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  1. Below paper citations and full text links or availability include a short excerpt or my synopsis in square brackets. The email list system is broken. Posts cannot be searched. Many of the posts do not make it to the messages I receive individually and via the daily mailings. Therefore, I am sending this message, comprised of citations papers that seem to be appropriate to the room of the Forum. I will try to also provide full-text links and a very brief excerpt or within brackets my synopsis of the paper. I apologize for the fact some papers discuss results of studies on the overweight or obese, but feel that some benefits seen in such subjects bears on a continuum of benefits accrued by CR and provide incentive to folks who are overweight or obese. Below are today's papers.. The Lancet Volume 388, Issue 10045, 13–19 August 2016, Pages 640–642 Comment Air pollution and heart disease Bert Brunekreef, Barbara Hoffmann doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30375-0 http://www.sciencedirect.com.qe2a-proxy.mun.ca/science/article/pii/S0140673616303750 Joel D Kaufman, Sara D Adar, R Graham Barr, Matthew Budoff, Gregory L Burke, Cynthia L Curl, Martha L Daviglus, Ana V Diez Roux, Amanda J Gassett, David R Jacobs Jr, Richard Kronmal, Timothy V Larson, Ana Navas-Acien, Casey Olives, Paul D Sampson, Lianne Sheppard, David S Siscovick, James H Stein, Adam A Szpiro, Karol E Watson Association between air pollution and coronary artery calcification within six metropolitan areas in the USA (the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution): a longitudinal cohort study The Lancet, Volume 388, Issue 10045, 13–19 August 2016, Pages 696-704 http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/s0140-6736(16)00378-0 Summary Background Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter less than 2·5 μm in diameter (PM2·5) and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations are associated with cardiovascular risk. The disease process underlying these associations remains uncertain. We aim to assess association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and progression of coronary artery calcium and common carotid artery intima-media thickness. Methods In this prospective 10-year cohort study, we repeatedly measured coronary artery calcium by CT in 6795 participants aged 45–84 years enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) in six metropolitan areas in the USA. Repeated scans were done for nearly all participants between 2002 and 2005, for a subset of participants between 2005 and 2007, and for half of all participants between 2010 and 2012. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured by ultrasound in all participants at baseline and in 2010–12 for 3459 participants. Residence-specific spatio-temporal pollution concentration models, incorporating community-specific measurements, agency monitoring data, and geographical predictors, estimated concentrations of PM2·5 and nitrogen oxides (NOX) between 1999 and 2012. The primary aim was to examine the association between both progression of coronary artery calcium and mean carotid artery intima-media thickness and long-term exposure to ambient air pollutant concentrations (PM2·5, NOX, and black carbon) between examinations and within the six metropolitan areas, adjusting for baseline age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, site, and CT scanner technology. Findings In this population, coronary calcium increased on average by 24 Agatston units per year (SD 58), and intima-media thickness by 12 μm per year (10), before adjusting for risk factors or air pollutant exposures. Participant-specific pollutant concentrations averaged over the years 2000–10 ranged from 9·2–22·6 μg PM2·5/m3 and 7·2–139·2 parts per billion (ppb) NOX. For each 5 μg PM2·5/m3 increase, coronary calcium progressed by 4·1 Agatston units per year (95% CI 1·4–6·8) and for each 40 ppb NOX coronary calcium progressed by 4·8 Agatston units per year (0·9–8·7). Pollutant exposures were not associated with intima-media thickness change. The estimate for the effect of a 5 μg/m3 higher long-term exposure to PM2·5 in intima-media thickness was −0·9 μm per year (95% CI −3·0 to 1·3). For 40 ppb higher NOX, the estimate was 0·2 μm per year (−1·9 to 2·4). Interpretation Increased concentrations of PM2·5 and traffic-related air pollution within metropolitan areas, in ranges commonly encountered worldwide, are associated with progression in coronary calcification, consistent with acceleration of atherosclerosis. This study supports the case for global efforts of pollution reduction in prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Graham A Colditz, Karen M Emmons The role of universal health coverage in reducing cancer deaths and disparities The Lancet, Volume 388, Issue 10045, 13–19 August 2016, Pages 638-640 http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/s0140-6736(16)30376-2 KME is employed by Kaiser Permanente, a US managed care consortium. Mahiben Maruthappu, Johnathan Watkins, Aisyah Mohd Noor, Callum Williams, Raghib Ali, Richard Sullivan, Thomas Zeltner, Rifat Atun Economic downturns, universal health coverage, and cancer mortality in high-income and middle-income countries, 1990–2010: a longitudinal analysis The Lancet, Volume 388, Issue 10045, 13–19 August 2016, Pages 684-695 http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/s0140-6736(16)00577-8 Summary Background The global economic crisis has been associated with increased unemployment and reduced public-sector expenditure on health care (PEH). We estimated the effects of changes in unemployment and PEH on cancer mortality, and identified how universal health coverage (UHC) affected these relationships. Methods For this longitudinal analysis, we obtained data from the World Bank and WHO (1990–2010). We aggregated mortality data for breast cancer in women, prostate cancer in men, and colorectal cancers in men and women, which are associated with survival rates that exceed 50%, into a treatable cancer class. We likewise aggregated data for lung and pancreatic cancers, which have 5 year survival rates of less than 10%, into an untreatable cancer class. We used multivariable regression analysis, controlling for country-specific demographics and infrastructure, with time-lag analyses and robustness checks to investigate the relationship between unemployment, PEH, and cancer mortality, with and without UHC. We used trend analysis to project mortality rates, on the basis of trends before the sharp unemployment rise that occurred in many countries from 2008 to 2010, and compared them with observed rates. Results Data were available for 75 countries, representing 2·106 billion people, for the unemployment analysis and for 79 countries, representing 2·156 billion people, for the PEH analysis. Unemployment rises were significantly associated with an increase in all-cancer mortality and all specific cancers except lung cancer in women. By contrast, untreatable cancer mortality was not significantly linked with changes in unemployment. Lag analyses showed significant associations remained 5 years after unemployment increases for the treatable cancer class. Rerunning analyses, while accounting for UHC status, removed the significant associations. All-cancer, treatable cancer, and specific cancer mortalities significantly decreased as PEH increased. Time-series analysis provided an estimate of more than 40 000 excess deaths due to a subset of treatable cancers from 2008 to 2010, on the basis of 2000–07 trends. Most of these deaths were in non-UHC countries. Interpretation Unemployment increases are associated with rises in cancer mortality; UHC seems to protect against this effect. PEH increases are associated with reduced cancer mortality. Access to health care could underlie these associations. We estimate that the 2008–10 economic crisis was associated with about 260 000 excess cancer-related deaths in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development alone. [OP.2A.09] SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE VARIATION DURING 6 YEARS AND MORTALITY: THE AGE AMPLIFIES THE IMPACT OF A SPONTANEOUS INCREASE OR REDUCTION OF PRESSURE AMONG HYPERTENSIVE: IPC COHORT. Thomas-Jean F, Pannier B, Hanon O, Czernichow S, Lemogne C, Simon T, Simon J, Danchin N. J Hypertens. 2016 Sep;34 Suppl 2:e18. doi: 10.1097/01.hjh.0000491374.01833.d7. PMID: 27508617 [The abstract is pdf-availed.] Among normotensives, increase SBP has a deleterious effect only among subjects before 55 years old [OP.LB.02.09] WHAT ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME GENOTYPE AND HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE HAVE IN COMMON IN PORTUGUESE CENTENARIANS? Pereira Da Silva A, Ramos Marques N, Matos A, Gil A, Gorjão Clara J, Bicho M. J Hypertens. 2016 Sep;34 Suppl 2:e80-1. doi: 10.1097/01.hjh.0000491545.64127.b0. PMID: 27508809 [The abstract is pdf-availed.] [Not a prospective study but they compared centenarians with those unlikely to get that old and found that it was but was not only genes that seem to get them there -- hypertension is a risk for the oldest old too.] Association between body mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of Chinese adults. Sun H, Ren X, Chen Z, Li C, Chen S, Wu S, Chen Y, Yang X. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Aug;95(32):e4327. PMID: 27512844 http://journals.lww.com/md-journal/Fulltext/2016/08090/Association_between_body_mass_index_and_mortality.10.aspx lowest risk of all-cause mortality was seen among persons with a BMI of 24 to 28 kg/m in male ... in female, a high BMI was associated with increased mortality, and a BMI of <18.5 kg/m was associated with the lowest risk. Personalized risk prediction for type 2 diabetes: the potential of genetic risk scores. Läll K, Mägi R, Morris A, Metspalu A, Fischer K. Genet Med. 2016 Aug 11. doi: 10.1038/gim.2016.103. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 27513194 http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2016/02/29/041731.full.pdf genetic risk score (GRS) that has the strongest association with type 2 diabetes (T2D) ... Adding GRS to the prediction model for 5-year T2D risk resulted in continuous net reclassification improvement of 0.324 (95% CI: 0.211-0.444). In addition, a significant effect of the GRS on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was observed. [OP.1C.09] REPRODUCTIVE HISTORY OF WOMEN AS A DETERMINANT OF ARTERIAL STIFFNESS - THE MALMÖ DIET CANCER STUDY. Nilsson PM, Carlqvist E, Gottsäter M. J Hypertens. 2016 Sep;34 Suppl 2:e10. doi: 10.1097/01.hjh.0000491354.79923.fb. PMID: 27508557 carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV) ... Reproductive Risk Index (RRI) was created to capture the combined effect of separate reproductive variables (age at menarche, parity, and age at menopause). ... Age at menarche (beta = -0.040, p < 0.05) was inversely associated with logarithmic c-f PWV ... RRI was significantly associated (beta = 0.050, p < 0.05) with non-logarithm (supposedly non-linear) c-f PWV. Subjective mood and energy levels of healthy weight and overweight/obese healthy adults on high-and low-glycemic load experimental diets. Breymeyer KL, Lampe JW, McGregor BA, Neuhouser ML. Appetite. 2016 Aug 6. pii: S0195-6663(16)30322-1. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.08.008. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 27507131 http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.appet.2016.08.008 In conclusion, a high-glycemic load diet was associated with higher depression symptoms, total mood disturbance, and fatigue compared to a low-glycemic load diet especially in overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, adults. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk. Farvid MS, Cho E, Eliassen AH, Chen WY, Willett WC. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016 Aug 10. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 27510186 http://sci-hub.cc/10.1007/s10549-016-3910-0 adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with overall breast cancer risk. Vegetarian diet reduces the risk of hypertension independent of abdominal obesity and inflammation: a prospective study. Chuang SY, Chiu TH, Lee CY, Liu TT, Tsao CK, Hsiung CA, Chiu YF. J Hypertens. 2016 Aug 10. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 27512965 [The below paper is pdf-availed.] Taiwanese vegetarians had lower incidence of hypertension than nonvegetarians. [OP.1B.04] ASSOCIATIONS OF 15-YEAR AVERAGE POTASSIUM INTAKE WITH LONG-TERM CARDIOVASCULAR AND RENAL OUTCOME IN THE OUTPATIENT CLINICAL SETTING. Van Noordenne N, Olde Engberink RH, Van Den Hoek TC, Van Den Born BJ, Vogt L. J Hypertens. 2016 Sep;34 Suppl 2:e6. doi: 10.1097/01.hjh.0000491339.74085.91. PMID: 27508744 [The abstract is pdf-availed.] high potassium intake is associated with renoprotection ... not ... CV disease and mortality. xx Blood pressure variability and cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Stevens SL, Wood S, Koshiaris C, Law K, Glasziou P, Stevens RJ, McManus RJ. BMJ. 2016 Aug 9;354:i4098. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i4098. PMID: 27511067 http://www.bmj.com/content/354/bmj.i4098 http://www.bmj.com/content/bmj/354/bmj.i4098.full.pdf Increased long term variability in systolic blood pressure was associated with risk of all cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.22), cardiovascular disease mortality (1.18, 1.09 to 1.28), cardiovascular disease events (1.18, 1.07 to 1.30), coronary heart disease (1.10, 1.04 to 1.16), and stroke (1.15, 1.04 to 1.27). Increased mid-term and short term variability in daytime systolic blood pressure were also associated with all cause mortality (1.15, 1.06 to 1.26 and 1.10, 1.04 to 1.16, respectively). Effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Cardiovascular Outcomes-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Liyanage T, Ninomiya T, Wang A, Neal B, Jun M, Wong MG, Jardine M, Hillis GS, Perkovic V. PLoS One. 2016 Aug 10;11(8):e0159252. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159252. eCollection 2016. PMID: 27509006 Free Article http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0159252 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/asset?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0159252.PDF evidence is limited and highly variable. Results must be interpreted with caution. https://www.crsociety.org/topic/11225-metabolism-aging-cr-exercise/?hl=%2Bpeak+%2Boxygen+%2Bconsumption Circadian Characteristics of Older Adults and Aerobic Capacity. Dupont Rocher S, Bessot N, Sesboüé B, Bulla J, Davenne D. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016 Jun;71(6):817-22. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glv195. Epub 2015 Nov 23. PMID: 26602866 http://sci-hub.cc/10.1093/gerona/glv195 Abstract BACKGROUND: Alteration of circadian rhythmicity with aging might depend on physical aerobic capacity. METHODS: Three groups of participants were established based on their peak oxygen consumption (Group 1 < 20mL/min/kg; Group 2 > 20mL/min/kg and <30mL/min/kg; Group 3 > 30mL/min/kg). Each participant had an individual evaluation of their circadian rhythmicity characteristics through two well-known circadian rhythms: core temperature and rest/activity cycles. Nocturnal sleep was also recorded using actimetry and diurnal vigilance tested in a car driving simulator. RESULTS: The amplitude of the oral temperature fluctuations for Group 1 is significantly lower (p < .05) than that of Group 3. Group 2 (p < .01) and Group 3 (p < .05) were significantly more active during the day than Group 1. The index of inactivity during the night for Groups 2 (p < .05) and 3 (p < .01) was higher than Group 1. Results of the car driving simulation showed that for Group 1, the number of lane crossings was significantly higher than Groups 2 (p < .01) and 3 (p < .01). In addition, diurnal vigilance was lower in Group 1. CONCLUSIONS: The biological clock seems to be enhanced in older participants with a higher level of physical capacity. KEYWORDS: Exercise; Physical activity; Physical performance
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