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  1. Interesting article which investigates the synergy of exercise and sleep. To interpret with caution, since it's an epidemiological study. According to the association underlined in the study, we may theoretically counteract bad sleep problems with exercise. In cases like mine, where sleep is poor and fragmented, exercise according to this study would constitute at least in part sort of an antidote. undeniably, it also tends to improve sleep by building up adenosine. Sleep and physical activity in relation to all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality risk
  2. Saw him on Joe Rogan recently and found it really interesting! One thing I aim to work on better since listening to the show is my sleep. I would normally drink tea throughout the day, right up until I go to sleep at night. I didn't know until listening to him that even if you stop drinking caffeine 6 hours before try to sleep, it will still affect the depth of your sleep. This is true even if people think they slept fine. Since stopping any caffeine consumption after 2 pm, I notice I start to feel tired earlier in the night and I think I have been sleeping better. "Matthew Walker is Professor of Neuroscience and Psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and Founder and Director of the Center for Human Sleep Science. Check out his book "Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams" https://www.amazon.com/Why-We-Sleep-Unlocking-Dreams/dp/1501144316
  3. Dean Pomerleau

    CR Sleep Survey Results!

    Here are the results from the recent CR and Sleep Survey, as a follow-up to the General CR Survey conducted a couple weeks ago, whose results are available here. This time where were 20 respondents, with 70% men and 30% women. The age distribution was skewed much younger than the first survey. Here is the data (click to enlarge): There was also a greater proportion of people with higher BMIs this time: and with fewer years of CR under their belt, although we had a good contingent of veterans as well: Overall, CRers reported sleeping about 6.8 hours per night on average. Here is the distribution: Overall, CRers reported sleeping about 0.8 hours less per night on average since starting CR. Here is the distribution: CRers reported that by far the most common sleep problem was "early waking". Here is the distribution of sleep difficulties: Here are some interesting interactions between CR practices and sleep characteristics that showed up in the data. As usual, the numbers are small and so these should be taken as trends and with a grain of salt: While the number of reported nightly hours of sleep did not differ based on duration of CR, CR veterans (> 10 years) reported a greater reduction in sleep time than people who've been practicing less than 10 years (-0.91 vs. -0.21 hours, respectively). People who waited 2-4 hours between their last meal/snack and their bedtime reported less of a decrease in their time spent sleeping than either people who waited less than 2 hours, or greater than 4 hours before going to bed (-0.25 vs. -0.9 hours, respectively). So if you want to lose less sleep as a result of CR, it appears best to wait a moderate time between eating and going to sleep. The biggest impact on sleep seemed to be the result of BMI. People with a BMI less than 20 reported sleeping 40min less than those with a BMI > 20 (6.47 vs. 7.14 hours respectively). The skinnier folks also report that this was "too little" sleep more often than the heavier people (63% vs. 9%). In summary, it appears that CR tends to decrease the amount of time people sleep, with people practicing CR for more years, and more severe CR (as measured by BMI) tend to experience a greater decrease, and "early waking" seems to be the most common cause of this sleep reduction. Thanks to everyone who participated! --Dean
  4. I keep meaning to a proper post on this, but have finally been stimulated to do something rather than continue to postpone a really thorough one. The Dreem headband is an amazing device, both for the quality of its sleep tracking and for its function of enhancing slow-wave sleep; there's a ton of science on this kind of closed-loop auditory entrainment tech using systems built for experimental use by scientists that are not available as consumer devices, and some reports on the Dreem specifically: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2018.00088/full (This one actually on the Dreem). https://dreem.com/assets/files/White_Paper_DREEM.pdf (This also on the Dreem, with additional unpublished data from their studies of users in the field). http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2014.00208 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2013.819384 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsx003 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-02170-3 http://www.jneurosci.org/content/35/17/6630 http://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/S0896-6273(13)00230-4 https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnsys.2014.00208/full PMIDs 25389394 28337134 (Some of the above links and PMIDs are probably redundant to eahc other; my apologies). Slow-wave sleeep appears to be particularly important for clearing out beta-amyloid at night, although the route and mechanism continues to be debated.
  5. drewab

    Sleep thought of the day

    There are many factors, which act as stressors on the body, and seem to contribute to improved health outcomes. Some of these include: Exercise Fasting Cold exposure Caloric restriction Heat exposure Particular foods that exert hormetic effects (ie. cruciferous vegetables) Some of the above are not without their controversies, but it's interesting that mild sleep deprivation (a mild stressor) doesn't elicit a hormetic effect. Or perhaps it does? Has anyone else had this curious thought before and unpacked it a little?
  6. 45+ old male sleep maintenance issues for couple of years resolved by fixing the basics- blacked out room, avoiding alcohol and coffee having the biggest effect. Still even if I am able to sleep 8 hours the sleep is not as restorative as I would expect. Recently I have noted that 500mg paracetamol (tylenol, acetaminophen ) result in truly excellent restorative sleep. My question is: what could be the mechanism involved? What hormones are affected by paracetamol that have relevance to sleep? I would like to modify my diet/lifestyle further to get this type of sleep without the drug. Normal weight, fighting mild gastrointestinal and dermatological issues that indicate autoimmunity and allergies, on paleo diet since 6 years if that is in any way relevant. I have no pain the drug would help me with.
  7. All, Now that summer is approaching (in the northern hemisphere!), many of us will be spending more time outdoors. In this post over on the Sensible Diet and Lifestyle Advice thread, TomBAvoider spells out the importance of protecting against sun damage, both for the skin and especially the eyes. In this post a bit later in that thread, I share the two different pairs of sunglasses I use for eyewear whenever I am spending any time outdoors. Since sun protection, and in particular eye protection, is such an important topic, I figured I'd start a thread about it, as well as cross-post to the Cool Tools thread. The sunglasses I wear and recommend are the Uvex S1933X Skyper ($8.99) and BluBlocker Viper ($32.95) - both available on Amazon. Here are photos of the two, with the Uvex on the left and BluBlocker on the right: Here are my reasons for choosing them, and why I wear two different models of sunglasses. First, what they have in common. Both pairs block not only all the UV wavelengths (UVA & UVB), but also the shorter visible wavelengths as well - especially blue, and hence give everything an orangish tint. If you don't like that effect, you can stop reading now. I personally prefer blocking mostly blue and higher wavelengths, while letting through lower wavelengths (red, orange, yellow and some green), rather than attenuating all visible wavelengths about equally - the way most standard "dark" sunglasses do. I find these sorts of "blue blocker" sunglasses give the world a brighter (and hence, cheerier) illumination, while at the same time protecting my eyes from harmful UV radiation. Some people say blocking blue light in the evening helps them get to sleep easier (see Uvex Amazon reviews) - although I have no trouble falling asleep and I don't use these sunglasses indoors or in the evening for this purpose as some people with sleep troubles do. To get a quantitative feel for how these two glasses compare with each other, and with a "standard" pair of dark sunglasses that darken wavelengths across the board, here are the filter characteristics of the Uvex (left), Blublocker (middle) and a "standard" pair of high quality sunglasses, Maui Jim's (right), from this helpful website. Note - if the three images wrap for you, they'll be ordered vertically rather than horizontally: As you can see, from the text I've highlighted in yellow, the three sunglasses make the world appear 49%, 77% and 89% dimmer, respectively. It's also apparent from the graphs that the "standard" Maui Jim's let through some light from all the visible wavelengths, and even a little down towards the ultraviolet end of the spectrum, but not much - making everything look almost uniformly darker. In contrast, the Uvex and BluBlockers filter out nearly 100% of all wavelengths below green, giving everything a more yellow/orange/reddish tint. Finally, you can see the Uvex lets through significantly more green, yellow and orange than the BluBlocker, meaning they don't make the world look nearly as dark. Subjectively, the BluBlockers make the world seem about as dark as normal sunglasses like the Maui Jim's, but just with a more reddish-orange tint. They are therefore my choice to wear on days when the sun is very strong/bright. When it's a bit cloudy / hazy, I like to wear the Uvex because they don't make the world so dark and depressing. The other thing to notice that both the Uvex and BluBlockers both have in common is the wraparound feature - they both protect the eye from stray light sneaking in through the sides where standard sunglasses often don't cover. The nice feature about the Uvex that isn't readily apparent is the adjustability of the two "arms" - they can be made longer or shorter depending on the size of your head (specifically - how far back your ears are from the plane of your face), which is really nice, especially since I wear them when jogging and you can make them stay in place quite securely even without a strap. Finally, there is a big difference in price between the two - Uvex @ $8.99 and BluBlocker @ $32.95. But both of them are pretty inexpensive as sunglasses go - a comparable pair of "designer" Maui Jim's, but with regular lenses rather than blue blocking lenses) is around $200. One difference, and some would say potential shortcoming of both the Uvex and BluBlockers glasses is that they aren't polarized, while the Maui Jim's are. Unlike my wife, my eyes aren't that sensitive to glare or bright sun - so I haven't felt the need for polarization. I'm more concerned about getting rid UV and not making the world look too dark, which both the Uvex and BluBlockers do well. But I'd be interested to hear what others say about the benefits of polarization. Here is one sunglasses expert discussing the pros and cons of polarization. Finally, I won't characterize either pair as "stylish". The Uvex look more like safety glasses (which they are!) and the Blu Blockers bear somewhat of a resemblance to wraparound granny sunglasses. They aren't nearly that bad, but I won't try to fool anyone into thinking your friends and family will think you're cool wearing either pair. I wear them for their functionality, rather than style. Anyway, those are my $0.02 on sunglasses. I curious to hear what others chose for their sunglasses. --Dean
  8. I've suffered from early waking insomnia all my life. Until a few years ago, it was fairly minor, and manageable. But a few years ago, in connection with some other andropause-like changes I went through, I started to wake and not get back to sleep after 4-5 hours of sleep instead of 6-7 (8 hours is optimal for me). I was also losing weight, though I don't think I was eating less. I think I moved into an aged phenotype all at once. (Long story there.) Regardless of the strange changes that took place a few years ago, the early waking, which was always a problem, became worse. I've had my early morning cortisol tested several times over the last few years, and it's always been above the reference range. This is no big surprise for a person on CR: low blood sugar causes an increase in cortisol (which keeps blood sugar from falling "too low"). It's not that I'm tense, it's not that I'm hungry (well, I am, but I always am). I'm just awake. Well, my 2:1 diet plan has yielded some interesting results. The night after Feast Day 2, I sleep beautifully! The night after Feast Day 1, I often sleep fairly well. The night after the fasting day (right now around 700 calories/day), I sleep worse than ever. I wake too early, and can't get back to sleep. I'm happy, non-tense, not really hungry even. Just really awake. So now I'm thinking I might take timed-release zolpidem or something on fasting days before going to bed. But I'm wondering if anyone else has tried any cortisol lowering strategies that have helped with sleep. A lot of supplements that supposedly lower cortisol seem to do so (if they work at all...) by lowering stress. I'm not stressed. Phosphatidylserine blunts the post-exercise cortisol spike, but it’s not clear it would help with low glucose-induced cortisol. Suvorexant might be a better choice than timed-release zolpidem (or one of the other Z-drugs), but I haven't studied the relation between orexin and cortisol enough to know whether it would help me. Any CR folks with early morning insomnia have any strategies they'd like to share?
  9. All, As we've discussed elsewhere, the formation of amyloid-beta plaques are known to be an important step in the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Exercise is known to help reduce amyloid plaque buildup, as discussed here. I think the fermented food natto may be beneficial for amyloid clearance as well, but that is more controversial. Sleep is known to be a time when the brain "cleans house", psychologically in terms of memory consolidation and synapse decay, but also literally, through the glymphatic transport system, which flushes toxins from the brain, including beta-amyloid plaques [2]: Clearance [of toxic proteins including beta-amyloid] during sleep is as much as two-fold faster than during waking hours. This new study [1] (popular press article), found that at least in rats, sleep posture influences the rate of glymphatic transport and toxin clearance. In particular, rats that were made to sleep on their (right) side while sleeping had better flow of their glymphatic fluid than rats who were either sitting up or lying on the back although beta-amyloid clearance wasn't much different between the two prone positions. And of course, rat brain morphology and circulatory system is quite a bit different from people, but the authors nevertheless speculate that sleeping on your side may be advantageous for brain health relative to sleeping on your back (or stomach). They didn't compare sleeping on the left vs right side in these rats, but in people it looks like sleeping on one's left side appears to be better for digestion / acid reflux than sleeping on one's right side. --Dean ----- [1] J Neurosci. 2015 Aug 5;35(31):11034-44. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1625-15.2015. The Effect of Body Posture on Brain Glymphatic Transport. Lee H(1), Xie L(2), Yu M(3), Kang H(2), Feng T(4), Deane R(2), Logan J(5), Nedergaard M(2), Benveniste H(6). full text: http://www.jneurosci.org.sci-hub.io/content/35/31/11034.long The glymphatic pathway expedites clearance of waste, including soluble amyloid β (Aβ) from the brain. Transport through this pathway is controlled by the brain's arousal level because, during sleep or anesthesia, the brain's interstitial space volume expands (compared with wakefulness), resulting in faster waste removal. Humans, as well as animals, exhibit different body postures during sleep, which may also affect waste removal. Therefore, not only the level of consciousness, but also body posture, might affect CSF-interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange efficiency. We used dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI and kinetic modeling to quantify CSF-ISF exchange rates in anesthetized rodents' brains in supine, prone, or lateral positions. To validate the MRI data and to assess specifically the influence of body posture on clearance of Aβ, we used fluorescence microscopy and radioactive tracers, respectively. The analysis showed that glymphatic transport was most efficient in the lateral position compared with the supine or prone positions. In the prone position, in which the rat's head was in the most upright position (mimicking posture during the awake state), transport was characterized by "retention" of the tracer, slower clearance, and more CSF efflux along larger caliber cervical vessels. The optical imaging and radiotracer studies confirmed that glymphatic transport and Aβ clearance were superior in the lateral and supine positions. We propose that the most popular sleep posture (lateral) has evolved to optimize waste removal during sleep and that posture must be considered in diagnostic imaging procedures developed in the future to assess CSF-ISF transport in humans. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The rodent brain removes waste better during sleep or anesthesia compared with the awake state. Animals exhibit different body posture during the awake and sleep states, which might affect the brain's waste removal efficiency. We investigated the influence of body posture on brainwide transport of inert tracers of anesthetized rodents. The major finding of our study was that waste, including Aβ, removal was most efficient in the lateral position (compared with the prone position), which mimics the natural resting/sleeping position of rodents. Although our finding awaits testing in humans, we speculate that the lateral position during sleep has advantage with regard to the removal of waste products including Aβ, because clinical studies have shown that sleep drives Aβ clearance from the brain. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3511034-11$15.00/0. PMCID: PMC4524974 [Available on 2016-02-05] PMID: 26245965 ------- [2] Rejuvenation Res. 2013 Dec;16(6):518-23. doi: 10.1089/rej.2013.1530. Sleep facilitates clearance of metabolites from the brain: glymphatic function in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Mendelsohn AR(1), Larrick JW. Author information: (1)Panorama Research Institute and Regenerative Sciences Institute , Sunnyvale, California. Decline of cognition and increasing risk of neurodegenerative diseases are major problems associated with aging in humans. Of particular importance is how the brain removes potentially toxic biomolecules that accumulate with normal neuronal function. Recently, a biomolecule clearance system using convective flow between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) to remove toxic metabolites in the brain was described. Xie and colleagues now report that in mice the clearance activity of this so-called "glymphatic system" is strongly stimulated by sleep and is associated with an increase in interstitial volume, possibly by shrinkage of astroglial cells. Moreover, anesthesia and attenuation of adrenergic signaling can activate the glymphatic system to clear potentially toxic proteins known to contribute to the pathology of Alzheimer disease (AD) such as beta-amyloid (Abeta). Clearance during sleep is as much as two-fold faster than during waking hours. These results support a new hypothesis to answer the age-old question of why sleep is necessary. Glymphatic dysfunction may pay a hitherto unsuspected role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases as well as maintenance of cognition. Furthermore, clinical studies suggest that quality and duration of sleep may be predictive of the onset of AD, and that quality sleep may significantly reduce the risk of AD for apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ɛ4 carriers, who have significantly greater chances of developing AD. Further characterization of the glymphatic system in humans may lead to new therapies and methods of prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. A public health initiative to ensure adequate sleep among middle-aged and older people may prove useful in preventing AD, especially in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ɛ4 carriers. PMID: 24199995
  10. Dean Pomerleau

    Sleep Disturbances & Alzheimer's Disease

    Disturbed sleep patterns are known to be associated with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. But it isn't entirely clear whether Alzheimer's disease is caused by sleep disturbances or the other way around. This popular press article: http://www.kurzweilai.net/sleep-disruptions-similar-to-jet-lag-linked-to-memory-and-learning-problems on a new study [1] in mice helps to shed some light on the issue. They disrupted the sleep of both normal mice and mice breed to exhibit a mice-model of Alzheimer's disease by altering the day/night pattern of light they were exposed to every three days to simulate jet lag. They found the cognition (Morris water maze performance) of both types of mice were impaired by the disturbed sleep schedule. The impairment to learning was more pronounced in the Alzheimer's mice, and that the degree of impairment was proportional to the reduction of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in the brains of the mice, with Alzheimer's mice showing a greater reduction in GSH than the normal mice. This would seem to emphasize the importance of maintaining good sleep patterns in order to avoid cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease with aging. --Dean --------- [1] Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. Preprint, no. Preprint, pp. 1-16, 2015; DOI: 10.3233/JAD-150026 Circadian Disruption Reveals a Correlation of an Oxidative GSH/GSSG Redox Shift with Learning and Impaired Memory in an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model. LeVault, Kelsey, Tischkau, Shelley, Brewer, Gregory. It is unclear whether pre-symptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes circadian disruption or whether circadian disruption accelerates AD pathogenesis. In order to examine the sensitivity of learning and memory to circadian disruption, we altered normal lighting phases by an 8 h shortening of the dark period every 3 days (jet lag) in the APPSwDI NOS2–/– model of AD (AD-Tg) at a young age (4-5 months), when memory is not yet affected compared to non-transgenic (non-Tg) mice. Analysis of activity in 12-12 h lighting or constant darkness showed only minor differences between AD-Tg and non-Tg mice. Jet lag greatly reduced activity in both genotypes during the normal dark time. Learning on the Morris water maze was significantly impaired only in the AD-Tg mice exposed to jet lag. However, memory 3 days after training was impaired in both genotypes. Jet lag caused a decrease of glutathione (GSH) levels that tended to be more pronounced in AD-Tg than in non-Tg brains and an associated increase in NADH levels in both genotypes. Lower brain GSH levels after jet lag correlated with poor performance on the maze. These data indicate that the combination of the environmental stress of circadian disruption together with latent stress of the mutant amyloid and NOS2 knockout contributes to cognitive deficits that correlate with lower GSH levels.
  11. Dean Pomerleau

    New Survey - CR and Sleep

    All, It has long been known that CR can influence circadian rhythms in animals (e.g. [1]), and there is anecdotal evidence that CR impacts sleep in people too. I've created a new short survey on "CR and Sleep" to investigate the relationship between CR and sleep as part of the CR Society "citizen science" efforts. Please take a few minutes to fill out the survey: https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/SZDBFC3 I'll report back in a week or so with the results. Thanks! --Dean ------------- [1] Brain Research Volume 1057, Issues 1–2, Pages 1-198 (28 September 2005) Influence of long-term food restriction on sleep pattern in male rats Tathiana A.F. Alvarenga, Monica L. Andersen, Ligia A. Papale, Isabela B. Antunes, Sergio Tufik Abstract The present purpose was to determine the effects of different schedules of long-term food restriction (FR) applied to rats from weaning to the 8th week. Rats were distributed into FR and ad libitum groups at weaning and fed at 7 am, at 7 pm, and finally, restricted rats fed ad libitum. The restricted rats started with 6 g/day and the food was increased by 1 g per week until reaching 15 g/day by adulthood. The rats were implanted with electrodes to record electrocorticogram/eletromyogram signals. Their wake–sleep cycles were monitored over 3 consecutive days (72 h of recording). The FR group fed at 7 am showed an increase in awake time, and decrease in slow wave sleep (SWS) and paradoxical sleep (PS) during the three light periods compared with the control recordings whereas in the dark periods, these sleep parameters were the opposite. The restricted group fed in the evening showed no statistical significances at diurnal periods; however, a significant decrease was observed in the dark recordings for awake time, but the SWS and PS were increased in relation to controls. The analysis of the 24-h period demonstrated that both FR groups presented increase in SWS time. After being FR, the rats were fed ad libitum and their sleep was monitored for 3 additional days. During the first dark recording, the decrease in awake time and increase in SWS were still present; however, as ad libitum food continued, these sleep parameters returned to control values, reestablishing the normal sleep pattern. These results suggest that dietary restriction, regardless to the feeding schedule, caused increase in total sleep time, during the active period. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2005.07.024