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I did not remember seeing this paper previously but it certainly interested me for comparing effects of healthy eating with CR: "comparing the changes induced by high vegetable intake with changes induced by energy restriction, it has been shown that part of vegetables’ health benefits are mediated by changes in energy metabolism, inflammatory processes and oxidative stress." Nutrigenomics approach elucidates health-promoting effects of high vegetable intake in lean and obese men. Pasman WJ, van Erk MJ, Klöpping WA, Pellis L, Wopereis S, Bijlsma S, Hendriks HF, Kardinaal AF. Genes Nutr. 2013 Sep;8(5):507-21. doi: 10.1007/s12263-013-0343-9. Epub 2013 Apr 18. PMID: 23595524 Free PMC Article http://genesandnutrition.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1007/s12263-013-0343-9 Abstract We aimed to explore whether vegetable consumption according to guidelines has beneficial health effects determined with classical biomarkers and nutrigenomics technologies. Fifteen lean (age 36 ± 7 years; BMI 23.4 ± 1.7 kg m(-2)) and 17 obese (age 40 ± 6 years; BMI 30.3 ± 2.4 kg m(-2)) men consumed 50- or 200-g vegetables for 4 weeks in a randomized, crossover trial. Afterward, all subjects underwent 4 weeks of energy restriction (60 % of normal energy intake). Despite the limited weight loss of 1.7 ± 2.4 kg for the lean and 2.1 ± 1.9 kg for the obese due to energy restriction, beneficial health effects were found, including lower total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HbA1c concentrations. The high vegetable intake resulted in increased levels of plasma amino acid metabolites, decreased levels of 9-HODE and prostaglandin D3 and decreased levels of ASAT and ALP compared to low vegetable intake. Adipose tissue gene expression changes in response to vegetable intake were identified, and sets of selected genes were submitted to network analysis. The network of inflammation genes illustrated a central role for NFkB in (adipose tissue) modulation of inflammation by increased vegetable intake, in lean as well as obese subjects. In obese subjects, high vegetable intake also resulted in changes related to energy metabolism, adhesion and inflammation. By inclusion of sensitive omics technologies and comparing the changes induced by high vegetable intake with changes induced by energy restriction, it has been shown that part of vegetables' health benefits are mediated by changes in energy metabolism, inflammatory processes and oxidative stress.