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Saul posted a topic in CR Science & Theory.Hi! This article in Science News describes how draught-stressed killfish (an African fish) enter diapause, which can double their normal lifespan. Studies are being made of the genes that are turned on or off. -- Saul https://www.sciencenews.org/article/how-african-turquoise-killifish-press-pause-button-aging?utm_source=Editors_Picks&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=editorspicks022320
This is a fascinating NY Times article about recent success by researchers in restoring metabolic function to a recently severed pig brain, retrieved from a slaughterhouse. Very Frankenstein-esque, but for real. Here is one of the most interesting paragraphs, along with a link to the Nature article  about the research. By any measure, the contents of the paper Sestan and his team published in Nature this April were astonishing: Not only were Sestan and his team eventually able to maintain perfusion for six hours in the organs, but they managed to restore full metabolic function in most of the brain — the cells in the dead pig brains took oxygen and glucose and converted them into metabolites like carbon dioxide that are essential to life. “These findings,” the scientists write, “show that, with the appropriate interventions, the large mammalian brain retains an underappreciated capacity for normothermic restoration of microcirculation and certain molecular and cellular functions multiple hours after circulatory arrest.” The researchers are understandably conservative. They utilize blockers to keep neurons from firing in any coherent way, although they did observe spontaneous neural spiking (see abstract below). They also acknowledge that less scrupulous (or more ambitious, depending on your perspective) researchers could quite concieveably attempt to restore normal neural activity to the harvested brain. They also say that pig anatomy isn't that different from human anatomy, so the same technique (with some modifications) should work for a human brain, should anyone be bold enough to try it. Pretty amazing to think that someday a "brain in a vat" scenario might actually become reality. Without any sensory input or motor output, it would probably be a very unpleasant experience, if it would be conscious at all. --Dean ---------------------------  Nature. 2019 Apr;568(7752):336-343. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1099-1. Epub 2019 Apr 17. Restoration of brain circulation and cellular functions hours post-mortem. Vrselja Z(1)(2), Daniele SG(1)(2)(3), Silbereis J(1)(2), Talpo F(1)(2)(4), Morozov YM(1)(2), Sousa AMM(1)(2), Tanaka BS(5)(6)(7), Skarica M(1)(2), Pletikos M(1)(2)(8), Kaur N(1)(2), Zhuang ZW(9), Liu Z(9)(10), Alkawadri R(6)(11), Sinusas AJ(9)(10), Latham SR(12), Waxman SG(5)(6)(7), Sestan N(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19). The brains of humans and other mammals are highly vulnerable to interruptions in blood flow and decreases in oxygen levels. Here we describe the restoration and maintenance of microcirculation and molecular and cellular functions of the intact pig brain under ex vivo normothermic conditions up to four hours post-mortem. We have developed an extracorporeal pulsatile-perfusion system and a haemoglobin-based, acellular, non-coagulative, echogenic, and cytoprotective perfusate that promotes recovery from anoxia, reduces reperfusion injury, prevents oedema, and metabolically supports the energy requirements of the brain. With this system, we observed preservation of cytoarchitecture; attenuation of cell death; and restoration of vascular dilatory and glial inflammatory responses, spontaneous synaptic activity, and active cerebral metabolism in the absence of global electrocorticographic activity. These findings demonstrate that under appropriate conditions the isolated, intact large mammalian brain possesses an underappreciated capacity for restoration of microcirculation and molecular and cellular activity after a prolonged post-mortem interval. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1099-1 PMID: 30996318
All, At the recent CR conference, Dr Richard Miller from the University of Michigan gave a great talk on the Interventions Testing Program, a NIA-sponsored, rigorous, multi-center effort to investigate the potential of various drugs, supplements and nutriceuticals to extend lifespan in mice. Dr. Miller shared with us some results which have now been published. Here is a good summary of the latest results. It looks like the most promising interventions were metformin+rapamycin, acarbose, and 17-α-estradiol (in males only). I'm not planning on running out to take any of these, but I find acarbose interesting. It works by blocking the breakdown of carbohydrates, and suppressing hunger - in many ways like eating extra dietary fiber (a controversial topic itself) as discussed here on the Dietary Fiber - Health Promoter or Anti-CR Hunger-Suppressor? thread. --Dean