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  1. All, It's pretty much unimaginable that anyone reading this would not by now have heard about the cardiovascular benefits of dark chocolate, both in terms of preventing cardiovascular disease and even improving cardiovascular (athletic) performance. And you've probably heard the news that chocolate is good for brain health & cognition as well. Nevertheless, this new study [1], posted by Al, is noteworthy for several reasons. In it, researchers followed 530 elderly people over four years to see how their dietary habits, particularly wrt chocolate consumption, correlated with cognitive decline. The first surprising thing was the magnitude of the benefits of chocolate on cognitive health. Even after controlling for a host of potentially confounding risk factors, they found that chocolate consumption was associated with a whopping 40% reduction in likelihood of cognitive decline over the four year period. That's the good news. The not-so-good news is that this benefit was only seen in participants who eschewed caffeine. In fact, if limited to folks who consumed less than 75mg of caffeine a day (~1 cup of coffee), the cognitive protection associated with chocolate was even greater - a 50% lower risk of cognitive decline. They don't report it explicitly in the abstract (full text not available), but presumably caffeine drinkers did not see a significant cognitive benefit (nor harm!) from also consuming chocolate. This suggests the cognitive benefits of chocolate overlap and are hence redundant with (and not additive with) the beneficial effects of coffee/tea polyphenols and/or the caffeine they contain. Nevertheless, I'm going to continue consuming both cacao and caffeine products, because this is only one study, and heck, I enjoy them both ☺. --Dean --------- [1] J Alzheimers Dis. 2016 May 6. [Epub ahead of print] Chocolate Consumption is Associated with a Lower Risk of Cognitive Decline. Moreira A, Di?genes MJ, de Mendon?a A, Lunet N, Barros H. Abstract Cocoa-related products like chocolate have taken an important place in our food habits and culture. In this work, we aim to examine the relationship between chocolate consumption and cognitive decline in an elderly cognitively healthy population. In the present longitudinal prospective study, a cohort of 531 participants aged 65 and over with normal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; median 28) was selected. The median follow-up was 48 months. Dietary habits were evaluated at baseline. The MMSE was used to assess global cognitive function at baseline and at follow-up. Cognitive decline was defined by a decrease =/> 2 points in the MMSE score between evaluations. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) estimates were adjusted for age, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes. Chocolate intake was associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline (RR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.38-0.92). This protective effect was observed only among subjects with an average daily consumption of caffeine lower than 75 mg (69% of the participants; RR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.82). To our knowledge, this is the first prospective cohort study to show an inverse association between regular long-term chocolate consumption and cognitive decline in humans. KEYWORDS: Adenosine A2A receptors; Alzheimer?s disease; chocolate; cognition; prevention; theobromine PMID: 27163823
  2. Dean Pomerleau

    Nootropics

    I was surprised to find that a search of these forums turned up very little discussion of nootropics, or so-called "smart drugs", at least as far as I could find. Obviously cognitive performance and long-term brain health is an important consideration for everyone, but especially obsessive optimizers like us ☺. So I figured I'd start a thread to inquire if anyone has experimented with nootropics, and if so, which ones (if any) did you find beneficial. To kick off the discussion, I've never experimented with any nootropics myself, except for caffeine, which honestly I don't find has much of an observable effect on me (cognitive or otherwise), but I take it anyway (as coffee/tea, and as a B12-fortified mint) for other health reasons. But today I came across a new multi-nootropic supplement from someone I trust, respect and believe to be quite intelligent - Lincoln Cannon. Lincoln is the co-founder of the Mormon Transhumanism Association, a pretty cool longevity-focused organization to which I and many other non-Mormons belong. Lincoln is also responsible for formulating the New God Argument, which I find pretty compelling (see here for related discussion and here for science/philosophy heavyweights on the topic). But I digress... Thrivous, his new company (to which I have no affiliation), has developed a nootropic supplement called Clarity. Here is the Clarity label: Has anyone any personal experience, or done any research on any of these ingredients? Here is Lincoln's research on them, plus a couple others not included in this version of Clarity. They look reasonably beneficial (and harmless) based on the controlled studies Lincoln has compiled. The price is pretty reasonable - $25 for a month's supply. I'm forever interested in self-experimentation and lifestyle optimization, so I was thinking of conducting a single-blind, crossover trial on myself to see if I notice any difference between taking Clarity vs. a placebo. But if others have had bad experiences with these nootropics, or know of research that says they may be harmful, I'll obviously steer clear. Thanks! --Dean
  3. All: This is the first clinical trial to show that a comprehensive prevention intervention can slow the rate of cognitive decline in the normal elderly. The guidance here is consistent with the epidemiology and generally-accepted health advice, of course, but that's exactly why the trial was structured this way: (a) because you want to try what you think is grounded in evidence, but also ( B) the very fact that everyone is assuming that this is the way to go and that it's being widely recommended makes it all the more important to actually test it.
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