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  1. All, I'm not sure if many people around here still do dairy, especially high fat dairy. But if you do, you might want to think again, and not just for the sake of the animals, but for the sake of your heart. This new study [1] analyzed the data from over 200K people in the Health Care Professionals and Nurses Health Studies followed for 20-30 years. The good news? Dairy fat intake was associated with a slightly lower cardiovascular disease risk than other forms of animal fat. The bad news? Replacing 5% of energy from PUFA for 5% more dairy fat resulted in a 24% increase in your risk of cardiovascular disease. Replacing dairy with whole grains was even better (28% lower risk of CVD). Here is a graph showing the estimated impact of substituting various other foods in place of dairy fat on risk of cardiovascular disease overall (A), as well as broken down by coronary heart disease (B) vs. stroke (C ): The authors summarize as follows: To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale prospective study to examine dairy fat intake and its replacement with other types of fat in relation to CVD risk... These results support current recommendations to replace animal fats, including dairy fat, with vegetable sources of fats and polyunsaturated fat (both n–6 and n–3) in the prevention of CVD. Sorry to be the bearer of bad news, cheese lovers. Whom I kidding, no I'm not... --Dean ------------ [1] Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Aug 24. pii: ajcn134460. [Epub ahead of print] Dairy fat and risk of cardiovascular disease in 3 cohorts of US adults. Chen M(1), Li Y(2), Sun Q(3), Pan A(4), Manson JE(5), Rexrode KM(5), Willett WC(6), Rimm EB(6), Hu FB(7). Full text: http://sci-hub.cc/10.3945/ajcn.116.134460 BACKGROUND: Few prospective studies have examined dairy fat in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the association between dairy fat and incident CVD in US adults. DESIGN: We followed 43,652 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2010), 87,907 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2012), and 90,675 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2011). Dairy fat and other fat intakes were assessed every 4 y with the use of validated food-frequency questionnaires. RESULTS: During 5,158,337 person-years of follow-up, we documented 14,815 incident CVD cases including 8974 coronary heart disease cases (nonfatal myocardial infarction or fatal coronary disease) and 5841 stroke cases. In multivariate analyses, compared with an equivalent amount of energy from carbohydrates (excluding fruit and vegetables), dairy fat intake was not significantly related to risk of total CVD (for a 5% increase in energy from dairy fat, the RR was 1.02; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.05), coronary heart disease (RR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.09), or stroke (RR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.05) (P > 0.05 for all). In models in which we estimated the effects of exchanging different fat sources, the replacement of 5% of energy intake from dairy fat with equivalent energy intake from polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or vegetable fat was associated with 24% (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.81) and 10% (RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.93) lower risk of CVD, respectively, whereas the 5% energy intake substitution of other animal fat with dairy fat was associated with 6% increased CVD risk (RR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.09). CONCLUSIONS: The replacement of animal fats, including dairy fat, with vegetable sources of fats and PUFAs may reduce risk of CVD. Whether the food matrix may modify the effect of dairy fat on health outcomes warrants further investigation. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.134460 PMID: 27557656