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CRON is well known to greatly reduce inflammation. For years, I've been measuring CRP and TNF_alpha, which are supposed to be measurements of inflammation. All but once, I've gotten CRP <5, meaning immeasurably low. All but the last two measurements (in 2016 and 2017) were vanishingly small for TNF_alpha as well -- but the last two measurements were surprisingly high. So a major contradiction between CRP (vanishingly small) and TNF_alpha (high) on these last two measurements. Weird. I asked my CR friendly nephrologist. He didn't know; suggested that I check with some of the CRONNies -- I guess he thinks it possible that it might be one of the weird looking numbers that happen with CR. So I'm following his advice. Anybody -- who is knowledgeable in the mechanisms of these proteins -- have any ideas? -- Saul
Here is another study posted by Al Pater that particularly interested me, both because it focused on inflammation (now understood to be an important contributor to all of the major chronic diseases of aging) and because it focused on CR vs. exercise vs. both. It compared the effects of one-year of a calorie restricted diet, aerobic exercise (without calorie restriction) or both exercise and calorie restriction on biomarkers of inflammation in overweight/obese postmenopausal women. The results can be summarized as follows: The diet-only group and the diet+exercise group lost close to the same amount of weight (8.5% vs 10.5%, respectively). The exercise-only group lost much less on average (2.5%), although there were some women in the exercise-only group who lost > 5% (see below). "There were no significant differences between the diet and diet+exercise groups or between the exercise[-only] and control groups, in any inflammatory biomarker." Virtually everyone* in the study who lost >5% of body weight saw a significant reduction in hr-CRP, an important marker of inflammation, independent of whether they lost weight via diet-alone, exercise-alone, or diet+exercise. So by my reading, it looks like its either the weight/fat loss or possibly the energy deficit, rather than simply eating fewer calories, that determines the benefits, at least when it comes to biomarkers of inflammation in this population. In particular, the women who lost nearly 10% of their bodyweight saw a dramatic (and equivalent) improvement in biomarkers of inflammation whether they achieved this weight loss via a large calorie deficit, or via a more modest calorie deficit "topped off" with exercise. --Dean * Except for two outliers with very high hr-CRP who were excluded ------------------------  Effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in overweight/obese postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Imayama I, Ulrich CM, Alfano CM, Wang C, Xiao L, Wener MH, Campbell KL, Duggan C, Foster-Schubert KE, Kong A, Mason CE, Wang CY, Blackburn GL, Bain CE, Thompson HJ, McTiernan A. Cancer Res. 2012 May 1;72(9):2314-26. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-3092. PMID:22549948 Free PMC Article http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/72/9/2314.long http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/72/9/2314.full.pdf+html Abtract Obese and sedentary persons have increased risk for cancer; inflammation is a hypothesized mechanism. We examined the effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in 439 women. Overweight and obese postmenopausal women were randomized to 1-year: caloric restriction diet (goal of 10% weight loss, N = 118), aerobic exercise (225 min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous activity, N = 117), combined diet + exercise (N = 117), or control (N = 87). Baseline and 1-year high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukocyte, and neutrophil levels were measured by investigators blind to group. Inflammatory biomarker changes were compared using generalized estimating equations. Models were adjusted for baseline body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, and age. Four hundred and thirty-eight (N = 1 in diet + exercise group was excluded) were analyzed. Relative to controls, hs-CRP decreased by geometric mean (95% confidence interval, P value): 0.92 mg/L (0.53-1.31, P < 0.001) in the diet and 0.87 mg/L (0.51-1.23, P < 0.0001) in the diet + exercise groups. IL-6 decreased by 0.34 pg/mL (0.13-0.55, P = 0.001) in the diet and 0.32 pg/mL (0.15-0.49, P < 0.001) in the diet + exercise groups. Neutrophil counts decreased by 0.31 × 10(9)/L (0.09-0.54, P = 0.006) in the diet and 0.30 × 10(9)/L (0.09-0.50, P = 0.005) in the diet + exercise groups. Diet and diet + exercise participants with 5% or more weight loss reduced inflammatory biomarkers (hs-CRP, SAA, and IL-6) compared with controls. The diet and diet + exercise groups reduced hs-CRP in all subgroups of baseline BMI, waist circumference, CRP level, and fasting glucose. Our findings indicate that a caloric restriction weight loss diet with or without exercise reduces biomarkers of inflammation in postmenopausal women, with potential clinical significance for cancer risk reduction.