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  1. Mikii

    Bottle of Lies

    Bioequivalence: The article is disproving the myth that the range is 45%. However it states that drugs differed on average in one study by 3.5%, and 20% differ by more than 5%. They estimate that 10% is the upper bound that could be approved, which is what I said. Is that a big deal? I don't know. Maybe it could be for some drugs. Recalls: I said the Wellbutrin was ineffective. I didn't say it was dangerous. That is simply evidence that generics on the market can differ enough to matter to patients.
  2. Mikii

    Bottle of Lies

    Generic drugs can have a bioavailability that differs from the brand name by up to ~10% on either side. According to this article 20% of drugs differ by more than 5%. And, those numbers come from the original studies done to get the generics approved by the FDA, they don't keep testing bioequivalence regularly as part of quality control. This is especially relevant for time-release medications, because you can't just analyze the contents of the pill, you need to test it in humans to get the blood concentration data. There are some special regulations in place for some drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. I only know about psychiatric drugs - but the FDA has recalled generics of Wellbutrin several times in the past few years for being ineffective (2018, 2016, 2012). Those investigations were initiated by collections of complaints from patients. On top of that, you can find people all over the internet with anecdotes of feeling differences between brand name and generic antidepressants, or between different generic manufacturers. Could be placebo, could be a response to inactive ingredients in the drug (which are not required to be the same), or they are releasing differently or contain different concentrations of the active ingredients. That's for antidepressants, where you are supposed to notice the effects of the drug. If you can't notice it you could end up taking something for years that causes kidney cancer, apparently. Seems like it would be preferable to prevent this from happening at all rather than letting them sue for damages after the fact. I'm not opposed to generics, I take them, but it's another reason to try to avoid prescription medications in general.
  3. Mikii

    Fernando Gabriel current diet

    It had the same objection to the old bmi as you, but determined that the best exponent is actually 2.5. Using a cube would raise the lower bound of healthy weight even further for someone of above average height. This is called extreme hunger and happens to most eating disorder survivors. It will remain as long as you are underweight and go away with time if you continue eating and gaining weight.
  4. Mikii

    Fernando Gabriel current diet

    If you want a cubed number you can use the new bmi. According to it you are even more underweight than by the original method.
  5. Sounds like you're talking about endothelial function. Here are some videos from Dr. Greger... note that his videos are not trustworthy for every topic, but he gives an efficient explanation of this phenomenon. I would ignore the bit in the first video where he says the mechanism of vegetables is antioxidants neutralizing free radicals. That's just a theory. The nitrates are probably more relevant (as in the second video). https://nutritionfacts.org/video/the-power-of-no/ https://nutritionfacts.org/video/oxygenating-blood-with-nitrate-rich-vegetables/ https://nutritionfacts.org/video/walnuts-and-artery-function/ https://nutritionfacts.org/video/sodium-and-arterial-function-a-salting-our-endothelium/
  6. I don't think this has been posted here yet. This is in reference to Longo's epi study. A group of protein researchers wrote a letter to the editor that was never published, but they posted it online. "To our knowledge, that is the highest HR ever reported for any dietary component and certainly for one within dietary guidelines of the IOM. The CI with a 400-fold range and an upper value of 1,209.70 with 6-significant figures of accuracy is not credible." Ouch!
  7. I would bet that a smaller serving of romaine, kale, arugula, or another green or red leaf lettuce has more nutrients than iceberg, that is, they have more nutrients per gram of fiber. You would have to check cronometer for specific serving sizes. Unless there is an active recall, I don't usually worry about romaine, I just wash it thoroughly. It might be higher risk than other greens, so that's up to you. Since you don't eat seafood or seeds, a little bit of flax oil every day would be good for getting omega-3. That or a fish/algae oil supplement. I checked and grapes have even less fiber than applesauce, with more polyphenols. Dates have more fiber than grapes but less than applesauce. Variety is good!
  8. SIBO caused by low gut motility won't go away forever unless the motility problem is addressed, unfortunately. Prokinetic drugs can fix it but you have to take them every day. They do work though. I think the most used are metoclopramide, domperidone, erythromycin, and prucalopride. There are also some supplements that have a weaker kinetic effect (iberogast, 5-HTP, maybe ginger). Lowering your thyroid activity any more would likely make your motility worse. Increasing your thyroid medication might make it better, but I'm not sure. Is it possible to replace your iceberg lettuce with spinach or romaine? Even romaine has a lot more nutrients than iceberg. Nuts would also be a really good addition if you can handle them. List of prokinetic drugs: https://sibosurvivor.com/prokinetic-agents/ This is a good explanation of how they work: https://medium.com/@stkirsch/insights-from-mark-pimentel-on-the-treatment-of-sibo-c091bb5aa00
  9. Cornmeal (tortillas, polenta) and brown rice are whole grains that are pretty low in fiber. White potatoes would also be a good source of carbs, and you can remove the skin to lower the fiber further. Could also potentially eat purple potatoes as a source of anthocyanins that you probably won't get from berries, black beans or red cabbage. For nuts, walnuts and hulled hemp seeds are pretty low and both good sources of ALA. Tofu has basically no fiber and might be the only legume you can eat, so that would be good. It’s better to get calories from refined grains than a lot of animal foods in my opinion. And replacing some meat with mollusks (oysters, clams) would boost the nutrient density a lot. You probably don't need more than 70 grams of protein, the RDA is around 50. However, if CR works by slowing the metabolism, then you may be already getting the benefits and there is no point in calorie restricting any further. In this study people with low-normal thyroid function lived 3 years longer than people on the high end of normal (just watch your cholesterol because hypo can raise it). It might be better to focus on quality of life and managing your symptoms. For example your digestive difficulties are likely related to your metabolism, because gut motility slows down along with everything else and this can easily lead to bloating and constipation. This chart has a list of vegetables that are low-FODMAP, maybe you would be able to tolerate them better than other vegetables.
  10. If you eat a lot of whole grains, legumes, and greens, you will get a lot of betaine. Betaine is one of the metabolites of choline used for methylation, so eating it directly contributes to the choline requirement. According to Chris Masterjohn it's good for up to half of the requirement, so you'd only need 275 mg choline.
  11. I think the Adventist Health Studies certainly still have a lot of value. They are prospective cohort studies on actual individuals going to the doctor over many years, not based on demography data. And as for the Okinawans, there are old autopsy studies you can read documenting clear arteries and other signs of health, and other studies that are not this kind of correlational observational epidemiology. Also, I think there is a difference between areas with many supercentenarians, and ones with high average life expectancies for people 80+. Does bad data affect the latter enough to create blue zones out of people who actually weren't especially healthy at all? I'm not sure. Anyway, the Blue Zones org has responded: https://www.bluezones.com/news/are-supercentenarian-claims-based-on-age-exaggeration/ Obviously they have a huge interest in not being invalidated. Hopefully, when the paper comes out, we will get some commentary from epidemiologists with no biases.
  12. Great points everyone. Loma Linda wasn't included in the preprint but the author implied on twitter that it has issues as well: Although, we don't need centenarians to prove that the SDAs involved in AHS had excellent health and lived longer than average.
  13. New biostats preprint: Supercentenarians and the oldest-old are concentrated into regions with no birth certificates and short lifespans Several years ago was this, not sure if it has been discussed before: Japan, Checking on Its Oldest, Finds Many Gone The Japanese pensions scandals (published in the international journal of pensions!) Bit of an overstatement, as we still have prospective epidemiology that generally agrees with the overall principles, but. Does anyone think this casts doubt on accepted blue zone anecdata?