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  1. Dean Pomerleau

    Dean's Current Diet

    Someone asked me off-list what my current diet looks like, and I realized I haven't updated the on-line information about it in a long time, although I've alluded to it in scattered places on this forum. I figured I consolidate and expand on what I've shared, for others to criticize : These days I eat the following (by calories): ~30% vegetables ~15% starch, ~35% fruit, ~20% nuts/seeds by calories a few other miscellaneous things. Vegetables The vegetables are a huge variety, and prepared once per week into a big mix. Its a combination of 'chunky' vegetables (just about any veggie in the produce aisle), and greens - where the greens typical include a mix of Kale, collards, chard, spinach, and spring mix - mostly organic. I also eat about 80g of homegrown sprouts and microgreens per day, a mix of broccoli, fenugreek, radish, and arugula sprouts. Starches The starches are about 1/2 sweet potatoes, and the other half and even mix of lentils, black beans, chickpeas, wild & brown rice, quinoa, and barley, all cooked al dente. Fruit My fruit calories come from the following. Below the first two, which are the biggest calorie contributors, the others are probably similar in calorie contributions: Berries - Mix of strawberries, blueberries, wild blackberries, cranberries, sour cherries every day Bananas - I modulate these depending on my weight trajectory - I'm around 2-3 per day these days. Melon - Alternating between cantaloupe, honeydew, mango, papaya, pineapple Durian - I admit it, I'm addicted to durian... Orange - 1/2 an small orange per day, with a bit of the peal/pith Apples - One small-to-medium (crabapple-like) wild apple per day, picked in the fall from wild trees near my house Other Tree Fruit - Persimmons (one of my favorites), plums, peaches, nectarines, pears, pomegranate. Depending on the season. About 1/2 of one of these per day. Note - this does not include the non-standard fruits I eat, like avocado (1/2 per day), cucumber, zucchini, tomato (~100g / day), etc. Nuts / Seeds The nuts I eat include: Hazelnuts, Almonds and Walnuts, in equal parts. The seeds I eat are a mix of the following (in descending order of calories): Flax, chia, hemp, sunflower, pumpkin, sesame. Miscellaneous The miscellaneous category includes the following per day: 1/3 ear of corn - 'buttered' with avocado and 'salted' with curry powder, because its tasty. 12g of natto - for vitamin K2 and amyloid breaking. 1.5 tsp of fresh chopped mix of garlic, ginger, tumeric root & horseradish 2 tbsp of cider vinegar 2 tbsp of my ketchup - a homemade mix of cider vinegar, water, tomato paste, sriracha, hot mustard and psyllium as a thickener ~2 tbsp of wide mix of herbs and spices, heavy on the tumeric, but just about anything from the spice aisle you can think of, in a mixture I sprinkle into my "salad dressing" and on my starch mix. 1 Tbsp of fiber & resistant starch - Used as thickener for my salad dressing. Even mix of psyllium husks, plantain flour and potato starch. A small amount of sweetener in my salad dressing (see below) - erythritol & pure stevia. Other Notes: The dressing I make to put on my salad is taken from some of the items listed above, blended together until smooth in my Vitamix. It includes: About 150g of the salad greens - so I don't have to eat them all in leaf form :-) 60g of berry mix The 1/2 orange ~60g of cucumber 100g of tomato 2 tbsp of cider vinegar ~100ml of water 1 Tbsp fiber / resistant starch ~1 tbsp of spice mix A bit of sweetener - erythritol & pure stevia - to make it a little tastier. I eat the exact same thing every day - except for minor variations in fruits and veggies depending on seasonal availability The macronutrient ratio of my diet is about 70:15:15 C:P:F I eat one meal per day, from 6-7:30am. I also drink a lot of lemon water (distilled) before and after my meal from this stainless steel tumbler to avoid coffee/tea close to meal which impedes mineral absorption - ~40oz per day. I also drink a mix of cold & hot brewed, heavily filtered, coffee, black/green/rooibos/herb tea, & ground cacao - about 40-50oz per day. I haven't been counting calories - but it is probably shockingly high, given that I'm weight stable at a BMI of 17.3 (115lbs @ 5'8.5" tall) and my Fitbit tells me I'm exercising in one form or another for an average of about 8-9 hours per day, about 5 hours of that pedaling leisurely at my bike desk. That's it (I think). Criticize away! --Dean
  2. Dean Pomerleau

    Near Perfect Diet Study

    All, Over on this thread about the hazards and benefits of a fruitarian diet we've talked (and debunked) about the concern that some so-called nutrition experts have about fructose, even in whole fruit. I was surprised to see that neither in that thread nor anywhere else I could find have we discussed this study [1]. With this post I will remedy that. It's a real winner and I don't mean that facetiously. My only complaint is that it was a small study, involving only 10 people (8 men and 2 women) who were "prepared to eat a large amount of leafy vegetables" - perhaps they couldn't find too many subjects... The participants were healthy folks, average age ~38 and average BMI ~25. That had each subject follow three different diets for two weeks each - "Vegetable Diet", "Starch Diet" and "Low-fat Therapeutic Diet" so as to serve as their own controls. All meals were prepared for each subject and delivered in pre-weighed quantities to them twice weekly. Here are the specific foods eaten for the three diets: Note for the "Vegetable Diet", there were three different days of meals that subjects ate in rotation, while for the other two diets subjects ate the same thing every day for the entire two weeks. Also note that it's not clear from the text whether the olive oil in the starch or low-fat therapeutic diets was extra virgin or not. Here is a high level nutrition breakdown of the three diets: What's noteworthy is that the Vegetable diet looks remarkably similar to my own, whole food, plant-based diet - except for the fact that I eat a wider variety of fruits and vegetables, as well as more nuts, and therefore more fat & calories. Here are a few facts about the vegetable diet from the full text of the paper: This very high intake of fruit and vegetables translated into 63 servings per day for a 2,500 kcal diet (Table 1) It was 18% protein (entirely from plant sources), 22% fat (half from MUFA), and 60% carbs It contained almost 140g of fiber per day The total weight of food was 5.1 kg / day (~11 lbs) The fecal weight during the vegetable diet was over 900g/day (~2lbs) Yup, that's a diet after my own heart. In fact, I'd consider it nearly perfect except I'd replace some of the "chunky" veggies with "leafy" ones, add some omega-3 from walnuts/flax, and of course someone eating this way would need to supplement with at least B12 in the long term. So what did they find? Not surprisingly (to me anyway) the starch diet beat the low-fat therapeutic diet, but the vegetable diet kicked both their butts when it came to markers of cardiovascular health - which was the focus of the study. Here is the time course of changes to total cholesterol, Tot-chol:HDL , LDL:HDL, and APOB over the two weeks on each of the three diets: As you can see from those graphs, and the summary changes below, on nearly every metric the vegetable diet beat the other two: The only thing that the vegetable diet didn't excel at was reducing triglycerides. Note that it didn't raise triglycerides, despite all that fructose, but it didn't reduce them like it reduced all the other CVD indicators. Finally, one more thing the vegetable diet excelled at - satiety: With the maximum satiety rating as 3.0, satiety ratings were highest on the vegetable-based diet (3.0) compared with the starch-based (1.9) and low-fat diets (0.7) and related to the daily weight of food consumed (vegetable-based, 5.1 kg/d; starch-based, 1.9 kg/d; and low-fat therapeutic diet, 2.0 kg/d). So if you are ever asked how you know your crazy whole food, plant-based diet is healthy, or how you know that all that fructose isn't spiking your triglycerides and trashing your liver, beyond sharing your own blood tests, I'd say this is the best study I've found to offer as evidence. --Dean ---------- [1] Metabolism. 2001 Apr;50(4):494-503. Effect of a very-high-fiber vegetable, fruit, and nut diet on serum lipids and colonic function. Jenkins DJ(1), Kendall CW, Popovich DG, Vidgen E, Mehling CC, Vuksan V, Ransom TP, Rao AV, Rosenberg-Zand R, Tariq N, Corey P, Jones PJ, Raeini M, Story JA, Furumoto EJ, Illingworth DR, Pappu AS, Connelly PW. Full text: http://sci-hub.cc/10.1053/meta.2001.21037 We tested the effects of feeding a diet very high in fiber from fruit and vegetables. The levels fed were those, which had originally inspired the dietary fiber hypothesis related to colon cancer and heart disease prevention and also may have been eaten early in human evolution. Ten healthy volunteers each took 3 metabolic diets of 2 weeks duration. The diets were: high-vegetable, fruit, and nut (very-high-fiber, 55 g/1,000 kcal); starch-based containing cereals and legumes (early agricultural diet); or low-fat (contemporary therapeutic diet). All diets were intended to be weight-maintaining (mean intake, 2,577 kcal/d). Compared with the starch-based and low-fat diets, the high-fiber vegetable diet resulted in the largest reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (33% +/- 4%, P <.001) and the greatest fecal bile acid output (1.13 +/- 0.30 g/d, P =.002), fecal bulk (906 +/- 130 g/d, P <.001), and fecal short-chain fatty acid outputs (78 +/- 13 mmol/d, P <.001). Nevertheless, due to the increase in fecal bulk, the actual concentrations of fecal bile acids were lowest on the vegetable diet (1.2 mg/g wet weight, P =.002). Maximum lipid reductions occurred within 1 week. Urinary mevalonic acid excretion increased (P =.036) on the high-vegetable diet reflecting large fecal steroid losses. We conclude that very high-vegetable fiber intakes reduce risk factors for cardiovascular disease and possibly colon cancer. Vegetable and fruit fibers therefore warrant further detailed investigation. PMID: 11288049
  3. In his latest video (embedded below), everyone's favorite ☺ nutrition expert, Dr. Michael Greger talks about a topic near and dear to my own heart - dietary diversity when it comes to plant foods. He cites several studies including [1] which found different specific fruits and vegetables were protective against the development of cancer in different regions of the colon (i.e. proximal vs. distal). Study [2] found variety of fruits & vegetables consumed (independent of quantity) was associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in smokers. But study [3] was perhaps the most interesting. Researchers followed 7000 people for 11 years to see how their reported (via 7-day food diary) dietary quantity and variety of fruits and vegetables correlated with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). They found eating more quantity of F&V was associated with a 21% reduced risk of subsequent T2D. But eating a greater variety of F&V trumped the benefits of quantity - being associated with a 39% reduction in subsequent risk of T2D. Every different kind of F&V a person ate per week was associated with a 4% reduction in T2D. Since I eat almost 50 different F&Vs at every meal, I should have low enough risk to protect both me and anyone standing nearby☺. Dr. G. points to the fact that the body appears to have receptors specifically (and perhaps serendipitously?) tuned to bind with specific phytochemicals in different fruits & vegetables, as an explanation for why eating a greater variety of F&V conveys health benefits. He doesn't mention the other important motivation in my book for eating a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and other healthy plant foods. Namely, you minimize the risk of detrimental effects from eating too much of any one of them, be it a result of pesticides, contaminants, or unknown anti-nutrients. --Dean -------------- [1] J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Oct;111(10):1479-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2011.07.008. Fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers in a case-control study in Western Australia. Annema N(1), Heyworth JS, McNaughton SA, Iacopetta B, Fritschi L. Author information: (1)Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, Australia. Comment in J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Oct;111(10):1476-8. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Oct;111(10):1472-5. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 May;112(5):610; author reply 610-1. BACKGROUND: Fruits and vegetables (F/V) have been examined extensively in nutrition research in relation to colorectal cancer (CRC). However, their protective effect is subject to debate, possibly because of different effects on different subsites of the large bowel. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether any association between F/V consumption and risk of CRC differed by subsite of the bowel (proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum). DESIGN: The Western Australian Bowel Health Study is a population-based, case-control study conducted between June 2005 and August 2007. Complete food frequency questionnaire data were analysed from 834 CRC cases and 939 controls. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of quartiles of F/V intake on risk of CRC at different subsites. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for CRC overall and for the three separate subsites. RESULTS: Risk of proximal colon cancer and rectal cancer was not associated with intakes of total F/V, total vegetable, or total fruit. Brassica vegetable intake was inversely related with proximal colon cancer (Q4 vs Q1 OR 0.62; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.93). For distal colon cancer, significant negative trends were seen for total F/V, and total vegetable intake. Distal colon cancer risk was significantly decreased for intake of dark yellow vegetables (Q4 vs Q1 OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.92) and apples (Q4 vs Q1 OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.77). An increased risk for CRC was found to be associated with intake of fruit juice (Q4 vs Q1 OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.45). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that different F/V may confer different risks for cancer of the proximal colon, distal colon, or rectum. Future studies might consider taking into account the location of the tumor when examining the relation between F/V consumption and risk of CRC. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID: 21963014 --------- [2] Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Sep;19(9):2278-86. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0489. Epub 2010 Aug 31. Variety in fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of lung cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Büchner FL(1), Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Ros MM, Overvad K, Dahm CC, Hansen L, Tjønneland A, Clavel-Chapelon F, Boutron-Ruault MC, Touillaud M, Kaaks R, Rohrmann S, Boeing H, Nöthlings U, Trichopoulou A, Zylis D, Dilis V, Palli D, Sieri S, Vineis P, Tumino R, Panico S, Peeters PH, van Gils CH, Lund E, Gram IT, Braaten T, Sánchez MJ, Agudo A, Larrañaga N, Ardanaz E, Navarro C, Argüelles MV, Manjer J, Wirfält E, Hallmans G, Rasmuson T, Key TJ, Khaw KT, Wareham N, Slimani N, Vergnaud AC, Xun WW, Kiemeney LA, Riboli E. Author information: (1)National Institute ofPublicHealth and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. frederike.buchner@rivm.nl BACKGROUND: We investigated whether a varied consumption of vegetables and fruits is associated with lower lung cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. METHODS: After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 1,613 of 452,187 participants with complete information were diagnosed with lung cancer. Diet diversity scores (DDS) were used to quantify the variety in fruit and vegetable consumption. Multivariable proportional hazards models were used to assess the associations between DDS and lung cancer risk. All models were adjusted for smoking behavior and the total consumption of fruit and vegetables. RESULTS: With increasing variety in vegetable subgroups, risk of lung cancer decreases [hazard ratios (HR), 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-0.94 highest versus lowest quartile; P trend = 0.02]. This inverse association is restricted to current smokers (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57-0.93 highest versus lowest quartile; P trend = 0.03). In continuous analyses, in current smokers, lower risks were observed for squamous cell carcinomas with more variety in fruit and vegetable products combined (HR/two products, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82-0.95), vegetable subgroups (HR/subgroup, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.97), vegetable products (HR/two products, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.96), and fruit products (HR/two products, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.97). CONCLUSION: Variety in vegetable consumption was inversely associated with lung cancer risk among current smokers. Risk of squamous cell carcinomas was reduced with increasing variety in fruit and/or vegetable consumption, which was mainly driven by the effect in current smokers. IMPACT: Independent from quantity of consumption, variety in fruit and vegetable consumption may decrease lung cancer risk. ©2010 AACR. PMID: 20807832 ------------- [3] Diabetes Care. 2012 Jun;35(6):1293-300. doi: 10.2337/dc11-2388. Epub 2012 Apr 3. A prospective study of the association between quantity and variety of fruit and vegetable intake and incident type 2 diabetes. Cooper AJ(1), Sharp SJ, Lentjes MA, Luben RN, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Forouhi NG. Author information: (1)MRCEpidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, U.K. OBJECTIVE: The association between quantity of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not clear, and the relationship with variety of intake is unknown. The current study examined the association of both quantity and variety of F&V intake and risk of T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined the 11-year incidence of T2D in relation to quantity and variety of fruit, vegetables, and combined F&V intake in a case-cohort study of 3,704 participants (n = 653 diabetes cases) nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk study, who completed 7-day prospective food diaries. Variety of intake was derived from the total number of different items consumed in a 1-week period. Multivariable, Prentice-weighted Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: A greater quantity of combined F&V intake was associated with 21% lower hazard of T2D (HR 0.79 [95% CI 0.62-1.00]) comparing extreme tertiles, in adjusted analyses including variety. Separately, quantity of vegetable intake (0.76 [0.60-0.97]), but not fruit, was inversely associated with T2D in adjusted analysis. Greater variety in fruit (0.70 [0.53-0.91]), vegetable (0.77 [0.61-0.98]), and combined F&V (0.61 [0.48-0.78]) intake was associated with a lower hazard of T2D, independent of known confounders and quantity of intake comparing extreme tertiles. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a diet characterized by a greater quantity of vegetables and a greater variety of both F&V intake is associated with a reduced risk of T2D. PMCID: PMC3357245 PMID: 22474042
  4. All, CR appears to reduce our susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections (e.g. colds and flu) - we've known this for quite some time based on personal anecdotes, backed up by our recent poll on the topic, and confirmed a study of anorexics by Luigi Fontana discussed in this post. But the immunity story for CR practitioners may not be quite so cut and dried. As discussed in this post, CR may make it harder for us to fight off infections once we do get sick. Plus, you've got to die of something (at least for the foreseeable future :-) ), and flu/pneumonia are the 3rd leading killer of centenarians. So it was heartening to see today's video by Dr. Greger (embedded below) which reports on the strong evidence that eating lots of fruits and vegetables, which virtually all of us do, helps to boost the immune system. Perhaps the most interesting sound-bite from the video comes from this study [1], which found that obesity, low physical activity, and low fruit/vegetable consumption were all associated with higher rates of hospitalizations for acute upper respiratory infections. But low fruits/veggies intake edged out the other two as the most predictive lifestyle factor for increased URI risk. So eat your fruits and veggies! --Dean ----------- [1] Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013 Sep;7(5):718-28. doi: 10.1111/irv.12019. Epub 2012 Nov 8. Relationship between community prevalence of obesity and associated behavioral factors and community rates of influenza-related hospitalizations in the United States. Charland KM(1), Buckeridge DL, Hoen AG, Berry JG, Elixhauser A, Melton F, Brownstein JS. Author information: (1)Children's Hospital Informatics Program, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, USA. katia.charland@mcgill.ca BACKGROUND: Findings from studies examining the association between obesity and acute respiratory infection are inconsistent. Few studies have assessed the relationship between obesity-related behavioral factors, such as diet and exercise, and risk of acute respiratory infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether community prevalence of obesity, low fruit/vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity are associated with influenza-related hospitalization rates. METHODS: Using data from 274 US counties, from 2002 to 2008, we regressed county influenza-related hospitalization rates on county prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30), low fruit/vegetable consumption (<5 servings/day), and physical inactivity (<30 minutes/month recreational exercise), while adjusting for community-level confounders such as insurance coverage and the number of primary care physicians per 100,000 population. RESULTS: A 5% increase in obesity prevalence was associated with a 12% increase in influenza-related hospitalization rates [adjusted rate ratio (ARR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07, 1.17]. Similarly, a 5% increase in the prevalence of low fruit/vegetable consumption and physical inactivity was associated with an increase of 12% (ARR 1.12, 95% CI 1.08, 1.17) and 11% (ARR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07, 1.16), respectively. When all three variables were included in the same model, a 5% increase in prevalence of obesity, low fruit/vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity was associated with 6%, 8%, and 7% increases in influenza-related hospitalization rates, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Communities with a greater prevalence of obesity were more likely to have high influenza-related hospitalization rates. Similarly, less physically active populations, with lower fruit/vegetable consumption, tended to have higher influenza-related hospitalization rates, even after accounting for obesity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID: 23136926 Dr. Greger references on fruits/veggies & immunity B Watzi, A Bub, K Briviba, G Rechkemmer. Supplementation of a low-carotenoid diet with tomato or carrot juice modulates immune functions in healthy men. Ann Nutr Metab. 2003;47(6):255-61. L Li, M M Werler. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of upper respiratory tract infection in pregnant women. Public Health Nutr. 2010 Feb;13(2):276-82. NA. The blood film in meningococcal disease. Med J Aust. 1983 May 28;1(11):502. H M Averill, J E Averill. The effect of daily apple consumption on dental caries experience, oral hygiene status and upper respiratory infections. N Y State Dent J. 1968 Aug-Sep;34(7):403-9. K M Charland, D L Buckeridge, A G Hoen, J G Berry, A Elixhauser, F Melton, J S Brownstein. Relationship between community prevalence of obesity and associated behavioral factors and community rates of influenza-related hospitalizations in the United States. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013 Sep;7(5):718-28. B Watzi, A Bub, B R Brandstetter, G Rechkemmer. Modulation of human T-lymphocyte functions by the consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables. Br J Nutr. 1999 Nov;82(5):383-9. N Acs, F Banhidy, E Horvath-Puho, A E Czeizel. Population-based case-control study of the common cold during pregnancy and congenital abnormalities. Eur J Epidemiol. 2006;21(1):65-75. K Kurppa, P C Holmberg, E Kuosma, T Aro, L Saxen. Anencephaly and maternal common cold. Teratology. 1991 Jul;44(1):51-5. J Zhang, W W Cai. Association of the common cold in the first trimester of pregnancy with birth defects. Pediatrics. 1993 Oct;92(4):559-63. M Veldhoen, V Bruchlacher-Waldert. Dietary influences on intestinal immunity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2012 Oct;12(10):696-708. A Gibson, J D Edgar, C E Neville, S E Gilchrist, M C McKinley, C C Patterson, I S Young, J V Woodside. Effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on immune function in older people: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec;96(6):1429-36.
  5. Your mom didn't know how right she was when she told you to eat your fruits & vegetables (F/V), at least if you are a girl... This new study [1] in the journal Circulation assessed the diets of 2500 young black and white men and women (~25 years of age, 62% female) and then measured their level of artery calcification 20 years later using computed tomography - arguably the 'gold standard' for assessing artery health. It found that people eating the most F/V (highest tertile - 7-9 servings / day) were 25% less likely 20 years later to have developed calcified arteries relative to the lowest F/V eaters (2-4 servings / day). From the full text, here are a few of the highlights, including one kicker: Fruits and vegetables were about equally protective Including legumes in with the vegetable category kept the association about the same - i.e. legumes were about as good for arteries as fruits & veggies. Of course people eating lots of F/V had healthier diets in other ways as well, but the inverse association between F/V and artery calcification was still significant even after controlling for these other dietary factors. Shockingly left out of the abstract was the fact that the inverse relationship between F/V intake and artery calcification (CAC) was only observed in women! To quote the full text: [R]eported intake of F/V did not appear to be associated with prevalent CAC among men: OR (95% CI) 1.0 (ref), 0.77 (0.52-1.12), 0.89 (0.60-1.31), p-value for trend 0.67 Here was their explanation for this surprising results: The lack of association between F/V intake and CAC in men in our study may be due to a lack of power, as our study included only 935 male participants. However, a less significant association between CVD and F/V intake in men has been seen in other studies. Data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heart study demonstrated a 15% (95% CI: 6% to 23%) lower risk for CHD mortality per 80gram/day increase in fruit and vegetable intake in women, but a non-significant 2% (95% CI: -2% to +2%) CHD mortality reduction in men (p-value for heterogeneity 0.007) [2] Similar findings were reported in a cohort of Japanese women and men.3 In the CHD risk factor study INTERHEART, the 3 lifestyle behaviors associated with a lower risk of CHD were F/V intake, exercise, and moderate alcohol consumption, and the protective effects of exercise and moderate alcohol consumption were larger in women compared to men with a trend towards F/V intake being more protective in women as well.[3] So why did the researchers leave out this surprising lack of inverse relationship between F/V intake and later artery calcification in men from both the abstract and from the popular press coverage of this study? Perhaps so as to avoid undermining the credibility of their (laudable) public health message, as summarized in the concluding sentence of the abstract: Our results reinforce the importance of establishing a high intake of F/V as part of a healthy dietary pattern early in life. Somehow I was unaware of the attenuated CVD benefits men seem to get from eating lots fruits and vegetables. --Dean ---------- [1] Circulation. 2015 Oct 26. pii: CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012562. [Epub ahead of print] The Association of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption During Early Adulthood With the Prevalence of Coronary Artery Calcium After 20 Years of Follow-Up: The CARDIA Study. Miedema MD(1), Petrone A(2), Shikany JM(3), Greenland P(4), Lewis CE(3), Pletcher MJ(5), Gaziano JM(2), Djousse L(2). Free full text: http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2015/10/14/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012562.long BACKGROUND: -The relationship between intake of fruits and vegetables (F/V) during young adulthood and coronary atherosclerosis later in life is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: -We studied participants of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a cohort of young, healthy black and white individuals at baseline (1985-1986). Intake of F/V at baseline was assessed using a semi-quantitative interview administered diet history and CAC was measured at year 20 (2005-2006) using computed tomography. We used logistic regression to adjust for relevant variables and estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) across energy-adjusted, sex-specific tertiles of total servings of F/V per day. Among our sample (n=2,506), the mean (SD) age at baseline was 25.3 (3.5) years and 62.7% were female. After adjustment for demographics and lifestyle variables, higher intake of F/V was associated with a lower prevalence of CAC: OR (95% CI) =1.00 (reference), 0.78 (0.59-1.02), and 0.74 (0.56-0.99), from the lowest to the highest tertile of F/V, p-value for trend <0.001. There was attenuation of the association between F/V and CAC after adjustment for other dietary variables but the trend remained significant: OR (95% CI): 1.00 (reference), 0.84 (0.63-1.11), and 0.92 (0.67-1.26), p-value for trend <0.002]. CONCLUSIONS: -In this longitudinal cohort study, higher intake of F/V during young adulthood was associated with lower odds of prevalent CAC after 20 years of follow-up. Our results reinforce the importance of establishing a high intake of F/V as part of a healthy dietary pattern early in life. PMID: 26503880 ------------ [2] Eur Heart J. 2011;32:1235–1243. Fruit and vegetable intake and mortality from ischaemic heart disease: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heart study. Crowe FL, Roddam AW, Key TJ, Appleby PN, Overvad K, Jakobsen MU, Tjønneland A, Hansen L, Boeing H, Weikert C, Linseisen J, Kaaks R, Trichopoulou A, Misirli G, Lagiou P, Sacerdote C, Pala V, Palli D, Tumino R, Panico S, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Boer J, van Gils CH, Beulens JW, Barricarte A, Rodríguez L, Larrañaga N, Sánchez MJ, Tormo MJ, Buckland G, Lund E, Hedblad B, Melander O, Jansson JH, Wennberg P, Wareham NJ, Slimani N, Romieu I, Jenab M, Danesh J, Gallo V, Norat T, Riboli E; ------------ [3] Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Lanas F, McQueen M, Budaj A, Pais P, Varigos J, Lisheng L; INTERHEART Study Investigators. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): casecontrol study. Lancet. 2004;364:937–952.
  6. David Stern

    CR in the media

    The Latest In Anti-Aging Research: The Power Of The Toxins In Vegetables They talked a lot about calorie restriction - I think more than they discussed the good "toxins in vegetables" (and fruits) http://tinyurl.com/od4myej Questions after show. Much much shorter to read but I did like the (long) show above. http://tinyurl.com/qbvrwhh David