose diet increases fibroblast growth factor 21 production and energy expenditure in mice Abstract Excess carbohydrate intake causes obesity in humans. On the other hand, acute administration of fructose, glucose or sucrose in experimental animals has been shown to increase the plasma concentration of anti-obesity hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which contribute to reducing body weight. However, the secretion and action of GLP-1 and FGF21 in mice chronically fed a high-sucrose diet has not been investigated. To address the role of anti-obesity hormones in response to increased sucrose intake, we analyzed mice fed a high-sucrose diet, a high-starch diet or a normal diet for 15 weeks. Mice fed a high-sucrose diet showed resistance to body weight gain, in comparison with mice fed a high-starch diet or control diet, due to increased energy expenditure. Plasma FGF21 levels were highest among the three groups in mice fed a high-sucrose diet, whereas no significant difference in GLP-1 levels was observed. Expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), FGF receptor 1c (FGFR1c) and β-klotho (KLB) mRNA in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in high sucrose-fed mice, suggesting increases in FGF21 sensitivity and energy expenditure. Expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) mRNA in liver and brown adipose tissue was also increased in high sucrose-fed mice. These results indicate that FGF21 production in liver and brown adipose tissue is increased in high-sucrose diet and participates in resistance to weight gain.