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  1. Points to discuss about the keto diet, in a longevity perspective: Still not very known but studies are catching up. No long term results available though. Criticized by both Luigi Fontana and Valter Longo, eminent biogerontologists, because of lack of long term results and other considerations Literature is increasing in number, studies mostly short term, little available on humans Anecdotally good to loose weight The Kevin hall study showed that it possesses no inherent property to increase basal metabolic rate It probably causes weightloss because of neurological reasons (The Guyenet theory: little satisfaction to the taste, boring, appetite is lost, fewer calories are ingested) According to Gary Taubes and others, weightloss is caused by decrease of insulin in the blood (theory unproven) Possible serious drawbacks: increase in LDL cholesterol, increase in inflammation markers Theoretically good to inhibit mTOR (if few proteins are ingested) Theoretically good for CR (if hypocaloric, normoproteic and including healthy fats-no excess saturated fats) Theoretically boosts catabolism vecause ihibits mTOR Bodybuilders employ it typically to loose bodyfat before contests Bodybuilders employ it typically in the short term and with carb reloading on weekends Recent study on human, well done, defutes muscle waste after 10 weeks and shows significant muscle increase after 1 week carb reloading Theoretically very good for T2 diabetics Theoretically high CV hazard if saturated fats are employed Pretty unconvenient to practice, unpalatable, tedious (especially if no meat-fish nor dairy is eaten)→ causes loss of appetite hence hypocaloric regimen more...
  2. High-fat diet cuts brain’s food brake IN SECTION: BODY & BRAIN Mouse study hints at neural changes related to overeating BY LAURA SANDERS A gut-busting diet may set the brain up for more of the same. After mice ate fatty food for just two weeks, cells in their brains that send a “stop eating” signal were quieter than those in mice that didn’t eat high-fat chow, researchers report in the June 28 Science. Food is key to survival, which may be why the brain has built-in redundancy — a multitude of overlapping systems to make sure animals eat enough. Neuroscientist Garret Stuber of the University of Washington in Seattle investigated one area known to be involved in eating. Called the lateral hypothalamus, this brain structure contains a large number of diverse nerve cells. Stuber and colleagues looked at gene behavior in single cells there and found that one group, called glutamatergic nerve cells, showed particularly big changes in which genes were active when the team compared lean mice with obese mice. Earlier work suggested that glutamatergic cells act like a brake on feeding: When the cells were artificially blocked from firing signals, mice ate more food and gained more weight. But it wasn’t clear how these cells behave over a more natural shift from leanness to obesity. “Obesity doesn’t just happen overnight,” says Stuber, who conducted some of the work while at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. To study that transition, the researchers fed mice high-fat mouse chow and periodically checked the glutamatergic cells’ ability to fire signals. Two weeks into the binge, even before mice plumped up, the nerve cells showed more sluggish activity, both in their spontaneous behavior and when an animal was given a sip of sweet liquid. That reduction continued as the mice grew larger, for up to 12 weeks in some cases. The results imply that “these cells’ decreased activity is removing the brake on feeding and obesity,” says neuroscientist Stephanie Borgland of the University of Calgary in Canada, who wrote a related commentary in the same issue of Science. The researchers don’t know whether these cells would regain their normal behavior if the mice stopped eating highfat food and shed weight. And it’s hard to say whether similar appetite-suppressing nerve cells are at work in people.
  3. Dear colleagues, A very interesting conference will be held July 26-27 at the George Washington University Medical Center: https://PCRM.org/ICNM Among the many presenters is Dr. Dean Ornish, the well-known vegan guru (who is often cited by our own mikeccolella). Looks interesting, and, IMO, worth attending. -- Saul
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