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All, There is a good article out today in the Atlantic on just how difficult it is to accurately calculate the energy value available from food. It talks about how the USDA does it, and how it varies from food-to-food (e.g. almonds & walnuts provide 20-33% fewer calories than expected), and person-to-person depending on one's genetics and microbiome. It talks about eating for satiety rather than targeting a certain calorie level is likely to be more effective for regular people trying to lose weight. Here is a passage I found quite interesting, given my advocacy of fruit: Since 2005, David Wishart of the University of Alberta has been cataloguing the hundreds of thousands of chemical compounds in our bodies, which make up what’s known as the human metabolome... According to Wishart, these chemicals and their interactions affect energy balance. He points to research demonstrating that high-fructose corn syrup and other forms of added fructose (as opposed to fructose found in fruit) can trigger the creation of compounds that lead us to form an excess of fat cells, unrelated to additional calorie consumption. “If we cut back on some of these things,” he says, “it seems to revert our body back to more appropriate, arguably less efficient metabolism, so that we aren’t accumulating fat cells in our body. An interesting article worth reading in its entirety. --Dean