Dean Pomerleau Posted November 19, 2015 Report Share Posted November 19, 2015 Diet & Colon Cancer Prevention While researching the Adventists diet study for prostate cancer prevention, Al Pater kindly pointed me to a similar study  of diet and colon cancer risk among the Adventists in the AHS-2 study by the same authors (thanks Al!). It followed 96,000 Adventists of both genders for an average follow-up time of 7.3 years to see which diets were associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer. As expected, all vegetarians combined were 22% less likely than omnivores to develop any form of colon cancer during the follow-up (HR 0.78: 95% CI, 0.64-0.95). Here is the breakdown of colon cancer risk by various types of vegetarian diets, again relative to omnivores: Vegans 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59-1.19); lacto-ovo vegetarians 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65-1.02); pescovegetarians, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40-0.82) semivegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.62-1.37) For colon cancer, it appears to be the pesky pesco-vegetarians who have the lowest risk of colon cancer. But vegans win overall, at least among this healthy Adventist population relative to all cancers (not just prostate or colon cancer), according to . From the abstract: ... vegan diets showed statistically significant protection for overall cancer incidence (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.99) in both genders combined. Here is the diagram from  comparing the overall cancer risk for different forms of vegetarian diets, relative to omnivores: If we look at the male & female line (first highlight) or the male-only line (second highlight) in the fully adjusted model (including adjusting for BMI), it is only the vegan dietary pattern that reaches the level of 0.05 significance, and is P < 0.05 for the combined gender group. The other vegetarian subgroups failed to show a statistically significant lower overall risk of cancer relative to omnivores. Go ahead - call my Dr. Greger. But thems the data... --Dean -----------  JAMA Intern Med. 2015 May;175(5):767-76. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.59. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancers.Orlich MJ(1), Singh PN(2), Sabaté J(1), Fan J(2), Sveen L(2), Bennett H(2),Knutsen SF(1), Beeson WL(2), Jaceldo-Siegl K(1), Butler TL(2), Herring RP(2),Fraser GE(1).IMPORTANCE: Colorectal cancers are a leading cause of cancer mortality, and theirprimary prevention by diet is highly desirable. The relationship of vegetariandietary patterns to colorectal cancer risk is not well established.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns andincident colorectal cancers.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) is alarge, prospective, North American cohort trial including 96,354 Seventh-DayAdventist men and women recruited between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007.Follow-up varied by state and was indicated by the cancer registry linkage dates.Of these participants, an analytic sample of 77,659 remained after exclusions.Analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling forimportant demographic and lifestyle confounders. The analysis was conductedbetween June 1, 2014, and October 20, 2014.EXPOSURES: Diet was assessed at baseline by a validated quantitative foodfrequency questionnaire and categorized into 4 vegetarian dietary patterns(vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pescovegetarian, and semivegetarian) and anonvegetarian dietary pattern.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The relationship between dietary patterns andincident cancers of the colon and rectum; colorectal cancer cases were identifiedprimarily by state cancer registry linkages.RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 380 cases of colon cancer and 110cases of rectal cancer were documented. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in allvegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.95) for allcolorectal cancers, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.65-1.00) for colon cancer, and 0.71 (95% CI,0.47-1.06) for rectal cancer. The adjusted HR for colorectal cancer in vegans was0.84 (95% CI, 0.59-1.19); in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65-1.02); inpescovegetarians, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40-0.82); and in semivegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI,0.62-1.37) compared with nonvegetarians. Effect estimates were similar for menand women and for black and nonblack individuals.CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Vegetarian diets are associated with an overall lowerincidence of colorectal cancers. Pescovegetarians in particular have a much lowerrisk compared with nonvegetarians. If such associations are causal, they may beimportant for primary prevention of colorectal cancers.PMCID: PMC4420687PMID: 25751512 ------------  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Feb;22(2):286-94. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-1060. Epub 2012 Nov 20.Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population.Tantamango-Bartley Y(1), Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Fraser G.Author information:(1)Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Loma Linda University, School ofPublic Health, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA. firstname.lastname@example.orgBACKGROUND: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States.Dietary factors account for at least 30% of all cancers in Western countries. Aspeople do not consume individual foods but rather combinations of them, theassessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determiningassociations between diet and cancer risk.METHODS: We examined the association between dietary patterns (non-vegetarians,lacto, pesco, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and the overall cancer incidence among69,120 participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. Cancer cases were identifiedby matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis wasconducted to estimate hazard ratios, with "attained age" as the time variable.RESULTS: A total of 2,939 incident cancer cases were identified. The multivariateHR of overall cancer risk among vegetarians compared with non-vegetarians wasstatistically significant [hr, 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-0.99] forboth genders combined. Also, a statistically significant association was foundbetween vegetarian diet and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (HR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.63-0.90). When analyzing the association of specific vegetarian dietarypatterns, vegan diets showed statistically significant protection for overallcancer incidence (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.99) in both genders combined and forfemale-specific cancers (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.47-0.92). Lacto-ovo-vegetariansappeared to be associated with decreased risk of cancers of the gastrointestinalsystem (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.92).CONCLUSION: Vegetarian diets seem to confer protection against cancer.IMPACT: Vegan diet seems to confer lower risk for overall and female-specificcancer than other dietary patterns. The lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets seem to conferprotection from cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.PMCID: PMC3565018PMID: 23169929 Link to comment Share on other sites More sharing options...
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