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Weight loss So hi everyone I can use some advice on weight loss. There may be a thread on this subject but I am pressed for time today. So I started CR 9 months ago at 162 lb Am on a 1500 calorie but many days at 1100 plus serious exercise My question is am a Male at 143.0 lb 5.10 inches am down from 162.lb At what point in weight should I return to a higher daily calorie Thankyou for your thoughts PHIL
Dean Pomerleau posted a topic in CR PracticeAll, The idea that rapid weight loss can result in release of toxins stored (relatively harmlessly) in body fat cells gets bandied about pretty regularly. In fact I've done it myself several times in just the last couple days (here and here). I've never actually looked for evidence to support this conventional wisdom, which has left me with a nagging feeling of dis-ease. I try not to make claims that I can't back up with evidence. So I figured I would look into it and start a new thread to collect the evidence and encourage discussion about it. Coincidently (or perhaps not?!), Al Pater posted this new study  today, which bears directly on the topic. In it, researchers followed 32 women who had just given birth and were breast feeding to see how the level of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in their breast milk changed as a function of postpartum weight loss. All the women lost at least some weight in the 24 weeks of the study, and sure enough, the amount of POPs in their breast milk was highly correlated with the amount of weight they lost: Among these women, the concentration of PCB 153 in HM was significantly (p = 0.04) higher at follow-up than at baseline. Weight loss was significantly positively associated with changes in concentrations of all studied POPs (2.0-2.4% increase per percent weight loss). Since these women probably weighed in the neighborhood of 140-180 lbs to start with, it appears that the level of toxins in their breast milk went up by about 1-2% per pound of weight loss. Since not all of the toxins released end up in breast milk (especially in men and non-lactating women!) I would expect the increase in toxin load circulating in the blood per pound of weight loss to be higher than that. So  definitely supports the idea that rapid weight loss increases circulating toxin load. But even more direct and conclusive evidence of dieting-induced toxin release is study . In , researchers followed 45 morbidly obese women for 6 months following either bariatric surgery or intensive dieting. These women were really heavy to start with - average BMI around 40. And they lost quite a bit of weight (-32lbs of body weight on average) in a relatively short period of time (six months). But in fact that translates into 1.23lbs per week of weight loss, which is very close to the maximum rate of weight loss we recommend around here, ~1lb per week. So what did they find? A very large increase in the same Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), to the tune of a 50% increase on average: In patients who lost weight, serum [total POP] levels displayed an increase after 6 months of approximately 50%. ... [T]he increase in [Total POP] serum levels after 6 months of weight loss was more pronounced in patients losing relatively more visceral adipose tissue. So even the kind of "slow-and-steady" weight loss we recommend of 1lb of weight per week results in a dramatic increase in toxin load that persists for at least six months. And visceral fat loss is a bigger factor contributing to toxin release than subcutaneous (love-handle) fat loss. In satisfying agreement with the 1-2% increase in POPs per pound of weight loss observed in , this study found that an average of 32lbs of weight loss resulted in a 50% increase in average serum POP level, which equates to ~1.5% increase in circulating POPs per pound of weight loss. So in general even 1lb of weight loss per week may be too rapid... Ah. That feels better. My cognitive dissonance is subsiding... Now I can go back to those two posts and insert a link to this thread. And now we have a place to point next time anyone makes the statement that rapid weight loss releases toxins into the blood. --Dean ------------  Chemosphere. 2016 Jun 6;159:96-102. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.05.077. Environmental organic pollutants in human milk before and after weight loss. Lignell S, Winkvist A, Bertz F, Rasmussen KM, Glynn A, Aune M, Brekke HK. Abstract Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are banned because they accumulate in organisms and are toxic. Lipophilic POPs are stored in maternal adipose tissue and concentrations in human milk (HM) may increase during weight loss. Our aim was to examine associations between weight loss and concentrations of chlorinated POPs in HM in lactating women participating in a weight loss study. We analysed POPs (PCB 28, PCB 153, HCB, DDE) in HM at 12 and 24 weeks postpartum from 32 women who participated in a randomized, 2 ? 2 factorial trial of diet and exercise for postpartum weight loss. Participants donated milk before and after the intervention period. We examined associations between weight loss and change in POP concentrations and estimated the intake of POPs by their breastfed infants. Most (n = 27) women lost weight during intervention, 0.45?0.30 kg/week (mean?SD). Among these women, the concentration of PCB 153 in HM was significantly (p = 0.04) higher at follow-up than at baseline. Weight loss was significantly positively associated with changes in concentrations of all studied POPs (2.0-2.4% increase per percent weight loss). Estimated mean intakes of POPs (ng/day) remained stable because infant milk consumption decreased during the study period. As infants gained weight, estimated mean intakes per kg body weight decreased 17-22%. Changes in concentrations of POPs in HM correlated positively with maternal weight loss, but it is unlikely that the balance between the benefits and risks of breastfeeding will change if the weight loss is restricted to 0.5 kg per week. KEYWORDS: Human milk; Obese; Overweight; POPs; Postpartum; Weight loss PMID: 27281542 ------------  J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Dec;100(12):4463-71. doi: 10.1210/jc.2015-2571. Epub 2015 Oct 15. Pivotal Role for the Visceral Fat Compartment in the Release of Persistent Organic Pollutants During Weight Loss. Dirinck E(1), Dirtu AC(1), Jorens PG(1), Malarvannan G(1), Covaci A(1), Van Gaal LF(1). Author information: (1)Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology, and Metabolism (E.D., L.F.V.G.), Toxicology Centre (A.C.D., G.M., A.C.), and Department of Intensive Care Medicine/Clinical Pharmacology (P.G.J.), Antwerp University Hospital, University of Antwerp, 2650 Edegem, Belgium. Full text: http://sci-hub.cc/10.1210/jc.2015-2571 CONTEXT: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are implicated as potential endocrine disruptors and obesogens. These lipophilic substances are preferentially stored in the fat compartment and released into the circulation during weight loss. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of abdominal adiposity, and visceral adiposity in particular, to the increase of serum PCB levels during weight loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourty-five obese women were prospectively recruited. Twenty individuals received dietary counseling and 25 underwent bariatric surgery. Anthropometric data were collected and intra-abdominal adiposity was assessed by measurement computed tomography scanning of the abdominal fat compartment, delineating the visceral and subcutaneous compartment. Serum levels of 27 PCBs were determined and the sum of all PCBs (ΣPCBs) calculated. Follow-up measurements of anthropometric data, computed tomography scanning, and PCB levels were performed after 6 months in all patients. RESULTS: In patients who lost weight, serum ΣPCB levels displayed an increase after 6 months of approximately 50%. Both correlation and regression analysis, focusing on the relative contribution of the visceral vs the subcutaneous fat compartment, suggested that the increase in ΣPCB serum levels after 6 months of weight loss was more pronounced in patients losing relatively more visceral adipose tissue. This trend could be established in the diet-treated, but not the surgery-treated subgroup. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that the contribution of PCBs released from the visceral fat compartment might be more pronounced compared with the subcutaneous fat compartment during weight loss. These findings are present in the entire study group whereas subanalysis of the diet vs surgery groups suggested the same effect in the diet group but failed to reach statistical significance in the surgery group. This suggests a possible weight-loss method-specific effect. PMID: 26469381
Dean Pomerleau posted a topic in CR PracticeThis LA Times article focuses on a new study  using non-invasive brain stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex to improve the ability of obese people to make better food choices through increased self-discipline. The study was small, but observed quite dramatic results in what sounds like a pretty well-conducted controlled intervention trial. Here are highlights of the study: When participants got a sham current, and when they got electrical stimulation directed elsewhere, they consumed between 3,500 and 3,700 calories per day, with fat calories representing between 37.5 and 40% of their daily intake. When participants got current directed at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, though, they consumed an average of 2,863 calories daily -- a reduction of 18% to 23%. And fat represented a smaller proportion -- 35.6% -- of their daily calories. Daily consumption of calories from soda plunged by as much as 50%, as well. And they lost significantly more weight. While weight loss is obviously not our goal, increasing one's self-control via non-invasive brain stimulation might be quite useful for CR practitioners. Note this technology is gaining popularity among biohackers, and a similar technology is now available commercially as the Thync device: http://www.thync.com Disclaimer - I haven't tried Thync or any similar device, and honestly I'm pretty skeptical. But the trial described above is suggestive about the potential of this kind of technology. --Dean -----  Marci E. Gluck et al. Neuromodulation targeted to the prefrontal cortex induces changes in energy intake and weight loss in obesity, Obesity (2015). DOI: 10.1002/oby.21313 Full Text: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.21313/abstract Abstract Objective Obesity is associated with decreased activity in the prefrontal cortex. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modifies cortical excitability and may facilitate improved control of eating. The energy intake (EI) and body weight in subjects who received cathodal versus sham (study 1) and subsequent anodal versus sham (study 2) tDCS aimed at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) were measured. Methods Nine (3m, 6f) healthy volunteers with obesity (94 ± 15 kg [M ± SD]; 42 ± 8 y) were admitted as inpatients for 9 days to participate in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover experiment. Study 1: following 5 days of a weight-maintaining diet, participants received cathodal or sham tDCS (2 mA, 40 min) on three consecutive mornings and then ate ad libitum from a computerized vending machine, which recorded EI. Weight was measured daily. Study 2: participants repeated the study, maintaining original assignment to active (this time anodal) and sham. Results Participants tended to consume fewer kilocalories per day (P = 0.07), significantly fewer kilocalories from soda (P = 0.02) and fat (P = 0.03), and had a greater % weight loss (P = 0.009) during anodal versus cathodal tDCS. Conclusions The results indicated a role for the LDLPFC in obesity and food intake. This proof of concept study suggested, for the first time, the potential application of anodal tDCS to facilitate weight loss.
Here is another study posted by Al Pater that particularly interested me, both because it focused on inflammation (now understood to be an important contributor to all of the major chronic diseases of aging) and because it focused on CR vs. exercise vs. both. It compared the effects of one-year of a calorie restricted diet, aerobic exercise (without calorie restriction) or both exercise and calorie restriction on biomarkers of inflammation in overweight/obese postmenopausal women. The results can be summarized as follows: The diet-only group and the diet+exercise group lost close to the same amount of weight (8.5% vs 10.5%, respectively). The exercise-only group lost much less on average (2.5%), although there were some women in the exercise-only group who lost > 5% (see below). "There were no significant differences between the diet and diet+exercise groups or between the exercise[-only] and control groups, in any inflammatory biomarker." Virtually everyone* in the study who lost >5% of body weight saw a significant reduction in hr-CRP, an important marker of inflammation, independent of whether they lost weight via diet-alone, exercise-alone, or diet+exercise. So by my reading, it looks like its either the weight/fat loss or possibly the energy deficit, rather than simply eating fewer calories, that determines the benefits, at least when it comes to biomarkers of inflammation in this population. In particular, the women who lost nearly 10% of their bodyweight saw a dramatic (and equivalent) improvement in biomarkers of inflammation whether they achieved this weight loss via a large calorie deficit, or via a more modest calorie deficit "topped off" with exercise. --Dean * Except for two outliers with very high hr-CRP who were excluded ------------------------  Effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in overweight/obese postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Imayama I, Ulrich CM, Alfano CM, Wang C, Xiao L, Wener MH, Campbell KL, Duggan C, Foster-Schubert KE, Kong A, Mason CE, Wang CY, Blackburn GL, Bain CE, Thompson HJ, McTiernan A. Cancer Res. 2012 May 1;72(9):2314-26. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-3092. PMID:22549948 Free PMC Article http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/72/9/2314.long http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/72/9/2314.full.pdf+html Abtract Obese and sedentary persons have increased risk for cancer; inflammation is a hypothesized mechanism. We examined the effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in 439 women. Overweight and obese postmenopausal women were randomized to 1-year: caloric restriction diet (goal of 10% weight loss, N = 118), aerobic exercise (225 min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous activity, N = 117), combined diet + exercise (N = 117), or control (N = 87). Baseline and 1-year high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukocyte, and neutrophil levels were measured by investigators blind to group. Inflammatory biomarker changes were compared using generalized estimating equations. Models were adjusted for baseline body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, and age. Four hundred and thirty-eight (N = 1 in diet + exercise group was excluded) were analyzed. Relative to controls, hs-CRP decreased by geometric mean (95% confidence interval, P value): 0.92 mg/L (0.53-1.31, P < 0.001) in the diet and 0.87 mg/L (0.51-1.23, P < 0.0001) in the diet + exercise groups. IL-6 decreased by 0.34 pg/mL (0.13-0.55, P = 0.001) in the diet and 0.32 pg/mL (0.15-0.49, P < 0.001) in the diet + exercise groups. Neutrophil counts decreased by 0.31 × 10(9)/L (0.09-0.54, P = 0.006) in the diet and 0.30 × 10(9)/L (0.09-0.50, P = 0.005) in the diet + exercise groups. Diet and diet + exercise participants with 5% or more weight loss reduced inflammatory biomarkers (hs-CRP, SAA, and IL-6) compared with controls. The diet and diet + exercise groups reduced hs-CRP in all subgroups of baseline BMI, waist circumference, CRP level, and fasting glucose. Our findings indicate that a caloric restriction weight loss diet with or without exercise reduces biomarkers of inflammation in postmenopausal women, with potential clinical significance for cancer risk reduction.