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Dean Pomerleau

Cold Exposure & Other Mild Stressors for Increased Health & Longevity

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I drive a lot and So I do about 45 minutes of it in a very cold car no heat whatsoever. It was about 30 degress this morning when I drove and I was quite cold. I have been doing it for the past few weeks as the weather has cooled down. I cannot say it either increased my appetite or made me crave sweets....it is a very powerful gratification inducer however!! How lucky we are to be able to so easily escape the cold unlike our ancestors who lived in these northern latitudes.

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Mike, that's something I do as well. twice a week I drive across montainous land with freezing temps for a couple of hours. Last time it was 19 °F (-7°C) outside and I wear a light shirt. I turn all knobs to cold and switch the fan on. I'm usually shivering but the gratification as you say is huge. I have to wear gloves otherwise the hands become unsensitive. When I hit the office the hunger is sometimes overwhelming.

I just believe our ancestors where a little like Wim Hof. He must be a genetic relic of that ancestral imperviousness to climate.

Edited by mccoy

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it was -22 °F (-7°C)

 

That's incorrect.   :)xyz    -22°F = -30°C,   -22°C = -7.6°F,   -7°C = +19.4°F,    (-40°F = -40°C) .

 

https://www.rapidtables.com/convert/temperature/celsius-to-fahrenheit.html

 

(I grew up with F temperatures,  but now I live in a C country, so I do conversions when I can't  quite "feel" what the C numbers mean.  I do "feel" the minus C numbers now, after multiple Siberian winters.)

 

In any case,  it sounds like you are getting some serious cold exposure! 

 

Wim Hof. He must be a genetic relic of that ancestral imperviousness to climate.

 

 

His breathing technique is an important part of it.  Something like the ancient yogic "breath of fire".

Edited by Sibiriak

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Sibiriak, thanks for the correction, I should have noticed earlier but this is a tricky conversion. -7 °C = 19°F, so far that's the extent of external temps in our peninsular mountain range.

Last year it went down to -14°C = 7°F in the coldest point. Very rarely it gets down to mild Siberian temperatures of -20°C = -4 °F.

Edited by mccoy

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In any case,  it sounds like you are getting some serious cold exposure! 

 

Wim Hof. He must be a genetic relic of that ancestral imperviousness to climate.

 

 

His breathing technique is an important part of it.  Something like the ancient yogic "breath of fire".

 

 

Actually, I'm not very good at CE, air in the car always gets a little warmed and dried up by the engine heat even on a cold knob. With a T-shirt and below freezing (0°C = 32°F) temps I cannot resist long, unless running or heavily exercising. Also, cold water is far worse than cold air and I only take a cold shower for 2-3 minutes in the morning.

 

RE.: Wim Hof's breathing technique. I wonder if anyone of you guys knows what's the best bang for the buck, his online course or some of his books. He says his technique is similar to the Tibetian Tummo, only far easier. Probably as you say similar to BOF pranayama.

 

It may be a necessary practice to switch to another level of CE, where we don't just ignore cold, we boost our production of heat.

 

Wim Hof's stunts like being buried under ice for over 2 hours or swimming 100 yards below frozen sea ice entail more than just mental detachment, they entail an actual huge change in body circulation and thermal homeostasis. Surely it's out of the hormesis region for general population.

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Adam Walker while swimming thru the Tsugaru Strait in Japan, with strong unfavourable currents + sharks sightings. This is apparently the harder cross in the 7-straits challenge. These guys must all have developed an insane degree of resistance to cold. Wonder about the mechanisms, sure powerful BAT activation + off the charts norepinephrine concentrations during the challenge and I wonder what else (also I wonder about the fuel ingested). Also, as he says in another vid, 80% of the challenge is mental. The swimmers must not linger on being into an hostile cold ocean with aquatic predators around.

 

Edit: in another vid they reported the temp in teh Tsugaru street, the minimum was 57°F=14°C, not as cold as I imagined then.

 

But also:

 

The recommended time to attempt crossings is July and August, although some have attempted in May and June when the water is still closer to 10°C (50°F) than 15°C (59°F), but in July and August, the water temperature increases well above 16°C (61°F).

...Swimmers are challenged by occasional patches of cold water that flow up from the depths that have even chilled such marathon swimming stalwarts as Stephen Redmond...

 


http://www.swim-west.com/how-to-eat-and-what-in-marathon-open-water-swims/

Edited by mccoy

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I hope this stuff is considered sufficiently In-Topic but it is sure fascinating. I found some examples of feeds while marathon swimming, they are of course carbs-based (simple but also complex) and they must be eaten very quickly, lest the body looses heat while motionless in the water.

 

 

http://www.swim-west.com/how-to-eat-and-what-in-marathon-open-water-swims/

My nutrition for long distance is made out of dates, bananas, protein bars, whole wheat or rye bread with date spread or tahini and honey mix and I always have 4 jelly’s with me in my bathing suit, just in case I feel the need for a boost of immediate energy.

** I personally prefer food over Jelly’s.

*** Another example of something many swimmers will consume is a warm carb drink which you can drink every 30 minutes and gives you 300 calories an hour (150 calories every half hour).
There’s no doubt that digestion wise the drink is much easier to digest and it enables shorter breaks. It’s wonderful for crossing a canal or other cold water swims.

 

Edited by mccoy

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Mccoy,  I  thought I had some links somewhere regarding Wim Hof's breathing techniques,  but I've got to get off the computer now...

 

I did find this in my bookmarks:
 

Neurocognitive and Somatic Components of Temperature Increases during g-Tummo Meditation: Legend and Reality

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0058244

 

 

This book has some straightforward, science-oriented discussion of basic pranayama which I found useful:

 

Anatomy of Hatha Yoga

https://www.amazon.com/Anatomy-Hatha-Yoga-Students-Practitioners/dp/097070061X

Edited by Sibiriak

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Mccoy,  how about sexohormesis?
 

https://books.google.com/books?id=UmviDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA20&lpg=PA20&dq=Sexuality:++An+unmentionable+hormetic+challenge&source=bl&ots=zhY9k14O8Z&sig=n3LnIzxR8MHM1H6fq-OUVxrT5vE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjCp_OgyafYAhVIQJoKHZ6eC18Q6AEIKTAA

 

Challenging Ageing: The Anti-senescence Effects of Hormesis, Environmental Enrichment, and Information Exposure 

 

 

Merry Christmas!

Edited by Sibiriak

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Mccoy,  how about sexohormesis?

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=UmviDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA20&lpg=PA20&dq=Sexuality:++An+unmentionable+hormetic+challenge&source=bl&ots=zhY9k14O8Z&sig=n3LnIzxR8MHM1H6fq-OUVxrT5vE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjCp_OgyafYAhVIQJoKHZ6eC18Q6AEIKTAA

 

Challenging Ageing: The Anti-senescence Effects of Hormesis, Environmental Enrichment, and Information Exposure

 

 

Merry Christmas!

 

Interesting article, although there is not any indication of an hormetic dosage at any given age. Probably there couldn't be, being libido so very variable among subjects.

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Going down to -17C at my house this week, happy cold exposure!

Bing's search background pic of the day:

mountainSauna.jpg

Sauna on Monte Lagazuoi in the Dolomites of Italy
Outside is the freezing alpine air of Monte Lagazuoi, a popular skiing and hiking peak in Italy’s Dolomite mountain range. Inside is the warmth of a traditional Finnish sauna, where visitors might take a steam after a day on the slopes. 
From the inside:
sauna-interno.jpg

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Hey everybody - you can now all relax! You can get all the brown fat you want, without spending a single second in the cold or involved in other arduous efforts to boost your brown adipose tissue.

 

Instead, you can just turn your harmful white adipose tissue into the beneficial brown adipose tissue:

 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/12/171228100910.htm

 

"A new approach to reducing bulging tummy fats has shown promise in laboratory trials.

It combines a new way to deliver drugs, via a micro-needle patch, with drugs that are known to turn energy-storing white fat into energy-burning brown fat. This innovative approach developed by scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) reduced weight gain in mice on a high fat diet and their fat mass by more than 30 per cent over four weeks.

The new type of skin patch contains hundreds of micro-needles, each thinner than a human hair, which are loaded with the drug Beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonist or another drug called thyroid hormone T3 triiodothyronine.

When the patch is pressed into the skin for about two minutes, these micro-needles become embedded in the skin and detach from the patch, which can then be removed.

As the needles degrade, the drug molecules then slowly diffuse to the energy-storing white fat underneath the skin layer, turning them into energy-burning brown fats.

Brown fats are found in babies and they help to keep the baby warm by burning energy. As humans grow older, the amount of brown fats lessens and is replaced with visceral white fats."

 

Dean has kept a nifty list of substances and procedures for increasing BF. He should add this super cheap way ($5 or less) requiring no effort to speak of.

 

That, friends, is the ultimate goal of all life extension - effortless interventions, requiring little sacrifice, delivering all the goodies. CR is a lifelong painful road of sacrifices, and CE can also be quite taxing. Instead, let's look to pharmacological and genetic interventions. 

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I bit of a "frost" expected in my area soon.  -43C predicted.     Opportunities for cold exposure enthusiasts!

 

Mccoy:  This is the link of the Rifugio Lagazuoi..

 

 

20170905_123200.jpg

 

 

That woman doesn't look so happy.   Too many carbs?

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I bit of a "frost" expected in my area soon.  -43C predicted.     Opportunities for cold exposure enthusiasts!

 

 

That sounds a little off the hormesis region, even for aboriginal siberians, who sure have a shifted criohormetic curve

 

The Lagazuoli  is definitely not managed by the disciples of Dr. Atkins!

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Mccoy,  it's about  -34 C right now and dropping.  "January 19 is the day when the faithful Christians in Russia celebrate Epiphany . This spiritual festival is dedicated to the great biblical event, the Baptism of Jesus Christ in the waters of the Jordan River. (Wiki)"

 

 

The tradition here is to take a dip in the Yenisei river.   People already started going in after midnight.   News photographers had some problems capturing the event-- camera batteries freezing up quickly in the cold weather.    I hope to give it a go later today.

 

 

Freezing-Winter-Ice-Swimming-Bath-In-Rus

 

http://www.reckontalk.com/freezing-ice-swimming-in-russia-crazy-siberian-winter/

 

 

hqdefault.jpg

Edited by Sibiriak

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6EOdLuq33vY.jpg

 

 

 

Hmmm....looks like a good day for some Siberian cold exposure!

 

lXMO4IM-BII.jpg

 

From the monastery,  a short walk to the river.

 

PPvYFeR-jqU.jpg

 

This is a bit chilly.  Maybe I should try the "breath of fire."

 

hezVZGx_edk.jpg

 

I wonder how long I can stay completely submerged.

 

BhthMxYm7gk.jpg

 

Okay,  enough of that.  Time for some hot cacao!

Edited by Sibiriak

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Congratulations Sibiriak, after those pics I just feel like an hopeless wimp and Wim Hof should watch out for you!

 

I'm also nonplussed: with those temps (-30 to -40 °C) I imagined that the water should instantaneously freeze, closing up the hole in the ice and also freeze on the body and hair when resurfacing, making people look like a frozen statue.

 

Also: how long can a human being resist without leaving the hormetic region (no hypothermia or frozen skin) in swim trunks, dry, at -30°C, no wind?

 

Edit: pls. don't tell me that the last stage of epiphany purification requires to walk back after the splash to the monastery, where you leave your dry clothes...

Edited by mccoy

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Mccoy: I imagined that the water should instantaneously freeze, closing up the hole in the ice...

 

It does freeze over pretty quickly.  That day there were two persons assigned to watch the hole and presumably keep it open.  There were a trickle of people going in and out throughout  day,  so I guess the water was kept moving enough not to freeze on top.   The next day I went back and the area was empty and the hole frozen over solid.

 

This ice hole is on the left bank of the river, more on the outskirts of the city.   There are other areas which are more popular and with better facilities,  and on the right bank there is less frozen ice  on the side of the river.  The central river itself never freezes over completely, afaik.

 

how long can a human being resist without leaving the hormetic region (no hypothermia or frozen skin) in swim trunks, dry, at -30°C, no wind?

 

I have no idea. My excitement and adrenaline  made me more oblivious to the cold than normal.  Usually,  I would completely freak out about being out in those temps without a hat even for a short while.

 

About twenty yards from the ice hole there was a miserable little low-roofed shack for changing clothes.   I was shivering and frozen when I got back there.  I started getting dressed, then had a burst of energy and went back and took another quick dip in the water.   When I got back to the shack for the second time, I was really shivering and my hands were freezing up and it was  difficult to get dressed quickly.  

 

After dressing I got back to my car and warmed my hands a bit on the heater air.   A bunch of guys were in a car next to me sipping hot drinks from a thermos.  They gave me a thumbs up.   One of the guys looked like a boxer--he was wearing a hooded robe with his name emblazoned on the back.   Eventually he got out and quickly  sprinted  down to the ice hole, wearing his robe and some booties.   I didn't watch him.  But within a matter of seconds it seemed, he was back in the car!    Many Russians believe that if you go into the river on Epiphany day,  you will be protected from ill health for the whole year afterwards.

 

The worst of the whole thing for me was the intense pain in my toes that lasted about 20 minutes after I got home and unthawed. Fortunately, it did go away completely and I felt really great.   I felt really invigorated with an incredible clarity of mind for a long while afterwards.

Edited by Sibiriak

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Melatonin increases brown adipose tissue mass and function in Zücker diabetic fatty rats: implications for obesity control.

Abstract

Melatonin limits obesity in rodents without affecting food intake and activity, suggesting a thermogenic effect. Previously we demonstrated that melatonin browns subcutaneous fat in Zücker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Other works pointed to melatonin as a signal that increases brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass and function in rodents. However, direct proof of thermogenic properties (uncoupled mitochondria) of the newly recruited BAT in response to melatonin is still lacking. Therefore, in the present work we investigated if melatonin recruits thermogenic BAT in ZDF rats. Zücker lean (ZL) and ZDF animals were subdivided into two groups, control © and treated with oral melatonin (M) for 6 weeks. Mitochondrial mass, activity of citrate synthase (CS) and respiratory chain complexes I and IV were lower in C-ZDF than in C-ZL animals (P < 0.001). Melatonin treatment increased BAT weight in ZDF rats (P < 0.001). Also, it rose mitochondrial mass (P < 0.01) and activities of CS and complexes I and IV (P < 0.001) in both, ZDF and ZL rats. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA and protein were 50% lower in BAT from obese rats. Also, guanosine diphosphate (GDP) binding was lower in ZDF than in lean rats (P< 0.01). Melatonin treatment of obese rats restored the expression of UCP1 and GDP binding to levels of lean rats, and sensitized the thermogenic response to cold exposure. These data demonstrated that melatonin recruits thermogenic BAT in ZDF rats. This may contribute to melatonin's control of body weight and its metabolic benefits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

UCP1; ZDF rats; brown adipose tissue; melatonin; mitochondria; thermogenesis

 

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Cardiac natriuretic peptides promote adipose 'browning' through mTOR complex-1.

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

Activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the ability to increase uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) levels and mitochondrial biogenesis in white fat (termed 'browning'), has great therapeutic potential to treat obesity and its comorbidities because of the net increase in energy expenditure. β-adrenergic-cAMP-PKA signaling has long been known to regulate these processes. Recently PKA-dependent activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) was shown to be necessary for adipose 'browning' as well as proper development of the interscapular BAT. In addition to cAMP-PKA signaling pathways, cGMP-PKG signaling also promotes this browning process; however, it is unclear whether or not mTORC1 is also necessary for cGMP-PKG induced browning.

METHOD:

Activation of mTORC1 by natriuretic peptides (NP), which bind to and activate the membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase, NP receptor A (NPRA), was assessed in mouse and human adipocytes in vitro and mouse adipose tissue in vivo.

RESULTS:

Activation of mTORC1 by NP-cGMP signaling was observed in both mouse and human adipocytes. We show that NP-NPRA-PKG signaling activate mTORC1 by direct PKG phosphorylation of Raptor at Serine 791. Administration of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) to mice induced Ucp1 expression in inguinal adipose tissue in vivo, which was completely blocked by the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin.

CONCLUSION:

Our results demonstrate that NP-cGMP signaling activates mTORC1 via PKG, which is a component in the mechanism of adipose browning.

Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Kinases; Thermogenesis; UCP1

 

 

Regulation of adiposity by mTORC1.
Abstract

Obesity is characterized by an excessive increase in the adipose tissue mass, and is associated with higher incidence of several chronic metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Therefore, its increasing prevalence is a public health concern, and it is important to better understand its etiology to develop new therapeutic strategies. Evidence accumulated over the years indicates that obesity is associated with a marked activation in adipose tissue of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a signaling pathway that controls lipid metabolism, and adipocyte formation and maintenance. Curiously, mTORC1 is also involved in the control of nonshivering thermogenesisand recruitment as well as browning of white adipose tissue. In this review, we explored mTORC1 functions in adipocytes and presented evidence, suggesting that mTORC1 may either increase or reduce adiposity, depending on the conditions and activation levels.

PMID:29364369

Edited by Gordo

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Evaluation of Short and Long Term Cold Stress Challenge of Nerve Grow Factor, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Osteocalcin and Oxytocin mRNA Expression in BAT, Brain, Bone and Reproductive Tissue of Male Mice Using Real-Time PCR and Linear Correlation Analysis.
Abstract

The correlation between the Ngf/p75ntr-Ntrk1 and Bdnf, Osteocalcin-Ost/Gprc6a and Oxytocin-Oxt/Oxtr genes, was challenged investigating their mRNA levels in 3 months-old mice after cold-stress (CS). Uncoupling protein-1 (Ucp-1) was used as positive control. Control mice were maintained at room temperature T = 25°C, CS mice were maintained at T = 4°C for 6 h and 5-days (N = 15 mice). RT-PCR experiments showed that Ucp-1 and Ngf genes were up-regulated after 6 h CS in brown adipose tissues (BAT), respectively, by 2 and 1.5-folds; Ucp-1was upregulated also after 5-days, while Ngfr (p75ntr) and Ntrk1 genes were downregulated after 6 h and 5-days CS in BAT. NGF and P75NTR were upregulated in bone and testis following 5-days, and P75NTR in testis after 6 h CS. Bdnf was instead up-regulated in bone following 5-days CS and down-regulated in testis. OST was upregulated by 16 and 3-fold in bone and BAT, respectively, following 5-days CS. Gprc6a was upregulated after 6 h in brain, while Bglap (Ost) gene was downregulated. Oxt gene was upregulated by 5-fold following 5-days CS in bone. Oxtr was upregulated by 0.5 and 0.3-fold, respectively, following 6 h and 5-days CS in brain. Oxtr and Oxt were downregulated in testis and in BAT. The changes in the expression levels of control genes vs. genes following 6 h and 5-days CS were correlated in all tissues, but not in BAT. Correlation in BAT was improved eliminating Ngfr (p75ntr) data. The correlation in brain was lost eliminating Oxtr data. In sum, Ucp-1 potentiation in BAT after cold stress is associated with early Ngf-response in the same tissue and trophic action in bone and testis. In contrast, BDNF exerts bone and neuroprotective effects. Similarly to Ucp-1, Bglap (Ost) signaling is enhanced in bone and BAT while it may exert local neuroprotective effects thought its receptor. Ngfr (p75ntr) regulates the adaptation to CS through a feed-back loop in BAT. Oxtrregulates the gene-response to CS through a feed-forward loop in brain. Overall these results expand the understanding of the physiology of these molecules under metabolic thermogenesis.

KEYWORDS:

brain-derived neurotrophic factor; cold stress; gene expression; nerve growth factor; osteocalcin; oxytocin

 

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SHORT-TERM MENTHOL TREATMENT PROMOTES PERSISTENT THERMOGENESIS WITHOUT INDUCTION OF COMPENSATORY FOOD CONSUMPTION IN RATS: IMPLICATIONS FOR OBESITY CONTROL.
Abstract

In this study, we aimed at evaluating the influence of daily repeated menthol treatments on body mass and thermoregulatory effectors in Wistar rats, considering that menthol is a TRPM8 channel agonist that mimics cold sensation and activates thermoregulatory cold-defense mechanisms in mammals, promoting hyperthermia and increasing energy expenditure, and has been suggested as an anti-obesity drug. Male Wistar rats were topically treated with 5% menthol for 3 or 9 consecutive days, while body mass, food intake, abdominal temperature, metabolism, cutaneous vasoconstriction and thermal preference were measured. Menthol promoted hyperthermia on all days of treatment, due to an increase in metabolism and cutaneous vasoconstriction, without affecting food intake, resulting in less mass gain in menthol-hyperthermic animals. As the treatment progressed, the menthol-induced increases in metabolism and hyperthermia were attenuated, but not abolished. Moreover, cutaneous vasoconstriction was potentiated and an increase in the warmth-seeking behavior was induced. Taken together, the results suggest that, although changes occur in thermoeffector recruitment during the course of short-term treatment, menthol is a promising drug to prevent body mass gain.

KEYWORDS:

TRPM8; body mass; cold defense; hyperthermia; thermoregulation

PMID: 29357504
 

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