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Weekly research updates

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#1 James Cain

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Posted 26 July 2015 - 12:59 PM

I'm going to attempt regularly posting a list of relevant CRON research articles published or indexed on PubMed during the previous week. These may or not be accompanied by commentary, but will at least keep a pulse on new and relevant research happenings. The list will fairly short and mostly directly related to CRON.

 

Some considerations:

  1. There are many new research articles on general nutrition or some molecular pathways associated with CRON but which don't directly make CRON the focus of the paper, in which case it will not be included here. Please post and discuss these in other threads.
  2. Free full-text is not guaranteed to be available. At some point we may set up a thread or subforum for requesting scientific papers from members who have access, or you can directly message another member to request the full-text, but please respect copyright laws and do not post the full-text of articles which are not freely available as such.
  3. Feel free to provide commentary or ask questions related the the posted papers!


#2 James Cain

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Posted 26 July 2015 - 01:12 PM

This week's update includes 10 papers, found at PubMed here

 

Titles:

  1. Protein and amino acid restriction, aging and disease: from yeast to humans.
  2. Nutrients, Clock Genes, and Chrononutrition.
  3. A 2-Year Randomized Controlled Trial of Human Caloric Restriction: Feasibility and Effects on Predictors of Health Span and Longevity.
  4. Two-Year Trial of Human Caloric Restriction.
  5. Health effects of intermittent fasting: hormesis or harm? A systematic review.
  6. A gene-expression-based neural code for food abundance that modulates lifespan.
  7. A budding yeast's perspective on aging: The shape I'm in.
  8. Energy restriction does not prevent insulin resistance but does prevent liver steatosis in aging rats on a Western-style diet.
  9. Diminished mTOR signaling: a common mode of action for endocrine longevity factors.
  10. Diet, behavior and immunity across the lifespan.

 

 

The ones I found especially interesting: 

 
A 2-Year Randomized Controlled Trial of Human Caloric Restriction: Feasibility and Effects on Predictors of Health Span and Longevity.
Being discussed on the CR Society forums here: https://www.crsociet...rie-ii-results/
 
Diet, behavior and immunity across the lifespan.
Free full-text via ResearchGate: https://www.research...ss_the_lifespan
 
Nutrients, Clock Genes, and Chrononutrition.


#3 BrianMDelaney

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Posted 29 July 2015 - 05:28 AM

Thanks, James! The Longo paper ("Protein and amino acid restriction") looks very useful to me (as I continue to fine-tune my diet). I'll have to try to get the full text.

 

I should also thank you for exemplifying one of the cool ways that exist to use PubMed/NCBI.

 

Brian



#4 James Cain

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Posted 01 August 2015 - 12:18 PM

This week's update can be found at PubMed here.

 

Titles

  1. Mild Caloric Restriction Decreases Insulin Requirements in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Severe Insulin Resistance.
  2. Calorie Restriction Suppresses Age-Dependent Hippocampal Transcriptional Signatures.
  3. Manipulation of health span and function by dietary caloric restriction mimetics.
  4. Caloric restriction for treatment of geriatric obesity: Do the benefits outweigh the risks?
  5. Hyperinsulinemia/diabetes, hearing, and aging in the University of Wisconsin calorie restriction monkeys.

 

  

 

#1 isn't too exciting, but it does show that even 3-6 days of 16.5% CR can reduce insulin needs by 44% and significantly reduce fasting and postprandial blood glucose in type 2 diabetics. The benefits of CR can be immediate for many people with metabolic issues.



#5 James Cain

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Posted 08 August 2015 - 07:05 AM

This week's update can be found at PubMed here.
 
Titles

  • Metabolic impacts of altering meal frequency and timing - Does when we eat matter?
  • Negative Energy Balance Blocks Neural and Behavioral Responses to Acute Stress by "Silencing" Central Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Signaling in Rats.

 

 

#1 focuses predominantly on circadian rhythms and how or natural capacity to handle the metabolic loads of eating changes over the course of the day, and how they may also be affected by how often we eat. There is a pop-sci article on this publication here (<-- Food Navigator is also a pretty good overall nutrition news site.), and there are two really good review articles about circadian rhythms, nutrition, and aging here:

 

Effect of feeding regimens on circadian rhythms: implications for aging and longevity.
Froy O, Miskin R.
Aging (Albany NY). 2010 Dec 11;2(1):7-27.
 
Circadian rhythms, aging, and life span in mammals.
Froy O.

Physiology (Bethesda). 2011 Aug;26(4):225-35.



#6 Taurus Londono

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Posted 10 August 2015 - 12:06 PM

James,

This is excellent! Just wanted to extend my thanks for providing this useful resource here on the forums. Also, congratulations on being elected to the CR Society board!



#7 James Cain

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Posted 17 August 2015 - 09:40 AM

This week's updates can be found on PubMed here. (It was a slow week.)

 

Titles

  1. What is the effect of fasting on the lifespan of neurons?
  2. Caloric restriction increases ratio of estrogen to androgen receptors expression in murine ovaries - potential therapeutic implications.
  3. Six and 12 Weeks of Caloric Restriction Increases β Cell Function and Lowers Fasting and Postprandial Glucose Concentrations in People with Type 2 Diabetes.

 

I  don't include many studies like #3 that aren't a more regimented CR, or that aren't in healthy non-obese/diabetic humans, as they aren't applicable to long-term practitioners. Plus weight loss drives many metabolic improvements in these populations, and these metabolic changes may not apply to those in steady-state CR. Still, I like to provide evidence that CR has short-term and fairly immediate benefits for those looking for motivation to move from a disease state to a more normal BMI or metabolic state.



#8 James Cain

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Posted 23 August 2015 - 05:22 AM

This week's update can be found on PubMed here.

 

Titles

  1. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: I. impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on body composition in the C57BL/6 mouse.
  2. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: II. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on circulating hormone levels, glucose homeostasis and oxidative stress in male C57BL/6 mice.
  3. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: III. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on mean daily body temperature and torpor use in the C57BL/6 mouse.
  4. Caloric restriction in lean and obese strains of laboratory rat: Effects on body composition, metabolism, growth, and overall health.
  5. Cellular and molecular remodeling of inguinal adipose tissue mitochondria by dietary methionine restriction.

 

The first three articles are part of a recent series by the CR and energy metabolism researcher John Speakman. The articles are available as free full-text through the PubMed links, and also on Research Gate.

 

The abstract of #4 provides some very interesting thoughts on the effects of CR in different lean vs. obese rat strains. I requested the full-text to check the details and make more sense of it.



#9 James Cain

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Posted 29 August 2015 - 06:43 AM

This week's update can be found on PubMed here.

 

Titles

  1. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: IV. Non-linear change in behavioural phenotype of mice in response to short-term calorie restriction.
  2. Differential expression of hypothalamic, metabolic and inflammatory genes in response to short-term calorie restriction in juvenile obese- and lean-prone JCR rats.
  3. Genetics and Pharmacology of Longevity: The Road to Therapeutics for Healthy Aging

 

#1 is free full-text through PubMed, and #3 has free full-text through Google Books here.



#10 James Cain

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Posted 05 September 2015 - 07:12 AM

This week's update can be found on PubMed here.

 

Titles

  1. Effect of Two-Year Caloric Restriction on Bone Metabolism and Bone Mineral Density in Non-Obese Younger Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
  2. Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A Deficiency Improves Survival of Mice on a High Fat Diet.
  3. Mechanism by which caloric restriction improves insulin sensitivity in sedentary obese adults.
  4. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.
  5. Mitoprotective dietary approaches for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Caloric restriction, fasting, and ketogenic diets.

 

#1 is part of the CALERIE series of publications.

#2 isn't directly CR, but some results that suggest antagonizing PAPPA activity act as a CR mimetic in some ways.

 

[Edit: link fixed]



#11 James Cain

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Posted 19 September 2015 - 06:21 AM

This week's updates can be found on PubMed here.

 

Titles

  1. Autophagy involving age-related cognitive behavior and hippocampus injury is modulated by different caloric intake in mice.
  2. Genetic perturbation of key central metabolic genes extends lifespan in Drosophila and affects response to dietary restriction.
  3. Age- and Tissue-Dependent Modulation of IGF-1/PI3K/Akt Protein Expression by Dietary Restriction in Mice.
  4. Mannan-Binding Lectin Is Involved in the Protection against Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Dietary Restriction.
  5. The heuristic value of redundancy models of aging.
  6. An increased need for dietary cysteine in support of glutathione synthesis may underlie the increased risk for mortality associated with low protein intake in the elderly.

 

This week's articles are more related to the molecular mechanisms of CR. #4 is interesting because it compares CR and fasting for their ability to protect from oxidative damage in the kidney. #5 is more of an overview of how we can use various study designs and data models to gain further mechanistic insights from aging studies. I included #6 because protein restriction is a potential alternative or synergistic intervention to CR, and because there is concern over the potential for frailty with reduced muscle mass in more extreme CR practice.



#12 James Cain

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Posted 29 September 2015 - 04:17 AM

This week's updates can be found on PubMed here.

 

Titles:

  1. Determinants of weight loss success with alternate day fasting.
  2. Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials.
  3. Behavioural changes are a major contributing factor in the reduction of sarcopenia in caloric-restricted ageing mice.
  4. Metabolic adaptation to caloric restriction and subsequent refeeding: the Minnesota Starvation Experiment revisited.
  5. Energy restriction and potential energy restriction mimetics.
  6. Food restriction modifies ultrastructure of hippocampal synapses.
  7. Enhancing S-adenosyl-methionine catabolism extends Drosophila lifespan.


#13 James Cain

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Posted 11 October 2015 - 07:14 PM

It's been busy lately, so the past two weeks are as follows:

 

Two weeks ago, PubMed link.

  1. Effects of 2-year calorie restriction on circulating levels of IGF-1, IGF-binding proteins and cortisol in nonobese men and women: a randomized clinical trial.
  2. Anti-Inflamm-Aging Effects of Long-Term Caloric Restriction via Overexpression of SIGIRR to Inhibit NF-x03BA;B Signaling Pathway.
  3. Effects of Intermittent Fasting, Caloric Restriction, and Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Cognitive Performance at Rest and During Exercise in Adults.
  4. The Lag of the Proliferative Aging Clock Underlies the Lifespan-Extending Effect of Calorie Restriction.
  5. Slowed ageing, welfare, and population problems.

 

This past week, PubMed link.

  1. Differential Development of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Different Adipose Tissue Depots Along Aging in Wistar Rats: Effects of Caloric Restriction.
  2. Caloric Restriction and Formalin-Induced Inflammation: An Experimental Study in Rat Model.


#14 James Cain

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Posted 18 October 2015 - 10:00 AM

This week's updates from PubMed here.

  1. Association of Total Energy Intake with 29-Year Mortality in the Japanese: NIPPON DATA80.
  2. Short-term calorie restriction enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis and remote fear memory in a Ghsr-dependent manner.


#15 James Cain

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Posted 24 October 2015 - 08:48 AM

This week's updates from PubMed here.

 

Titles:

  1. ABCG1 Regulates Mouse Adipose Tissue Macrophage Cholesterol Levels and the Ratio of M1 to M2 Cells during Obesity and Caloric Restriction.
  2. Nutrients and ageing: what can we learn about ageing interactions from animal biology?
  3. Six-month Calorie Restriction in Overweight Individuals Elicits Transcriptomic Response in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue That is Distinct From Effects of Energy Deficit.
  4. Locomotor response to acute nicotine in adolescent mice is altered by maternal undernutrition during lactation.
  5. Protection by dietary restriction in the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington's disease: Relation to genes regulating histone acetylation and HTT.
  6. Effects of Caloric Intake on Learning and Memory Function in Juvenile C57BL/6J Mice.
  7. Curcumin Mimics the Neurocognitive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Caloric Restriction in a Mouse Model of Midlife Obesity.

 

There's a good smattering of CR research topics this week.

 

#3 is a pretty good human study comparing the effects of a 25% calorie deficit induced by only CR or a combination of CR and exercise, showing unique benefits of CR-only. This goes with some other studies showing that exercising to achieve a calorie deficit doesn't have the same benefits as a deficit primarily driven through dietary restriction.



#16 James Cain

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Posted 31 October 2015 - 06:54 AM

I only saw one new study indexed in PubMed this week.

 

THE THEORIES OF AGING: REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES AND WHAT ELSE?

http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/26511196



#17 James Cain

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Posted 07 November 2015 - 04:31 PM

This week's newly-indexed CR-related research is on PubMed here.

 

Titles:

  1. Regional metabolic heterogeneity of the hippocampus is nonuniformly impacted by age and caloric restriction.
  2. The role of sirtuins in aging and age-related diseases.


#18 James Cain

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Posted 14 November 2015 - 11:51 AM

This week's newly-indexed CR-related research is on PubMed here.

 

Titles:

  1. The conserved role of protein restriction in aging and disease.
  2. Reduced in vivo hepatic proteome replacement rates but not cell proliferation rates predict maximum lifespan extension in mice.
  3. AMPK Keeps Tumor Cells from Starving to Death.
  4. Neuropeptide Y: An Anti-Aging Player?

 

For some background on #1 check out this older paper by Spindler:

Calorie restriction enhances the expression of key metabolic enzymes associated with protein renewal during aging.



#19 James Cain

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Posted 23 November 2015 - 10:26 AM

This week's newly-indexed CR-related research is on PubMed here.

 

Titles:

  1. Nutrition for Sarcopenia.
  2. Autophagy as a Potential Target for Sarcopenia.
  3. Dietary Restriction-Induced Alterations in Bone Phenotype: Effects of Lifelong Versus Short-Term Caloric Restriction on Femoral and Vertebral Bone in C57BL/6 Mice.
  4. Dietary Restriction-Induced Alterations in Bone Phenotype: Effects of Lifelong Versus Short-Term Caloric Restriction on Femoral and Vertebral Bone in C57BL/6 Mice.


#20 James Cain

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Posted 28 November 2015 - 08:00 PM

This week's newly-indexed CR-related research is available on PubMed here.

 

Titles:

  1. Systems biology approaches to study the molecular effects of caloric restriction and polyphenols on aging processes.
  2. Calorie restriction as an intervention in ageing.
  3. Whole-transcriptome analysis of mouse adipose tissue in response to short-term caloric restriction.
  4. Strain- and Diet-Related Lesion Variability in Aging DBA/2, C57BL/6, and DBA/2xC57BL/6 F1 Mice.
  5. Age-Related Changes in Sirtuin 7 Expression in Calorie-Restricted and Refed Rats.
  6. Cell nonautonomous activation of flavin-containing monooxygenase promotes longevity and health span.
  7. Systematic review and meta-analysis reveals acutely elevated plasma cortisol following fasting but not less severe calorie restriction.






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