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Low testosterone (hypogonadism), besides potentially reducing quality of life (a commonly held notion the validity of which many of us male CR folks would contend...), has been thought to be potentially associated with increased mortality, particularly from cardiovascular disease, at least among the general (non-CR) population. Here again is a situation where we hope that our low testosterone (as frequently but not universally experienced by CR men) has different health/longevity implications than hypogonadism in the general population, where it is frequently associated with obesity and other indicators of ill-health. Well, this study posted by Al Pater (thanks Al!) from the Framingham Heart Study may help ease those doubts and concerns. It found that even in a general population of 254 elderly men (avg age 75), neither low testosterone nor absolute level or change in other sex hormones were associated with increased mortality at either 5 or 10 year follow-up, once other confounding factors were statistically factored out. The confounders they corrected for were age, body mass index, smoking, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and antihypertensive medication - all of which seem reasonable to factor out. To quote from the discussion of the free full text: Leveraging the unique data set and design of the community-based FHS, the present study is the first to investigate longitudinal trajectory patterns of serial sex steroid and gonadotropins measurements and their associations with 5-year and 10-year risk of incident clinical CVD and all-cause mortality. We observed no consistent association of sex steroids, gonadotropins, and their trajectories with incident clinical CVD or all-cause mortality risk in 254 elderly men in the community. In other words, it appears that if you are a healthy elderly man (i.e. without the confounders listed above, which hopefully most CR folks do/will avoid), having low testosterone is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease or overall mortality. So we've got that goin' for us... --Dean -----------  Association of sex steroids, gonadotrophins, and their trajectories with clinical cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in elderly men from the Framingham Heart Study. Haring R, Teng Z, Xanthakis V, Coviello A, Sullivan L, Bhasin S, Murabito JM, Wallaschofski H, Vasan RS. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013 Apr;78(4):629-34. doi: 10.1111/cen.12013. PMID: 22901104 Free PMC Article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4161203/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4161203/pdf/nihms622794.pdf Abstract BACKGROUND: Emerging data from longitudinal studies suggest that low sex steroid concentrations in men are associated with increased cardiovascular risk and mortality. The impact of longitudinal trajectory patterns from serial sex steroid and gonadotrophin measurements on the observed associations is unknown to date. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 254 elderly men (mean age, 75·5 years) of the Framingham Heart Study with up to four serial measurements of serum total testosterone (TT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and total estradiol (EST); and constructed age- and multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models relating baseline hormone concentrations and their mean, slope and variation over time (modelled as continuous and categorized into quartiles) to the incidence of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality at 5- and 10-year follow-up. RESULTS: We observed no association between baseline concentrations of sex steroids, gonadotrophins and their trajectories with incident clinical CVD over 5- and 10-year follow-up. Although higher baseline TT concentrations were associated with lower mortality risk at 5 years (hazard ratio per quartile increment, 0·74; 95% confidence interval, 0·56-0·98), correction for multiple statistical testing (P < 0·005) rendered this association statistically nonsignificant. Repeat analyses at the 10-year follow-up time point also demonstrated no significant association between sex steroids, gonadotrophins or their trajectories and mortality. CONCLUSION: Investigating longitudinal trajectory patterns of serial sex steroid and gonadotrophin measurements, the present study found no consistent associations with incident clinical CVD and all-cause mortality risk in elderly men from the community.