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James Cain

Weekly research updates

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I'm going to attempt regularly posting a list of relevant CRON research articles published or indexed on PubMed during the previous week. These may or not be accompanied by commentary, but will at least keep a pulse on new and relevant research happenings. The list will fairly short and mostly directly related to CRON.

 

Some considerations:

  1. There are many new research articles on general nutrition or some molecular pathways associated with CRON but which don't directly make CRON the focus of the paper, in which case it will not be included here. Please post and discuss these in other threads.
  2. Free full-text is not guaranteed to be available. At some point we may set up a thread or subforum for requesting scientific papers from members who have access, or you can directly message another member to request the full-text, but please respect copyright laws and do not post the full-text of articles which are not freely available as such.
  3. Feel free to provide commentary or ask questions related the the posted papers!

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This week's update includes 10 papers, found at PubMed here

 

Titles:

  1. Protein and amino acid restriction, aging and disease: from yeast to humans.
  2. Nutrients, Clock Genes, and Chrononutrition.
  3. A 2-Year Randomized Controlled Trial of Human Caloric Restriction: Feasibility and Effects on Predictors of Health Span and Longevity.
  4. Two-Year Trial of Human Caloric Restriction.
  5. Health effects of intermittent fasting: hormesis or harm? A systematic review.
  6. A gene-expression-based neural code for food abundance that modulates lifespan.
  7. A budding yeast's perspective on aging: The shape I'm in.
  8. Energy restriction does not prevent insulin resistance but does prevent liver steatosis in aging rats on a Western-style diet.
  9. Diminished mTOR signaling: a common mode of action for endocrine longevity factors.
  10. Diet, behavior and immunity across the lifespan.

 


The ones I found especially interesting: 

 
A 2-Year Randomized Controlled Trial of Human Caloric Restriction: Feasibility and Effects on Predictors of Health Span and Longevity.
Being discussed on the CR Society forums here: https://www.crsociety.org/topic/11235-main-calerie-ii-results/
 
Diet, behavior and immunity across the lifespan.
 
Nutrients, Clock Genes, and Chrononutrition.

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Thanks, James! The Longo paper ("Protein and amino acid restriction") looks very useful to me (as I continue to fine-tune my diet). I'll have to try to get the full text.

 

I should also thank you for exemplifying one of the cool ways that exist to use PubMed/NCBI.

 

Brian

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This week's update can be found at PubMed here.

 

Titles

  1. Mild Caloric Restriction Decreases Insulin Requirements in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Severe Insulin Resistance.
  2. Calorie Restriction Suppresses Age-Dependent Hippocampal Transcriptional Signatures.
  3. Manipulation of health span and function by dietary caloric restriction mimetics.
  4. Caloric restriction for treatment of geriatric obesity: Do the benefits outweigh the risks?
  5. Hyperinsulinemia/diabetes, hearing, and aging in the University of Wisconsin calorie restriction monkeys.

 

 


 

#1 isn't too exciting, but it does show that even 3-6 days of 16.5% CR can reduce insulin needs by 44% and significantly reduce fasting and postprandial blood glucose in type 2 diabetics. The benefits of CR can be immediate for many people with metabolic issues.

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This week's update can be found at PubMed here.
 
Titles

  • Metabolic impacts of altering meal frequency and timing - Does when we eat matter?
  • Negative Energy Balance Blocks Neural and Behavioral Responses to Acute Stress by "Silencing" Central Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Signaling in Rats.


 

#1 focuses predominantly on circadian rhythms and how or natural capacity to handle the metabolic loads of eating changes over the course of the day, and how they may also be affected by how often we eat. There is a pop-sci article on this publication here (

 

Effect of feeding regimens on circadian rhythms: implications for aging and longevity.
Froy O, Miskin R.
Aging (Albany NY). 2010 Dec 11;2(1):7-27.
 
Circadian rhythms, aging, and life span in mammals.
Froy O.

Physiology (Bethesda). 2011 Aug;26(4):225-35.

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This week's updates can be found on PubMed here. (It was a slow week.)

 

Titles

  1. What is the effect of fasting on the lifespan of neurons?
  2. Caloric restriction increases ratio of estrogen to androgen receptors expression in murine ovaries - potential therapeutic implications.
  3. Six and 12 Weeks of Caloric Restriction Increases β Cell Function and Lowers Fasting and Postprandial Glucose Concentrations in People with Type 2 Diabetes.


I  don't include many studies like #3 that aren't a more regimented CR, or that aren't in healthy non-obese/diabetic humans, as they aren't applicable to long-term practitioners. Plus weight loss drives many metabolic improvements in these populations, and these metabolic changes may not apply to those in steady-state CR. Still, I like to provide evidence that CR has short-term and fairly immediate benefits for those looking for motivation to move from a disease state to a more normal BMI or metabolic state.

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This week's update can be found on PubMed here.

 

Titles

  1. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: I. impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on body composition in the C57BL/6 mouse.
  2. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: II. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on circulating hormone levels, glucose homeostasis and oxidative stress in male C57BL/6 mice.
  3. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: III. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on mean daily body temperature and torpor use in the C57BL/6 mouse.
  4. Caloric restriction in lean and obese strains of laboratory rat: Effects on body composition, metabolism, growth, and overall health.
  5. Cellular and molecular remodeling of inguinal adipose tissue mitochondria by dietary methionine restriction.


The first three articles are part of a recent series by the CR and energy metabolism researcher John Speakman. The articles are available as free full-text through the PubMed links, and also on Research Gate.

 

The abstract of #4 provides some very interesting thoughts on the effects of CR in different lean vs. obese rat strains. I requested the full-text to check the details and make more sense of it.

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This week's update can be found on PubMed here.

 

Titles

  1. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: IV. Non-linear change in behavioural phenotype of mice in response to short-term calorie restriction.
  2. Differential expression of hypothalamic, metabolic and inflammatory genes in response to short-term calorie restriction in juvenile obese- and lean-prone JCR rats.
  3. Genetics and Pharmacology of Longevity: The Road to Therapeutics for Healthy Aging


#1 is free full-text through PubMed, and #3 has free full-text through Google Books here.

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This week's update can be found on PubMed here.

 

Titles

  1. Effect of Two-Year Caloric Restriction on Bone Metabolism and Bone Mineral Density in Non-Obese Younger Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
  2. Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A Deficiency Improves Survival of Mice on a High Fat Diet.
  3. Mechanism by which caloric restriction improves insulin sensitivity in sedentary obese adults.
  4. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.
  5. Mitoprotective dietary approaches for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Caloric restriction, fasting, and ketogenic diets.


#1 is part of the CALERIE series of publications.

#2 isn't directly CR, but some results that suggest antagonizing PAPPA activity act as a CR mimetic in some ways.

 

[Edit: link fixed]

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This week's updates can be found on PubMed here.

 

Titles

  1. Autophagy involving age-related cognitive behavior and hippocampus injury is modulated by different caloric intake in mice.
  2. Genetic perturbation of key central metabolic genes extends lifespan in Drosophila and affects response to dietary restriction.
  3. Age- and Tissue-Dependent Modulation of IGF-1/PI3K/Akt Protein Expression by Dietary Restriction in Mice.
  4. Mannan-Binding Lectin Is Involved in the Protection against Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Dietary Restriction.
  5. The heuristic value of redundancy models of aging.
  6. An increased need for dietary cysteine in support of glutathione synthesis may underlie the increased risk for mortality associated with low protein intake in the elderly.


This week's articles are more related to the molecular mechanisms of CR. #4 is interesting because it compares CR and fasting for their ability to protect from oxidative damage in the kidney. #5 is more of an overview of how we can use various study designs and data models to gain further mechanistic insights from aging studies. I included #6 because protein restriction is a potential alternative or synergistic intervention to CR, and because there is concern over the potential for frailty with reduced muscle mass in more extreme CR practice.

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This week's updates can be found on PubMed here.

 

Titles:

  1. Determinants of weight loss success with alternate day fasting.
  2. Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials.
  3. Behavioural changes are a major contributing factor in the reduction of sarcopenia in caloric-restricted ageing mice.
  4. Metabolic adaptation to caloric restriction and subsequent refeeding: the Minnesota Starvation Experiment revisited.
  5. Energy restriction and potential energy restriction mimetics.
  6. Food restriction modifies ultrastructure of hippocampal synapses.
  7. Enhancing S-adenosyl-methionine catabolism extends Drosophila lifespan.

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It's been busy lately, so the past two weeks are as follows:

 

Two weeks ago, PubMed link.

  1. Effects of 2-year calorie restriction on circulating levels of IGF-1, IGF-binding proteins and cortisol in nonobese men and women: a randomized clinical trial.
  2. Anti-Inflamm-Aging Effects of Long-Term Caloric Restriction via Overexpression of SIGIRR to Inhibit NF-x03BA;B Signaling Pathway.
  3. Effects of Intermittent Fasting, Caloric Restriction, and Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Cognitive Performance at Rest and During Exercise in Adults.
  4. The Lag of the Proliferative Aging Clock Underlies the Lifespan-Extending Effect of Calorie Restriction.
  5. Slowed ageing, welfare, and population problems.

 

This past week, PubMed link.

  1. Differential Development of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Different Adipose Tissue Depots Along Aging in Wistar Rats: Effects of Caloric Restriction.
  2. Caloric Restriction and Formalin-Induced Inflammation: An Experimental Study in Rat Model.

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This week's updates from PubMed here.

  1. Association of Total Energy Intake with 29-Year Mortality in the Japanese: NIPPON DATA80.
  2. Short-term calorie restriction enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis and remote fear memory in a Ghsr-dependent manner.

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This week's updates from PubMed here.

 

Titles:

  1. ABCG1 Regulates Mouse Adipose Tissue Macrophage Cholesterol Levels and the Ratio of M1 to M2 Cells during Obesity and Caloric Restriction.
  2. Nutrients and ageing: what can we learn about ageing interactions from animal biology?
  3. Six-month Calorie Restriction in Overweight Individuals Elicits Transcriptomic Response in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue That is Distinct From Effects of Energy Deficit.
  4. Locomotor response to acute nicotine in adolescent mice is altered by maternal undernutrition during lactation.
  5. Protection by dietary restriction in the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington's disease: Relation to genes regulating histone acetylation and HTT.
  6. Effects of Caloric Intake on Learning and Memory Function in Juvenile C57BL/6J Mice.
  7. Curcumin Mimics the Neurocognitive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Caloric Restriction in a Mouse Model of Midlife Obesity.


There's a good smattering of CR research topics this week.

 

#3 is a pretty good human study comparing the effects of a 25% calorie deficit induced by only CR or a combination of CR and exercise, showing unique benefits of CR-only. This goes with some other studies showing that exercising to achieve a calorie deficit doesn't have the same benefits as a deficit primarily driven through dietary restriction.

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This week's newly-indexed CR-related research is on PubMed here.

 

Titles:

  1. Regional metabolic heterogeneity of the hippocampus is nonuniformly impacted by age and caloric restriction.
  2. The role of sirtuins in aging and age-related diseases.

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This week's newly-indexed CR-related research is on PubMed here.

 

Titles:

  1. The conserved role of protein restriction in aging and disease.
  2. Reduced in vivo hepatic proteome replacement rates but not cell proliferation rates predict maximum lifespan extension in mice.
  3. AMPK Keeps Tumor Cells from Starving to Death.
  4. Neuropeptide Y: An Anti-Aging Player?


For some background on #1 check out this older paper by Spindler:

Calorie restriction enhances the expression of key metabolic enzymes associated with protein renewal during aging.

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This week's newly-indexed CR-related research is on PubMed here.


 


Titles:


  1. Nutrition for Sarcopenia.

  2. Autophagy as a Potential Target for Sarcopenia.

  3. Dietary Restriction-Induced Alterations in Bone Phenotype: Effects of Lifelong Versus Short-Term Caloric Restriction on Femoral and Vertebral Bone in C57BL/6 Mice.

  4. Dietary Restriction-Induced Alterations in Bone Phenotype: Effects of Lifelong Versus Short-Term Caloric Restriction on Femoral and Vertebral Bone in C57BL/6 Mice.

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This week's newly-indexed CR-related research is available on PubMed here.

 

Titles:

  1. Systems biology approaches to study the molecular effects of caloric restriction and polyphenols on aging processes.
  2. Calorie restriction as an intervention in ageing.
  3. Whole-transcriptome analysis of mouse adipose tissue in response to short-term caloric restriction.
  4. Strain- and Diet-Related Lesion Variability in Aging DBA/2, C57BL/6, and DBA/2xC57BL/6 F1 Mice.
  5. Age-Related Changes in Sirtuin 7 Expression in Calorie-Restricted and Refed Rats.
  6. Cell nonautonomous activation of flavin-containing monooxygenase promotes longevity and health span.
  7. Systematic review and meta-analysis reveals acutely elevated plasma cortisol following fasting but not less severe calorie restriction.

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This week's newly-indexed CR-related research is available on PubMed here.

 

Titles:

  1. Peripheral Circadian Clocks Mediate Dietary Restriction-Dependent Changes in Lifespan and Fat Metabolism in Drosophila.
  2. Protection against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury through hormesis? Dietary intervention versus cold exposure.
  3. Initiation of calorie restriction in middle-aged male rats attenuates aging-related motoric decline and bradykinesia without increased striatal dopamine.
  4. The Role of Organelle Stresses in Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity: Implication for Treatment.
  5. Early Shifts of Brain Metabolism by Caloric Restriction Preserve White Matter Integrity and Long-Term Memory in Aging Mice.


Dean has started a discussion on another study related to #4 here: Does "Fatty Pancreas" Cause Type 2 Diabetes?

 

As #1 suggests, circadian rhythms seem to play a central role in mediated health and aging. I've included some related comments and a link to a fantastic full-text review on this topic at the end of my post here.

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Jeez, it's been a while! Holidays, a shoulder surgery, and starting the spring semester put me off course a bit, but I'm going to try to get back to updating this thread.

---------------

 

This week's newly-indexed CR-related research is available on PubMed here.

 

Titles:

  1. Food restriction during pregnancy alters brain's antioxidant network in dams and their offspring.
  2. Satiety Innovations: Food Products to Assist Consumers with Weight Loss, Evidence on the Role of Satiety in Healthy Eating: Overview and In Vitro Approximation.


#2 isn't directly related to CR, but the first 1/2 of the paper is a good review of the contribution of dietary components to satiety. It covers how satiety is signaled and regulated, and briefly summarizes the influence of protein, fiber, energy density, food processing, and microbiota. I think this link (through sci-hub.io) should pull up the full-text.

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This week's newly-indexed CR-related research is available on PubMed here.


 


Titles:


  1. Dietary restrictions, bone density, and bone quality.

  2. Sex difference in pathology of the ageing gut mediates the greater response of female lifespan to dietary restriction.

  3. Dietary and pharmacological modification of the insulin/IGF-1 system: exploiting the full repertoire against cancer.

  4. Cardiac Sirt1 Mediates the Cardioprotective Effect of Caloric Restriction by Suppressing Local Complement System Activation after Ischemia/Reperfusion.

  5. Influence of calorie reduction on DNA repair capacity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  6. Contributions of Nonhuman Primates to Research on Aging.

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids partially revert the metabolic gene expression profile induced by long-term calorie restriction.

  8. Growth factors, aging and age-related diseases.

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Some of you may not be aware that I send messages to the old email lists which can be accessed either as individual email messages or as a list of daily messages that I send, at:

 

http://www.crsociety.org/resources/lists 

 

I search PubMed for articles that might be of interest to me and maybe some of you and end up sending quite a few messages that are mostly the abstracts and hopefully URLs for the full-texts.  I have access to many of the papers for which I do not find free full-texts and send the full-texts for those papers that I find things I think are of interest to some or more of the potential reades of the two email lists.

 

For my PubMed searches my screen is for:

 

caloric or food, restriction or reduction;

 

exceptionally long life;

 

diets/foods related to living longer in prospective or randomized experiment studies;

 

and living longer but not related to diets/food.

 

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

 

I also read titles and articles of interest in a number of journals as they are published and do the same with articles others may be interested in.

 

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

 

So, the thing is, the way I have been sending emails is to accumulate a significant number of papers to send the the lists, try to correct all the symbols not recognized when I send via my email account and then basically fire away many papers, without much if any personal comments.  My thinking regarding this is that the authors of the papers have generally done a good job of presenting introductions and discussions in areas that I am many times quite less knowledgeable in.

 

Another longstanding issue is what to do with obese or overweight subjects studies; and my thinking has been that seeing what the risks are at the other spectrum of weight status in which CR subjects find themselves may serve to motivate and compare with ourselves and similar subjects how these risk factors may become health factors.

 

Most times I simply paste the title of papers into the subject boxes, but maybe I should include indications of say whether the studies use particular animals, or are prospective, randomized control or case-control studies.

 

So, it would be nice for me to get back some general feedback on how this is or is not working for you either directly at alpater@shaw.ca or here.

 

A

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Thanks Al,

 

I think I speak for everyone when I say thank you for all the effort you put in scouring the newly published literature for interesting CR and nutrition-related studies.

 

Also, thank you for pointing out the "Daily Digest" option for delivery of the mailing list messages. Your barrage of emails can be a little intimidating some days :-). Getting them all in one big message will make them easier to handle.

 

Regarding content, in general I'm personally not so interested in some of the weight-loss related studies you sometimes post. My interests are mostly the CR-specific new studies, as well as ones that focus on diet, health and longevity. Getting a little more context / commentary from you would be great, especially when you have a specific motivation behind one of your posts.

 

Thanks again for keeping the interesting research flowing our way! Obviously I rely quite heavily on your screening for interesting new material to comment about on these forums.

 

--Dean

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