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  1. Dear colleagues, A very interesting conference will be held July 26-27 at the George Washington University Medical Center: https://PCRM.org/ICNM Among the many presenters is Dr. Dean Ornish, the well-known vegan guru (who is often cited by our own mikeccolella). Looks interesting, and, IMO, worth attending. -- Saul
  2. All, Dr. Greger has an interesting video out today on "Paleo-Poop", discussing the evidence from fossilized human feces that our ancestors ate a very high fiber diet, > 100g of fiber per day vs. < 20g for most people today eating a standard American diet. This wasn't particularly new news to me, or to anyone reading this I suspect. But what I found most interesting about the video was at 2:30, where he discusses what was the likely source of all that fiber. In particular, whether ancestral humans were folivores (foliage / vegetable eaters), frugivores (fruit eaters) or faunivores (meat eaters). Its pretty clear from lots of evidence that we're not primarily meat eaters, and it has only been relatively recently in our evolutionary heritage that meat and other animal products became a large part of our diet. So we can knock faunivores out of the running - at least when considering deep evolutionary time. What was most interesting was the distinction between the other two categories - folivores vs. frugivores. The evidence he shows in the video is from [1], and it is a plot of organism body size (x-axis) vs. density of gut mucosa (y-axis). Apparently the three categories (folivores, frugivores and faunivores) fall into distinct clusters. Here is the graph, with the range at which humans fall as the intersection of the horizontal and vertical lines with the label "Homo Sapiens": As you can see, humans of today fall squarely in the cluster of frugivores, which the authors interpret to indicate that our distant ancestors were primarily fruit eaters. Obviously we're omnivorous now, and have been for quite a while, especially since we expanded out of Africa into environments where fruit isn't readily available in large quantities or year-round, and since we develop cooking and other processing techniques to make meat (as well as other parts of plants) more digestible, and more palatable! But being a fruit-lover myself, I thought it interesting to know that at least our distant ancestors appear to have been heavy fruit eaters like orangutan (who apparently also love durian!), rather than folivores like gorillas. --Dean --------- [1] Claude Marcel Hladik, Patrick Pasquet. The human adaptations to meat eating: a reappraisal. Human Evolution, Springer Verlag, 2002, 17, pp.199-206. Free full text Abstract In this paper we discuss the hypothesis, proposed by some authors, that man is a habitual meat-eater. Gut measurements of primate species do not support the contention that human digestive tract is specialized for meat-eating, especially when taking into account allometric factors and their variations between folivores, frugivores and meat-eaters. The dietary status of the human species is that of an unspecialized frugivore, having a flexible diet that includes seeds and meat (omnivorous diet). Throughout the various time periods, our human ancestors could have mostly consumed either vegetable, or large amounts of animal matter (with fat and/or carbohydrate as a supplement), depending on the availability and nutrient content of food resources. Some formerly adaptive traits (e. g. the “thrifty genotype”) could have resulted from selective pressure during transitory variations of feeding behavior linked to environmental constraints existing in the past. Key Words: meat eating, hominids, gut allometry, thrifty genotype
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