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  1. All, There is a new paper out [1] (popular account) that seems to me to do a pretty good job summarizing what we know about the different causes of aging. They have the same perspective as Aubrey, Michael & SENS - namely that at its root aging is a result of metabolic damage accumulation. But they appear to have a slightly different taxonomy than Aubrey's "7 deadly causes", although I'll leave it to Michael to map between the two. Here is there graphic showing the "Hallmarks of Aging": One thing that jumped out at me (and that I've highlighted above in yellow) was the role peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC1α) appears to play in the various hallmarks of aging. In fact, a drop in PGC1α signalling is implicated in four of the nine hallmarks of aging. This interests me, because PGC1α promotes mitochondria biogenesis, and is upregulated by cold exposure [2], as we've seen many times on the cold exposure thread. Sadly, the authors don't mention cold exposure as a potential means to ameliorate the aging process. Instead they focus on CR, amino-acid restriction, CR-mimetics, time-restricted feeding, and exercise as the most promising longevity interventions. Oh well, someday the benefits of cold exposure will be more widely recognized. Overall it's an fascinating paper covering both the mechanisms of aging and (some of) the best ideas we have for what can be done about it today. --Dean ---------- [1] Cell 166, August 11, 2016 Metabolic Control of Longevity Carlos Lo´ pez-Otı´n,1,* Lorenzo Galluzzi,2,3,4,5,6,7 Jose´ M.P. Freije,1 Frank Madeo,8,9 and Guido Kroemer Free full text: http://www.cell.com/cell/pdf/S0092-8674(16)30981-3.pdf Several metabolic alterations accumulate over time along with a reduction in biological fitness, suggesting the existence of a ‘‘metabolic clock’’ that controls aging. Multiple inborn defects in metabolic circuitries accelerate aging, whereas genetic loci linked to exceptional longevity influence metabolism. Each of the nine hallmarks of aging is connected to undesirable metabolic alterations. The main features of the ‘‘westernized’’ lifestyle, including hypercaloric nutrition and sedentariness, can accelerate aging as they have detrimental metabolic consequences. Conversely, lifespan-extending maneuvers including caloric restriction impose beneficial pleiotropic effects on metabolism. The introduction of strategies that promote metabolic fitness may extend healthspan in humans. PMID: Not available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.07.031 ------------ [2] Adv Physiol Educ. 2006 Dec;30(4):145-51. PGC-1alpha: a key regulator of energy metabolism. Liang H(1), Ward WF. Author information: (1)Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, Audie Murphy Veterans Administration Medical Center and University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229-3900, USA. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha is a member of a family of transcription coactivators that plays a central role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. It is strongly induced by cold exposure, linking this environmental stimulus to adaptive thermogenesis. PGC-1alpha stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and promotes the remodeling of muscle tissue to a fiber-type composition that is metabolically more oxidative and less glycolytic in nature, and it participates in the regulation of both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is highly likely that PGC-1alpha is intimately involved in disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiomyopathy. In particular, its regulatory function in lipid metabolism makes it an inviting target for pharmacological intervention in the treatment of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. DOI: 10.1152/advan.00052.2006 PMID: 17108241