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gombo2 posted a topic in CR Science & TheoryWill it be possible to starve to death in the technology of immortality?
This is a fascinating NY Times article about recent success by researchers in restoring metabolic function to a recently severed pig brain, retrieved from a slaughterhouse. Very Frankenstein-esque, but for real. Here is one of the most interesting paragraphs, along with a link to the Nature article  about the research. By any measure, the contents of the paper Sestan and his team published in Nature this April were astonishing: Not only were Sestan and his team eventually able to maintain perfusion for six hours in the organs, but they managed to restore full metabolic function in most of the brain — the cells in the dead pig brains took oxygen and glucose and converted them into metabolites like carbon dioxide that are essential to life. “These findings,” the scientists write, “show that, with the appropriate interventions, the large mammalian brain retains an underappreciated capacity for normothermic restoration of microcirculation and certain molecular and cellular functions multiple hours after circulatory arrest.” The researchers are understandably conservative. They utilize blockers to keep neurons from firing in any coherent way, although they did observe spontaneous neural spiking (see abstract below). They also acknowledge that less scrupulous (or more ambitious, depending on your perspective) researchers could quite concieveably attempt to restore normal neural activity to the harvested brain. They also say that pig anatomy isn't that different from human anatomy, so the same technique (with some modifications) should work for a human brain, should anyone be bold enough to try it. Pretty amazing to think that someday a "brain in a vat" scenario might actually become reality. Without any sensory input or motor output, it would probably be a very unpleasant experience, if it would be conscious at all. --Dean ---------------------------  Nature. 2019 Apr;568(7752):336-343. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1099-1. Epub 2019 Apr 17. Restoration of brain circulation and cellular functions hours post-mortem. Vrselja Z(1)(2), Daniele SG(1)(2)(3), Silbereis J(1)(2), Talpo F(1)(2)(4), Morozov YM(1)(2), Sousa AMM(1)(2), Tanaka BS(5)(6)(7), Skarica M(1)(2), Pletikos M(1)(2)(8), Kaur N(1)(2), Zhuang ZW(9), Liu Z(9)(10), Alkawadri R(6)(11), Sinusas AJ(9)(10), Latham SR(12), Waxman SG(5)(6)(7), Sestan N(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19). The brains of humans and other mammals are highly vulnerable to interruptions in blood flow and decreases in oxygen levels. Here we describe the restoration and maintenance of microcirculation and molecular and cellular functions of the intact pig brain under ex vivo normothermic conditions up to four hours post-mortem. We have developed an extracorporeal pulsatile-perfusion system and a haemoglobin-based, acellular, non-coagulative, echogenic, and cytoprotective perfusate that promotes recovery from anoxia, reduces reperfusion injury, prevents oedema, and metabolically supports the energy requirements of the brain. With this system, we observed preservation of cytoarchitecture; attenuation of cell death; and restoration of vascular dilatory and glial inflammatory responses, spontaneous synaptic activity, and active cerebral metabolism in the absence of global electrocorticographic activity. These findings demonstrate that under appropriate conditions the isolated, intact large mammalian brain possesses an underappreciated capacity for restoration of microcirculation and molecular and cellular activity after a prolonged post-mortem interval. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1099-1 PMID: 30996318
OK - everyone has got to watch this tongue-in-cheek music video called Forever Young, produced by Humanity Death Watch (itself a very funny website). It is about immortality, the Singularity, Ray Kurzweil, and has cameos by the "big three" Anti-AI spokespeople (Hawking, Gates & Musk). Sthira, you are going to love this. It is without question the most hilarious thing I've seen in a long time. If we can't laugh at ourselves, what's the point? Note - I've pasted the lyrics below the video for curmudgeons who don't have time to watch a 4min video. Enjoy! --Dean Produced by Humanity Death Watch Directed by Dorian & Weston Lyrics: Mr. Kurzweil please stay for a while. Singularity’s near, we’re only watching the clock. Hoping for the best but expecting robots Are they gonna kill us all or not? Don’t let me die young I want to live forever My body is fragile so replace it with metal. Living as a cyborg, I’ll be on a God-trip It’s all about transcendence. Our bodies and computers will be as one Superintelligence will be such fun! Thanks to our leader we’ll always be new with brains wired to self improve. Forever young I want to be forever young. With Ray I want to live forever Forever, and ever. Forever young I want to be forever young Yes I really want to live forever Forever young. Some are just downers, some refuse to see Some won’t transcend their biology. Sooner or later they all will be gone While my guy stays young. It’s so hard to get old, I’d rather not I’ll never perish with my nanobots Me and Ray we’re enlightened ones And we’ll evolve together. Uploading our consciousness before death Saved in the cloud to be born again. So many dreams comin’ out of the blue They all will come true! Forever young I want to be forever young. With Ray I’m gonna live forever Forever, and ever. Forever young I want to be forever young. Yes I really want to live forever Forever, and ever. Forever young I want to be forever young! I’m gonna sing this song forever! Written by Paul Babb Directed by Dorian & Weston Cinematography by Neil Lokken Animation & Models by Weston Getto Allen Art Assistants: Rebecca Cook, & Berenice Delfuego Suchilt Original Song Performed by Alphaville Parody Lyrics by Paul Babb & Dorian Electra Starring: Dorian Electra Featuring: Christopher Crawford & Montana Ridge
Can we recover if we try dangerous interventions in pursuit of longevity? FUTURES The man with the spider Escape clause. Mohamad Atif Slim Nature 530, 248 (11 February 2016) doi:10.1038/530248a Published online 10 February 2016 I want out.” “I'm sorry, sir?” Surely she had misheard. “I want to get out.” The receptionist seemed slightly alarmed. Her eyes stole to the intravenous device on the man's forearm. “Sir, are you ... sober?” She hesitated. “We do offer a wide range of reversal agents for all classes of pharma, guaranteed not to compromise any subsequent pleasure —” “But I am sober!” Carusi was dismayed to hear the creeping hysteria in his voice. “Please. I'd like to leave.” “I'm ... not sure if that's possible, sir.” “I signed the contract, I know. But I've changed my mind. Do whatever you want with me, just not this. I can't go through with this. I need to see my wife.” Her eyes again fell on Carusi's arm. “Please. If you're not able to help, can you get someone who can?” “I ... Certainly, sir. Please have a seat.” As she retreated into a back room, Carusi gazed anxiously out of the window. The sky was azure over plains of green, and a distant bird soared above snow-flecked mountains. The hyper-realistic projections were designed to deceive; MARTYR was at least 100 kilometres underground. Like many, Carusi had lapped up the endless supply of stimulants at the beginning. Without sleep, you start to lose count of the days. Time becomes an abstraction of pleasure after pleasure after pleasure. For most, the hour of martyrdom approached with stealth: a brief, errant breeze, then quiet. But yesterday, Carusi decided to forgo the diafinil. Something gnawed at the back of his mind, a place no pharma could touch. For the first time in perhaps a week, he slept, only to wake up hours later, drenched in sweat. Colomen's face swam across his vision, and he stifled a cry. That was when panic, that many-legged spider, took residence in the pit of his stomach. He needed to go home. How many days had passed since he enlisted? How many did he have left? What a fool he was! He had wanted to lower her mother's medical cap — palliative, then assisted decline, after 60. Sell the excess. It was the only way they could afford a reproductive licence before June. They had already missed the sterilization lottery two years in a row. Three would be too lucky. And Ma didn't need to know. But Colomen was stubborn. “We'll work, Carusi. We'll earn our licence.” The arguments were long and many, but the last was the worst. Carusi had stormed out. How could Colomen insist on choosing her mother over him? Over their future? He might have left for hours. He might have got drunk and seen the ad for MARTYR in the subway: “3D-printing for food will saturate in 2 years — for the sake of the children, enlist as a Martyr!” And he might have, in the heat of the moment, thought it was a good idea. Martyrdom! For the sake of the child he would never have. The registrar didn't ask questions, even though Carusi was slurring his words. Martyrdom was a right; in exchange, state-sanctioned pleasure for 13 days — boundless, limitless pleasure. And they distort the perception of time too, he'd heard. Make 13 days feel like for ever. But he'd also heard other things. Rumour orbits MARTYR like flies round a carcass. The government calls it the solution to over-population: the old for the new, the infirm for the healthy. Cattle are long dead, and oil wells dry; scientists say once the population reaches critical mass, anarchy will prevail — the children will suffer. Yet, others call it foul. Class-based eugenics, they say. Institutionalized nihilism. They say only the proletariat enlist because society offers them nothing else. That MARTYR cannot save a corrupt world. That in secret places around the Metropolis, the bourgeoisie scramble to bid at auctions for licences the Martyrs forfeit. But Carusi didn't care about politics, or much about the world. He had enlisted because he was angry, petty and spiteful. He knew that now. “Mr Onnodig?” Carusi turned with a start. A well-dressed man beckoned him into the back room, an expression of grave concern on his face. “I am very sorry, sir,” he began, once they were seated. “I empathize with your predicament, but MARTYR cannot allow for any process reversal. The cogs turn one way.” Inside, the spider gave a malevolent hiss. “But I was unwell!” Carusi pleaded, then added, shamefully: “And inebriated. I was angry with my wife.” “I would like to help, but we have no legal provisions.” He handed Carusi a holotablet. “Your contract, sir. Page 254. Clause 537. An Acute Stress Reaction is not tenable grounds for denying a Citizen his right to Martyrdom.” “But what about my rights now?” “Martyrs have basic rights, but their right to Martyrdom supersedes all else.” He paused. “You must understand — MARTYR only works if everyone plays their part. The government compensates the citizen with a commensurate entitlement to pleasure. In turn, you surrender your licence to live.” Carusi felt the spider climb into the hollow of his chest, lodging itself beneath his ribs. Its jaws chittered angrily. He stared at the opposite wall, unable to find comfort in the gaunt figure reflected in its polished wooden panels. The girl from earlier approached him with a syringe, her gestures gauche. “Lotazolam, sir. It can help with anxiety.” Carusi ignored her. “Can I call my wife?” The man shifted uncomfortably in his seat. “This is very... unconventional for us. No one's ever asked to leave.” The man seemed to debate internally, glancing at the girl. “But we will spare you five minutes, no more.” They left the man with the spider alone in the room. A minute later, his wife's face flickered onto the holotablet, and Carusi broke down into sobs.