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AlanPater

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  1. AlanPater

    Science of Fasting !

    Could it have to do with mobilization of body fat tissue lipids upon fasting? It would be transitory if this were the case.
  2. Previous COVID infection provides an 'edge' over Omicron — especially with vaccination 2 doses plus infection is comparable to 3 doses at preventing severe COVID-19: study Adam Miller · CBC News · Posted: May 07, 2022 https://www.cbc.ca/news/health/covid-infection-protection-omicron-canada-1.6444674 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Protection against Omicron re-infection conferred by prior heterologous SARS-CoV-2 infection, with and without mRNA vaccination View ORCID ProfileSara Carazo, View ORCID ProfileDanuta M. Skowronski, View ORCID ProfileMarc Brisson, View ORCID ProfileChantal Sauvageau, View ORCID ProfileNicholas Brousseau, View ORCID ProfileRodica Gilca, View ORCID ProfileManale Ouakki, View ORCID ProfileSapha Barkati, Judith Fafard, View ORCID ProfileDenis Talbot, View ORCID ProfileVladimir Gilca, Geneviève Deceuninck, Christophe Garenc, Alex Carignan, Philippe De Wals, View ORCID ProfileGaston De Serres doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.04.29.22274455 Abstract Importance Omicron is phylogenetically- and antigenically-distinct from earlier SARS-CoV-2 variants and the original vaccine strain. Protection conferred by prior SARS-CoV-2 infection against Omicron re-infection, and the added value of vaccination, require quantification. Objective To estimate protection against Omicron re-infection and hospitalization conferred by prior heterologous SARS-CoV-2 (non-Omicron) infection and/or up to three doses of (ancestral, Wuhan-like) mRNA vaccine. Design Test-negative study between December 26 (epi-week 52), 2021 and March 12 (epi-week 10), 2022. Setting Population-based, province of Quebec, Canada Participants Community-dwelling ≥12-year-olds tested for SARS-CoV-2. Exposures Prior laboratory-confirmed infection with/without mRNA vaccination. Outcomes Laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 re-infection and hospitalization, presumed Omicron by genomic surveillance. The odds of prior non-Omicron infection with/without vaccination were compared among Omicron cases/hospitalizations versus test-negative controls (single randomly-selected per individual). Adjusted odds ratios controlled for age, sex, testing-indication and epi-week. Analyses were stratified by severity and time since last non-Omicron infection or vaccine dose. Results Without vaccination, prior non-Omicron infection reduced the Omicron re-infection risk by 44% (95%CI:38-48), decreasing from 66% (95%CI:57-73) at 3-5 months to 35% (95%CI:21-47) at 9-11 months post-infection and <30% thereafter. The more severe the prior infection, the greater the risk reduction: 8% (95%CI:17-28), 43% (95%CI:37-49) and 68% (95%CI:51-80) for prior asymptomatic, symptomatic ambulatory or hospitalized infections. mRNA vaccine effectiveness against Omicron infection was consistently significantly higher among previously-infected vs. non-infected individuals at 65% (95%CI:63-67) vs. 20% (95%CI:16-24) for one-dose; 68% (95%CI:67-70) vs. 42% (95%CI:41-44) for two doses; and 83% (95%CI:81-84) vs. 73% (95%CI:72-73) for three doses. Infection-induced protection against Omicron hospitalization was 81% (95%CI: 66-89) increasing to 86% (95%CI:77-99) with one, 94% (95%CI:91-96) with two and 97%(95%CI:94-99) with three mRNA vaccine doses. Two-dose effectiveness against hospitalization among previously-infected individuals did not wane across 11 months and did not significantly differ from three-dose effectiveness despite longer follow-up (median 158 and 27 days, respectively). Conclusions and relevance Prior heterologous SARS-CoV-2 infection provided substantial and sustained protection against Omicron hospitalization, greatest among those also vaccinated. In the context of program goals to prevent severe outcomes and preserve healthcare system capacity, >2 doses of ancestral Wuhan-like vaccine may be of marginal incremental value to previously-infected individuals.
  3. The violent attack that turned a man into a maths genius https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20190411-the-violent-attack-that-turned-a-man-into-a-maths-genius
  4. I am surprised at what bad things have happened to bright minds by the pandemic. What the heck happened to John Ioannidis? John Ioannidis is one of the most published and influential scientists in the world, someone whose skewering of bad medical research we at SBM have frequently lauded over the years. Then the COVID-19 pandemic hit. Since then, Prof. Ioannidis has been publishing dubious studies that minimize the dangers of the coronavirus, shown up in the media to decry “lockdowns,” and, most recently, “punched down”, attacking a graduate student for having criticized him. What happened? Did Prof. Ioannidis change, or was he always like this and I just didn’t see it? Either way, he’s a cautionary tale of how even science watchdogs can fall prey to hubris. David Gorski on March 29, 2021 https://sciencebasedmedicine.org/what-the-heck-happened-to-john-ioannidis/
  5. Active phase calorie restriction enhances longevity, UT Southwestern neuroscience study reveals https://www.utsouthwestern.edu/newsroom/articles/year-2022/active-phase-calorie-restriction.html >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Published on: May 05, 2022 Circadian alignment of early onset caloric restriction promotes longevity in male C57BL/6J mice. Acosta-Rodríguez V, Rijo-Ferreira F, Izumo M, Xu P, Wight-Carter M, Green CB, Takahashi JS. Science. 2022 May 5:e. doi: 10.1126/science.abk0297. Online ahead of print. PMID: 35511946 Abstract Caloric restriction (CR) prolongs lifespan, yet the mechanisms by which it does so remain poorly understood. Under CR, mice self-impose chronic cycles of 2-hour-feeding and 22-hour-fasting, raising the question whether calories, fasting, or time of day are causal. We show that 30%-CR is sufficient to extend lifespan 10%; however, a daily fasting interval and circadian-alignment of feeding act together to extend lifespan 35% in male C57BL/6J mice. These effects are independent of body weight. Aging induces widespread increases in gene expression associated with inflammation and decreases in expression of genes encoding components of metabolic pathways in liver from ad lib fed mice. CR at night ameliorates these aging-related changes. Thus, circadian interventions promote longevity and provide a perspective to further explore mechanisms of aging. Effects of caloric restriction on the gut microbiome are linked with immune senescence. Sbierski-Kind J, Grenkowitz S, Schlickeiser S, Sandforth A, Friedrich M, Kunkel D, Glauben R, Brachs S, Mai K, Thürmer A, Radonić A, Drechsel O, Turnbaugh PJ, Bisanz JE, Volk HD, Spranger J, von Schwartzenberg RJ. Microbiome. 2022 Apr 4;10(1):57. doi: 10.1186/s40168-022-01249-4. PMID: 35379337 Free PMC article. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8978410/ Abstract Background: Caloric restriction can delay the development of metabolic diseases ranging from insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes and is linked to both changes in the composition and metabolic function of the gut microbiota and immunological consequences. However, the interaction between dietary intake, the microbiome, and the immune system remains poorly described. Results: We transplanted the gut microbiota from an obese female before (AdLib) and after (CalRes) an 8-week very-low-calorie diet (800 kcal/day) into germ-free mice. We used 16S rRNA sequencing to evaluate taxa with differential abundance between the AdLib- and CalRes-microbiota recipients and single-cell multidimensional mass cytometry to define immune signatures in murine colon, liver, and spleen. Recipients of the CalRes sample exhibited overall higher alpha diversity and restructuring of the gut microbiota with decreased abundance of several microbial taxa (e.g., Clostridium ramosum, Hungatella hathewayi, Alistipi obesi). Transplantation of CalRes-microbiota into mice decreased their body fat accumulation and improved glucose tolerance compared to AdLib-microbiota recipients. Finally, the CalRes-associated microbiota reduced the levels of intestinal effector memory CD8+ T cells, intestinal memory B cells, and hepatic effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Conclusion: Caloric restriction shapes the gut microbiome which can improve metabolic health and may induce a shift towards the naïve T and B cell compartment and, thus, delay immune senescence. Understanding the role of the gut microbiome as mediator of beneficial effects of low calorie diets on inflammation and metabolism may enhance the development of new therapeutic treatment options for metabolic diseases. Keywords: Adaptive immune system; Caloric restriction; Gut microbiota; Immune senescence; Obesity. Calorie Restriction with or without Time-Restricted Eating in Weight Loss. Liu D, Huang Y, Huang C, Yang S, Wei X, Zhang P, Guo D, Lin J, Xu B, Li C, He H, He J, Liu S, Shi L, Xue Y, Zhang H. N Engl J Med. 2022 Apr 21;386(16):1495-1504. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2114833. PMID: 35443107 Clinical Trial. Abstract Background: The long-term efficacy and safety of time-restricted eating for weight loss are not clear. Methods: We randomly assigned 139 patients with obesity to time-restricted eating (eating only between 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m.) with calorie restriction or daily calorie restriction alone. For 12 months, all the participants were instructed to follow a calorie-restricted diet that consisted of 1500 to 1800 kcal per day for men and 1200 to 1500 kcal per day for women. The primary outcome was the difference between the two groups in the change from baseline in body weight; secondary outcomes included changes in waist circumference, body-mass index (BMI), amount of body fat, and measures of metabolic risk factors. Results: Of the total 139 participants who underwent randomization, 118 (84.9%) completed the 12-month follow-up visit. The mean weight loss from baseline at 12 months was -8.0 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.6 to -6.4) in the time-restriction group and -6.3 kg (95% CI, -7.8 to -4.7) in the daily-calorie-restriction group. Changes in weight were not significantly different in the two groups at the 12-month assessment (net difference, -1.8 kg; 95% CI, -4.0 to 0.4; P = 0.11). Results of analyses of waist circumferences, BMI, body fat, body lean mass, blood pressure, and metabolic risk factors were consistent with the results of the primary outcome. In addition, there were no substantial differences between the groups in the numbers of adverse events. Conclusions: Among patients with obesity, a regimen of time-restricted eating was not more beneficial with regard to reduction in body weight, body fat, or metabolic risk factors than daily calorie restriction.
  6. I do not subscribe to the New York times. Death Toll During Pandemic Far Exceeds Countries’ Reported Totals, W.H.O. Says Excess deaths were nearly 15 million, the W.H.O. said, a number that drastically exceeded estimates based on reporting by countries. Here’s the latest on Covid. https://www.thestar.com/life/health_wellness/2022/05/05/who-nearly-15m-deaths-associated-with-covid-19.html
  7. It says "coconut" under the section called "PLANT-BASED FATS".
  8. The same article said: "By making a distinction between the viruses, Tedros has sought to rally global action against the new microbe. He and other WHO officials urged governments confronting the coronavirus to implement the public health measures that have been shown to reduce viral spread, such as isolating infected people, following those who come in contact with cases to see whether they develop illness, and suspending activities that bring together lots of people." https://www.statnews.com/2020/03/03/who-coronavirus-different-than-influenza-can-be-contained/
  9. You are a "true believer" Right back atcha.
  10. Coconut Oil and Heart Health: Fact or Fiction? Sacks FM. Circulation. 2020 Mar 10;141(10):815-817. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.044687. Epub 2020 Jan 13. PMID: 31928069 No abstract available. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.044687
  11. Interim Estimates of 2021-22 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness - United States, February 2022. Chung JR, Kim SS, Kondor RJ, Smith C, Budd AP, Tartof SY, Florea A, Talbot HK, Grijalva CG, Wernli KJ, Phillips CH, Monto AS, Martin ET, Belongia EA, McLean HQ, Gaglani M, Reis M, Geffel KM, Nowalk MP, DaSilva J, Keong LM, Stark TJ, Barnes JR, Wentworth DE, Brammer L, Burns E, Fry AM, Patel MM, Flannery B. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 Mar 11;71(10):365-370. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7110a1. PMID: 35271561 Free PMC article. Abstract In the United States, annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months except when contraindicated (1). Currently available influenza vaccines are designed to protect against four influenza viruses: A(H1N1)pdm09 (the 2009 pandemic virus), A(H3N2), B/Victoria lineage, and B/Yamagata lineage. Most influenza viruses detected this season have been A(H3N2) (2). With the exception of the 2020-21 season, when data were insufficient to generate an estimate, CDC has estimated the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine at preventing laboratory-confirmed, mild/moderate (outpatient) medically attended acute respiratory infection (ARI) each season since 2004-05. This interim report uses data from 3,636 children and adults with ARI enrolled in the U.S. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network during October 4, 2021-February 12, 2022. Overall, vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended outpatient ARI associated with influenza A(H3N2) virus was 16% (95% CI = -16% to 39%), which is considered not statistically significant. This analysis indicates that influenza vaccination did not reduce the risk for outpatient medically attended illness with influenza A(H3N2) viruses that predominated so far this season. Enrollment was insufficient to generate reliable VE estimates by age group or by type of influenza vaccine product (1). CDC recommends influenza antiviral medications as an adjunct to vaccination; the potential public health benefit of antiviral medications is magnified in the context of reduced influenza VE. CDC routinely recommends that health care providers continue to administer influenza vaccine to persons aged ≥6 months as long as influenza viruses are circulating, even when VE against one virus is reduced, because vaccine can prevent serious outcomes (e.g., hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or death) that are associated with influenza A(H3N2) virus infection and might protect against other influenza viruses that could circulate later in the season. One-Year Trajectory of Cognitive Changes in Older Survivors of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. Liu YH, Chen Y, Wang QH, Wang LR, Jiang L, Yang Y, Chen X, Li Y, Cen Y, Xu C, Zhu J, Li W, Wang YR, Zhang LL, Liu J, Xu ZQ, Wang YJ. JAMA Neurol. 2022 Mar 8:e220461. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.0461. Online ahead of print. PMID: 35258587 Abstract Importance: Determining the long-term impact of COVID-19 on cognition is important to inform immediate steps in COVID-19 research and health policy. Objective: To investigate the 1-year trajectory of cognitive changes in older COVID-19 survivors. Design, setting, and participants: This cohort study recruited 3233 COVID-19 survivors 60 years and older who were discharged from 3 COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to April 10, 2020. Their uninfected spouses (N = 466) were recruited as a control population. Participants with preinfection cognitive impairment, a concomitant neurological disorder, or a family history of dementia were excluded, as well as those with severe cardiac, hepatic, or kidney disease or any kind of tumor. Follow-up monitoring cognitive functioning and decline took place at 6 and 12 months. A total of 1438 COVID-19 survivors and 438 control individuals were included in the final follow-up. COVID-19 was categorized as severe or nonsevere following the American Thoracic Society guidelines. Main outcomes and measures: The main outcome was change in cognition 1 year after patient discharge. Cognitive changes during the first and second 6-month follow-up periods were assessed using the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly and the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40, respectively. Based on the cognitive changes observed during the 2 periods, cognitive trajectories were classified into 4 categories: stable cognition, early-onset cognitive decline, late-onset cognitive decline, and progressive cognitive decline. Multinomial and conditional logistical regression models were used to identify factors associated with risk of cognitive decline. Results: Among the 3233 COVID-19 survivors and 1317 uninfected spouses screened, 1438 participants who were treated for COVID-19 (691 male [48.05%] and 747 female [51.95%]; median [IQR] age, 69 [66-74] years) and 438 uninfected control individuals (222 male [50.68%] and 216 female [49.32%]; median [IQR] age, 67 [66-74] years) completed the 12-month follow-up. The incidence of cognitive impairment in survivors 12 months after discharge was 12.45%. Individuals with severe cases had lower Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 scores than those with nonsevere cases and control individuals at 12 months (median [IQR]: severe, 22.50 [16.00-28.00]; nonsevere, 30.00 [26.00-33.00]; control, 31.00 [26.00-33.00]). Severe COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (odds ratio [OR], 4.87; 95% CI, 3.30-7.20), late-onset cognitive decline (OR, 7.58; 95% CI, 3.58-16.03), and progressive cognitive decline (OR, 19.00; 95% CI, 9.14-39.51), while nonsevere COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.30-2.27) when adjusting for age, sex, education level, body mass index, and comorbidities. Conclusions and relevance: In this cohort study, COVID-19 survival was associated with an increase in risk of longitudinal cognitive decline, highlighting the importance of immediate measures to deal with this challenge. By Jessica Bradley 17th April 2022 The idea that we should eat three meals a day is surprisingly modern. How many meals a day is best for our health? https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20220412-should-we-be-eating-three-meals-a-day Long-term intake of total energy and fat in relation to subjective cognitive decline. Yeh TS, Yuan C, Ascherio A, Rosner BA, Blacker D, Willett WC. Eur J Epid emiol. 2021 Nov 8. doi: 10.1007/s10654-021-00814-9. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34748116 Abstract Diet is one of the modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline. However, human studies on total energy intake and cognitive function have remained limited and studies on fat intake and cognitive decline have been inconclusive. We aimed to examine prospectively the associations between long-term intakes of total energy and fat with subsequent subjective cognitive decline (SCD). A total of 49,493 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 27,842 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study were followed for over 20 years. Average dietary intake was calculated based on repeated food frequency questionnaires (SFFQs), and Poisson regression was used to evaluate associations. Higher total energy intake was significantly associated with greater odds of SCD in both cohorts. Comparing the highest with lowest quintiles of total energy intake, the pooled multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for a 3-unit increment in SCD, corresponding to poor versus normal SCD, was 2.77 (2.53, 2.94). Each 500 kcal/day greater intake of total energy was associated with 48% higher odds of SCD. Intakes of both total fat and total carbohydrate appeared to contribute to the positive association between total energy intake and SCD although for the same percent of energy, the association was stronger for total fat. In conclusion, higher intakes of total energy, total fat, and total carbohydrate were adversely associated with SCD. Whether these associations are causal is unclear and deserves further investigation. Keywords: Calorie intake; Cognitive function; Cohort study; Fat intake; Subjective cognitive decline; Total energy. Raw and Cooked Vegetable Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Study of 400,000 Adults in UK Biobank. Feng Q, Kim JH, Omiyale W, Bešević J, Conroy M, May M, Yang Z, Wong SY, Tsoi KK, Allen N, Lacey B. Front Nutr. 2022 Feb 21;9:831470. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2022.831470. eCollection 2022. PMID: 35265657 Free PMC article. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnut.2022.831470/full Objectives: Higher levels of vegetable consumption have been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the independent effect of raw and cooked vegetable consumption remains unclear. Methods: From the UK Biobank cohort, 399,586 participants without prior CVD were included in the analysis. Raw and cooked vegetable intakes were measured with a validated dietary questionnaire at baseline. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate the associations between vegetable intake and CVD incidence and mortality, adjusted for socioeconomic status, health status, and lifestyle factors. The potential effect of residual confounding was assessed by calculating the percentage reduction in the likelihood ratio (LR) statistics after adjustment for the confounders. Results: The mean age was 56 years and 55% were women. Mean intakes of raw and cooked vegetables were 2.3 and 2.8 tablespoons/day, respectively. During 12 years of follow-up, 18,052 major CVD events and 4,406 CVD deaths occurred. Raw vegetable intake was inversely associated with both CVD incidence (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) [95% CI] for the highest vs. lowest intake: 0.89 [0.83–0.95]) and CVD mortality (0.85 [0.74–0.97]), while cooked vegetable intake was not (1.00 [0.91–1.09] and 0.96 [0.80–1.13], respectively). Adjustment for potential confounders reduced the LR statistics for the associations of raw vegetables with CVD incidence and mortality by 82 and 87%, respectively. Conclusions: Higher intakes of raw, but not cooked, vegetables were associated with lower CVD risk. Residual confounding is likely to account for much, if not all, of the observed associations. This study suggests the need to reappraise the evidence on the burden of CVD disease attributable to low vegetable intake in the high-income populations.
  12. A longevity expert says you can extend your life span if you eat more carbs and less protein and fast every 3 months Gabby Landsverk Apr 29, 2022, 20:44 IST https://www.businessinsider.in/science/health/news/a-longevity-expert-says-you-can-extend-your-lifespan-if-you-eat-more-carbs-less-protein-and-fast-every-3-months/articleshow/91158008.cms x>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Nutrition, longevity and disease: From molecular mechanisms to interventions. Longo VD, Anderson RM. Cell. 2022 Apr 28;185(9):1455-1470. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2022.04.002. PMID: 35487190 Review. Abstract Diet as a whole, encompassing food composition, calorie intake, and the length and frequency of fasting periods, affects the time span in which health and functional capacity are maintained. Here, we analyze aging and nutrition studies in simple organisms, rodents, monkeys, and humans to link longevity to conserved growth and metabolic pathways and outline their role in aging and age-related disease. We focus on feasible nutritional strategies shown to delay aging and/or prevent diseases through epidemiological, model organism, clinical, and centenarian studies and underline the need to avoid malnourishment and frailty. These findings are integrated to define a longevity diet based on a multi-pillar approach adjusted for age and health status to optimize lifespan and healthspan in humans.
  13. One-Year Trajectory of Cognitive Changes in Older Survivors of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. Liu YH, Chen Y, Wang QH, Wang LR, Jiang L, Yang Y, Chen X, Li Y, Cen Y, Xu C, Zhu J, Li W, Wang YR, Zhang LL, Liu J, Xu ZQ, Wang YJ. JAMA Neurol. 2022 Mar 8:e220461. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.0461. Online ahead of print. PMID: 35258587 Abstract Importance: Determining the long-term impact of COVID-19 on cognition is important to inform immediate steps in COVID-19 research and health policy. Objective: To investigate the 1-year trajectory of cognitive changes in older COVID-19 survivors. Design, setting, and participants: This cohort study recruited 3233 COVID-19 survivors 60 years and older who were discharged from 3 COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to April 10, 2020. Their uninfected spouses (N = 466) were recruited as a control population. Participants with preinfection cognitive impairment, a concomitant neurological disorder, or a family history of dementia were excluded, as well as those with severe cardiac, hepatic, or kidney disease or any kind of tumor. Follow-up monitoring cognitive functioning and decline took place at 6 and 12 months. A total of 1438 COVID-19 survivors and 438 control individuals were included in the final follow-up. COVID-19 was categorized as severe or nonsevere following the American Thoracic Society guidelines. Main outcomes and measures: The main outcome was change in cognition 1 year after patient discharge. Cognitive changes during the first and second 6-month follow-up periods were assessed using the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly and the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40, respectively. Based on the cognitive changes observed during the 2 periods, cognitive trajectories were classified into 4 categories: stable cognition, early-onset cognitive decline, late-onset cognitive decline, and progressive cognitive decline. Multinomial and conditional logistical regression models were used to identify factors associated with risk of cognitive decline. Results: Among the 3233 COVID-19 survivors and 1317 uninfected spouses screened, 1438 participants who were treated for COVID-19 (691 male [48.05%] and 747 female [51.95%]; median [IQR] age, 69 [66-74] years) and 438 uninfected control individuals (222 male [50.68%] and 216 female [49.32%]; median [IQR] age, 67 [66-74] years) completed the 12-month follow-up. The incidence of cognitive impairment in survivors 12 months after discharge was 12.45%. Individuals with severe cases had lower Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 scores than those with nonsevere cases and control individuals at 12 months (median [IQR]: severe, 22.50 [16.00-28.00]; nonsevere, 30.00 [26.00-33.00]; control, 31.00 [26.00-33.00]). Severe COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (odds ratio [OR], 4.87; 95% CI, 3.30-7.20), late-onset cognitive decline (OR, 7.58; 95% CI, 3.58-16.03), and progressive cognitive decline (OR, 19.00; 95% CI, 9.14-39.51), while nonsevere COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.30-2.27) when adjusting for age, sex, education level, body mass index, and comorbidities. Conclusions and relevance: In this cohort study, COVID-19 survival was associated with an increase in risk of longitudinal cognitive decline, highlighting the importance of immediate measures to deal with this challenge.
  14. McCoy, Todd and Ron, if you put as much effort into how COVID may have been worse than numbers indicate instead of looking under all the rocks for things that may have been exaggerated about how bad it has been, I am very confident that the balance would be that there was much more value in the actual course of events than in what you may have wanted done instead. I will admit that they really should have taken better care of care homes, a mistake that should have been avoided considering their experience with other infectious diseases in these homes. I got my second booster, fourth Pfizer vaccination to counter COVID-19 and its effects, and it was the same injection site pain as the first booster, not bad, but about a day and a half. My wife had wide spread aches in bones the first night and night sweat the second after her similar second booster Friday, but she had had COVID early in the epidemic.
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