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Reducing sugar use in coffee while maintaining enjoyment: A randomized controlled trial.

Lenne RL, Mann T.

J Health Psychol. 2017 Aug 1:1359105317723452. doi: 10.1177/1359105317723452. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28795605

http://journals.sagepub.com.sci-hub.cc/doi/10.1177/1359105317723452

Abstract

Consuming coffee without (or with less) sugar may help people lower their daily calorie intake without restrictive dieting. We tested two theory-based interventions to help people do so. One involved gradually reducing sugar over time, and the other was based on mindfulness theory. These interventions were compared to a repeated exposure (to sugar-free coffee) group. Participants in all conditions had significant increases in consumption of sugar-free coffee that lasted 6 months. The mindfulness group had a larger increase than the others. Unexpectedly, the gradual reduction intervention led to a decrease in liking for sugar-free coffee and was the least effective.

KEYWORDS:

brief interventions; dieting; eating; mindfulness; reducing sugar

 

Antiobesity effects of resveratrol: which tissues are involved?

Fernández-Quintela A, Milton-Laskibar I, González M, Portillo MP.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Aug 10. doi: 10.1111/nyas.13413. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 28796895

Abstract

The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in recent decades and is reaching epidemic proportions. The current options for overweight and obesity management are energy restriction and physical activity. However, compliance with these treatments is frequently poor and less successful than expected. Therefore, the scientific community is interested in active biomolecules, which may be useful in body weight management. Among them, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) has generated great interest as an antiobesity agent. The focus of this report is the mechanisms of action of resveratrol on several tissues (i.e., white and brown adipose tissues, liver, and skeletal muscle). Resveratrol blunts fat accumulation through decreasing adipogenesis and/or de novo lipogenesis in white adipose tissue. The effects on lipolysis are controversial. Regarding brown adipose tissue, resveratrol increases the capacity for adaptive thermogenesis. As far as liver and skeletal muscle is concerned, resveratrol increases lipid oxidation in both tissues. Therefore, in rodents, there is a general consensus concerning the effect of resveratrol on reducing body fat accumulation. By contrast, in humans, the studies are scarce, and no clear antiobesity action has been revealed so far.

KEYWORDS:

antiobesity effect; brown adipose tissue; liver; resveratrol; skeletal muscle; white adipose tissue

 

The Scientist » News & Opinion » Daily News

A Potential Remedy for the Aging Brain

In mice, injected fragments of a naturally occurring protein boost memory in young and old animals and improve cognition and mobility in a model of neurodegenerative disease.

By Aggie Mika | August 8, 2017

http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/50043/title/A-Potential-Remedy-for-the-Aging-Brain/&utm_campaign=NEWSLETTER_TS_The-Scientist-Daily_2016&utm_source=hs_email&utm_medium=email&utm_content=55112199&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-9EnYsp3jGeB_hB2e1xByiXUGvuSww7TCXxIXSt6BFaIaqSs0EF8GWFogpBShtRolcmk9rfFX5sZkNvoAK-S2HdB-pLwQ&_hsmi=55112199

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Peripheral Elevation of a Klotho Fragment Enhances Brain Function and Resilience in Young, Aging, and α-Synuclein Transgenic Mice

Julio Leon, Arturo J. Moreno, Bayardo I. Garay, Robert J. Chalkley, Alma L. Burlingame, Dan Wang, Dena B. Dubal3,4,'Correspondence information about the author Dena B. Dubal

Open Access

Cell Rep Volume 20, Issue 6, p1360–1371, 8 August 2017 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2017.07.024

http://www.cell.com/cell-reports/fulltext/S2211-1247(17)30990-7

Highlights

•A klotho fragment (αKL-F) enhances cognition in young and aging mice

•αKL-F counters deficits in α-synuclein mice without altering pathogenic protein levels

•αKL-F induces GluN2B cleavage and increases NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity

•Selective NMDAR blockade of GluN2B subunits abolishes acute αKL-F effects

Summary

Cognitive dysfunction and decreased mobility from aging and neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases, are major biomedical challenges in need of more effective therapies. Increasing brain resilience may represent a new treatment strategy. Klotho, a longevity factor, enhances cognition when genetically and broadly overexpressed in its full, wild-type form over the mouse lifespan. Whether acute klotho treatment can rapidly enhance cognitive and motor functions or induce resilience is a gap in our knowledge of its therapeutic potential. Here, we show that an α-klotho protein fragment (αKL-F), administered peripherally, surprisingly induced cognitive enhancement and neural resilience despite impermeability to the blood-brain barrier in young, aging, and transgenic α-synuclein mice. αKL-F treatment induced cleavage of the NMDAR subunit GluN2B and also enhanced NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity. GluN2B blockade abolished αKL-F-mediated effects. Peripheral αKL-F treatment is sufficient to induce neural enhancement and resilience in mice and may prove therapeutic in humans.

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Review: Comparison of the Effectiveness of Decontaminating Strategies for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables and Related Limitations.

Yoon JH, Lee SY.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Aug 11:0. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1354813. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28799790

Abstract

Given that it should be aware of the nutritional benefits, resulting from the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables consumed raw and/or minimally processed, comparing the efficacy of different individual sanitizing methods against the major food-borne pathogens localized in fresh commodities is of much importance; these products are easily vulnerable to the microbial contamination. In this review, the current propensity of alternative sanitizing methods was introduced, as well as principal elements for deteriorating the cleaning effects were also discussed. Chlorine-based-sanitizers exhibited the microbial reduction of <1.12 log10 CFU/g on fruits and vegetables. Most of aqueous disinfectants showed ≤3.01 log10-redcutions against a variety of microorganisms inoculated on fresh commodities. Similarly, several physical technologies such as hydrostatic pressure and ultraviolet light were effective for reducing surviving bacterial cells could recover and grow rapidly during the whole processing, posing a potential risk of causing food-borne outbreaks associated with the fresh products. The invasion and subsequent localization of the organisms into the inner parts of products, interactions between the microbial cell and food-contacting surfaces, as well as development of biofilms could restrict the antimicrobial activity of the currently used approaches.

KEYWORDS:

Decontamination; disinfectant; fresh produce; pathogen; sanitization

 

Lycopene and Tomato and risk of cardiovascular diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence.

Cheng HM, Koutsidis G, Lodge JK, Ashor AW, Siervo M, Lara J.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Aug 11:0. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1362630. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28799780

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1080/10408398.2017.1362630

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Worldwide, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains as the main cause of mortality. Observational studies supports an association between intake of tomato products or lycopene with a reduced CVDs risk. Our aim was to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence on the topic.

METHODS:

Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched from inception until July 2017. We included longitudinal and cross-sectional studies reporting associations between lycopene and tomato consumption and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among adult subjects. Random-effects models were used to determine the pooled effect sizes.

RESULTS:

Twenty-eight publications met our inclusion criteria and 25 studies provided quantitative data for meta-analysis. Results showed that individuals in the highest consumption category of, or with the highest serum concentration of, lycopene had significantly lower risk of stroke (hazard ratio (HR) 0.74, 0.62-0.89, p = 0.02; I2 = 32) and CVDs (HR 0.86, 0.77-0.95, p = 0.003; I2 = 0). In addition, individuals categorised in the highest serum concentration of lycopene also had significantly lower risk of mortality (HR 0.63, 0.49-0.81, p<0.001; I2 = 46). Lycopene was not significantly associated with myocardial infarction, while scarce evidence on the association of lycopene with atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, or atrial fibrillation was evident. Evidence from three studies suggested that higher intakes of tomato were associated with non-significantly lower stroke, CVDs and CHD.

CONCLUSIONS:

This comprehensive meta-analysis suggests that high-intakes or high-serum concentration of lycopene are associated with significant reductions in the risk of stroke (26%), mortality (37%) and CVDs (14%).

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular disease; lycopene; meta-analysis; mortality; systematic review; tomato

 

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Summary of the 2016 Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality Evidence Review.

Balk EM, Lichtenstein AH.

Nutrients. 2017 Aug 11;9(8). pii: E865. doi: 10.3390/nu9080865. Review.

PMID: 28800093

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK384547/

http://www.mdpi.com.sci-hub.cc/2072-6643/9/8/865/htm

https://ahrq-ehc-application.s3.amazonaws.com/media/pdf/fatty-acids-cardiovascular-disease_research.pdf

Abstract

We summarize the 2016 update of the 2004 Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality's evidence review of omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The overall findings for the effects of marine oil supplements on intermediate CVD outcomes remain largely unchanged. There is high strength of evidence, based on numerous trials, of no significant effects of marine oils on systolic or diastolic blood pressures, but there are small, yet statistically significant increases in high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. The clinical significance of these small changes, particularly in combination, is unclear. The strongest effect of marine oils is on triglyceride concentrations. Across studies, this effect was dose-dependent and related to studies' mean baseline triglyceride concentration. In observational studies, there is low strength of evidence that increased marine oil intake lowers ischemic stroke risk. Among randomized controlled trials and observational studies, there is evidence of variable strength of no association with increased marine oil intake and lower CVD event risk. Evidence regarding alpha-linolenic acid intake is sparser. There is moderate strength of evidence of no effect on blood pressure or lipoprotein concentrations and low strength of evidence of no association with coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure.

KEYWORDS:

alpha-linolenic acid; blood pressure; cardiovascular disease; docosahexaenoic acid; eicosapentaenoic acid; high density lipoprotein; low density lipoprotein cholesterol; marine oil; meta-analysis; omega-3 fatty acids; systematic review; triglyceride

 

Link between biological clock and aging revealed: Study shows low-calorie diet may help keep body young

August 10, 2017

Link between biological clock and aging revealed

'Caloric restriction works by rejuvenating the biological clock in a most powerful way,' says Paolo Sassone-Corsi, director of UCI's Center for Epigenetics & Metabolism.

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-08-link-biological-clock-aging-revealed.html

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Circadian Reprogramming in the Liver Identifies Metabolic Pathways of Aging

Shogo Sato, Guiomar Solanas, Francisca Oliveira Peixoto, Leonardo Bee, Aikaterini Symeonidi, Mark S. Schmidt, Charles Brenner, Selma Masri, and others

Cell, Vol. 170, Issue 4, p664–677.e11

Published in issue: August 10, 2017

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.cell.2017.07.042

Highlights

•Aging reprograms clockwork with distinct modalities in the liver versus stem cells

•Liver circadian genomic signatures of aging are reverted by caloric restriction (CR)

•Cyclic protein acetylation is lost in old mice while CR results in hyperacetylation

•CR reorganizes circadian metabolic pathway linked to NAD+-SIRT1-AceCS1 in the liver

Summary

The process of aging and circadian rhythms are intimately intertwined, but how peripheral clocks involved in metabolic homeostasis contribute to aging remains unknown. Importantly, caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan in several organisms and rewires circadian metabolism. Using young versus old mice, fed ad libitum or under CR, we reveal reprogramming of the circadian transcriptome in the liver. These age-dependent changes occur in a highly tissue-specific manner, as demonstrated by comparing circadian gene expression in the liver versus epidermal and skeletal muscle stem cells. Moreover, de novo oscillating genes under CR show an enrichment in SIRT1 targets in the liver. This is accompanied by distinct circadian hepatic signatures in NAD+-related metabolites and cyclic global protein acetylation. Strikingly, this oscillation in acetylation is absent in old mice while CR robustly rescues global protein acetylation. Our findings indicate that the clock operates at the crossroad between protein acetylation, liver metabolism, and aging.

Keywords:

Circadian Clock, Aging, Acetylation, NAD, SIRT1, Liver Metabolism, Reprogramming

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Complex health problems and mortality among the oldest old in Sweden: decreased risk for men between 1992 and 2002.

Meinow B, Parker MG, Thorslund M.

Eur J Ageing. 2010 Apr 27;7(2):81-90. doi: 10.1007/s10433-010-0145-5. eCollection 2010 Jun.

PMID: 28798620

Abstract

Although mortality in older ages generally declined in most countries during the past decades less is known about mortality trends among the most vulnerable subset of the oldest old. The aim of this study was to investigate possible changes between 1992 and 2002 in the relation of complex health problems and mortality in two representative samples of the Swedish population aged 77+ (1992: n = 537; 2002: n = 561). Further, it was examined if trends differed by sex, education, and age. Serious problems in three health domains were identified (diseases/symptoms, mobility, cognition/communication). People with serious problems in two or three domains were considered to have complex health problems. Four-year mortality was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regressions. Controlled for age, sex, education, and health status mortality risk decreased by 20% during the 10-year period. Complex health problems strongly predicted 4-year mortality in both 1992 and 2002. No single dimension explained the decrease. Men with complex health problems accounted for most of the decrease in mortality risk, so much that the gender difference in mortality risk was almost eliminated among elderly people with complex health problems 2002. A considerable decrease in the mortality risk among men with complex health problems has implications for the individual who may face longer periods of complex health problems and dependency. It will also place increasing demands upon medical and social services as well as informal caregivers.

KEYWORDS:

Complex health problems; Frail elderly people; Mortality trends; Multimorbidity; Sweden

 

Yisrael Kristal, world's oldest man and Holocaust survivor, dies at 113

'He always saw only light and good in everything,' daughter says

The Associated Press Posted: Aug 12, 2017

http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/yisrael-kristal-oldest-man-dies-1.4245000

 

Statistics Canada data shows percentage of obese children has fallen nationally

But expert says data which uses BMI might not be the most accurate measure of health

CBC News Posted: Aug 11, 2017

http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/statistics-canada-data-shows-percentage-of-obese-children-has-fallen-nationally-1.4244100

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Lancet Commission Claims a Third of Dementia Cases Are Preventable

Series - Alzheimer's Association International Conference 2017

http://www.alzforum.org/news/conference-coverage/lancet-commission-claims-third-dementia-cases-are-preventable

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Dementia prevention, intervention, and care.

Livingston G, Sommerlad A, Orgeta V, Costafreda SG, Huntley J, Ames D, Ballard C, Banerjee S, Burns A, Cohen-Mansfield J, Cooper C, Fox N, Gitlin LN, Howard R, Kales HC, Larson EB, Ritchie K, Rockwood K, Sampson EL, Samus Q, Schneider LS, Selbæk G, Teri L, Mukadam N.

Lancet. 2017 Jul 19. pii: S0140-6736(17)31363-6. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31363-6. [Epub ahead of print] Review. No abstract available.

PMID: 28735855

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31363-6

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Progress on dementia-leaving no one behind.

Prince M.

Lancet. 2017 Jul 19. pii: S0140-6736(17)31757-9. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31757-9. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

PMID: 28735856

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31757-9

 

Benign breast disease and risk of thyroid cancer.

Luo J, Hendryx M, Nassir R, Cheng TD, Lane D, Margolis KL.

Cancer Causes Control. 2017 Jul 6. doi: 10.1007/s10552-017-0918-7. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28681104

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

It has been suggested that breast and thyroid diseases may be linked. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between benign breast disease and subsequent risk of thyroid cancer.

METHODS:

Postmenopausal women (n = 133,875) aged 50-79 years were followed up for a mean of 14 years. Benign breast disease was defined by history of biopsy. Incident thyroid cancer cases were confirmed by medical record review. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios.

RESULTS:

There were 370 incident thyroid cancer cases during the follow-up period. Compared to women without BBD, women with BBD had a significant increased risk of thyroid cancer after adjusting for potential confounders (HR 1.38 95% CI 1.10-1.73), especially for women with more than two biopsies (HR 1.59 95% CI 1.10-2.26). There were no significant differences in thyroid tumor size, stage or histologic types between women with and without BBD.

CONCLUSION:

Our large prospective study observed that postmenopausal women with BBD had an increased risk for thyroid cancer compared with women without BBD. A more detailed investigation of thyroid cancer risk according to different subtypes of benign breast disease is needed to better understand the association observed between thyroid and benign breast diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Breast disease; Cohort study; Epidemiology; Risk factors; Thyroid cancer

 

Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the United States during the 2015-2016 Season.

Jackson ML, Chung JR, Jackson LA, Phillips CH, Benoit J, Monto AS, Martin ET, Belongia EA, McLean HQ, Gaglani M, Murthy K, Zimmerman R, Nowalk MP, Fry AM, Flannery B.

N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 10;377(6):534-543. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1700153.

PMID: 28792867

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain used in the live attenuated influenza vaccine was changed for the 2015-2016 influenza season because of its lack of effectiveness in young children in 2013-2014. The Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network evaluated the effect of this change as part of its estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in 2015-2016.

METHODS:

We enrolled patients 6 months of age or older who presented with acute respiratory illness at ambulatory care clinics in geographically diverse U.S. sites. Using a test-negative design, we estimated vaccine effectiveness as (1-OR)×100, in which OR is the odds ratio for testing positive for influenza virus among vaccinated versus unvaccinated participants. Separate estimates were calculated for the inactivated vaccines and the live attenuated vaccine.

RESULTS:

Among 6879 eligible participants, 1309 (19%) tested positive for influenza virus, predominantly for A(H1N1)pdm09 (11%) and influenza B (7%). The effectiveness of the influenza vaccine against any influenza illness was 48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 41 to 55; P<0.001). Among children 2 to 17 years of age, the inactivated influenza vaccine was 60% effective (95% CI, 47 to 70; P<0.001), and the live attenuated vaccine was not observed to be effective (vaccine effectiveness, 5%; 95% CI, -47 to 39; P=0.80). Vaccine effectiveness against A(H1N1)pdm09 among children was 63% (95% CI, 45 to 75; P<0.001) for the inactivated vaccine, as compared with -19% (95% CI, -113 to 33; P=0.55) for the live attenuated vaccine.

CONCLUSIONS:

Influenza vaccines reduced the risk of influenza illness in 2015-2016. However, the live attenuated vaccine was found to be ineffective among children in a year with substantial inactivated vaccine effectiveness. Because the 2016-2017 A(H1N1)pdm09 strain used in the live attenuated vaccine was unchanged from 2015-2016, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices made an interim recommendation not to use the live attenuated influenza vaccine for the 2016-2017 influenza season.

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Fish, long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids consumption, and risk of all-cause mortality: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis from 23 independent prospective cohort studies.

Wan Y, Zheng J, Wang F, Li D.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017;26(5):939-956. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.072017.01.

PMID: 28802305

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

The consumption of fish and long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may influence the risk of all-cause mortality, but the findings have been inconsistent. The current systematic review and meta-analysis is to clarify the association between fish and long chain n-3 PUFA consumption with risk of all-cause mortality.

METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN:

Studies published before March 2017 were identified through electronic searches using PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science database. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risks with 95% CI of all-cause mortality for fish and long chain n-3 PUFA consumption. Results were combined using a random effects model.

RESULTS:

Twenty-three prospective cohorts with a total of 1,035,416 participants were included. Twenty-two pooled studies involving 985,126 participants indicated that fish intake was associated with 6% (RR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.90, 0.98) reduction in risk of all-cause mortality. Six studies with 430,579 participants investigated the association between long chain n-3 PUFA and all-cause mortality risk, the relative risk for highest versus lowest category was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.93). Doseresponse analysis suggested that the risk of all-cause mortality was reduced by 7% (RR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.99) for every 0.2 g per day increment in long chain n-3 PUFA consumption.

CONCLUSIONS:

Current meta-analysis indicates that both fish and long chain n-3 PUFA consumption are inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality. These findings could have public health implications with regard to lowering risk of all-cause mortality through dietary interventions.

 

Does adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern reduce asthma symptoms in children? A systematic review of observational studies.

Papamichael MM, Itsiopoulos C, Susanto NH, Erbas B.

Public Health Nutr. 2017 Aug 14:1-13. doi: 10.1017/S1368980017001823. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28803594

http://www.cambridge.org.ololo.sci-hub.cc/core/journals/public-health-nutrition/article/does-adherence-to-the-mediterranean-dietary-pattern-reduce-asthma-symptoms-in-children-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies/4EEB79D61E74722C3224A43B8888CCB2

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of the present systematic review was to synthesize evidence from the literature to assess efficacy of the Mediterranean dietary pattern in childhood asthma. Design/Setting A systematic search of six databases, three clinical trial registries and hand-search of peer-reviewed articles was conducted up to 29 October 2016. Inclusion criteria included exposure to a Mediterranean dietary pattern, measurement of asthma symptoms and study population of children aged <18 years. Quality assessment was conducted. Due to significant heterogeneity, meta-analysis was not feasible.

RESULTS:

Of the 436 articles identified, after removal of duplicates and based on inclusion criteria, fifteen observational studies conducted in Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean countries were relevant. No randomized controlled trials were retrieved. Twelve studies reported an inverse association between adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and asthma in children, two studies showed no association and one study showed an increase in asthma symptoms. In fourteen out of fifteen studies, quality assessment checks revealed good reliability and validity among study methodologies.

CONCLUSIONS:

The current systematic review revealed a consistent inverse relationship (protective) between a Mediterranean dietary pattern and asthma in children. Future well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to provide solid evidence. Nevertheless, the existing level of evidence adds to the public health message relating to the beneficial effects of a Mediterranean-type diet in children suffering with asthma.

KEYWORDS:

Asthma; Child; Mediterranean diet; Mediterranean dietary pattern; Nutrition

 

Vitamin D intake and risk of CVD and all-cause mortality: evidence from the Caerphilly Prospective Cohort Study.

Guo J, Cockcroft JR, Elwood PC, Pickering JE, Lovegrove JA, Givens DI.

Public Health Nutr. 2017 Aug 14:1-10. doi: 10.1017/S1368980017001732. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28803595

http://www.cambridge.org.ololo.sci-hub.cc/core/journals/public-health-nutrition/article/vitamin-d-intake-and-risk-of-cvd-and-allcause-mortality-evidence-from-the-caerphilly-prospective-cohort-study/0878FDF750620970F5567B4A968CF749

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Prospective data on the associations between vitamin D intake and risk of CVD and all-cause mortality are limited and inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between vitamin D intake and CVD risk and all-cause mortality in the Caerphilly Prospective Cohort Study.

DESIGN:

The associations of vitamin D intake with CVD risk markers were examined cross-sectionally at baseline and longitudinally at 5-year, 10-year and >20-year follow-ups. In addition, the predictive value of vitamin D intake for CVD events and all-cause mortality after >20 years of follow-up was examined. Logistic regression and general linear regression were used for data analysis.

SETTING:

Participants in the UK.

SUBJECTS:

Men (n 452) who were free from CVD and type 2 diabetes at recruitment.

RESULTS:

Higher vitamin D intake was associated with increased HDL cholesterol (P=0·003) and pulse pressure (P=0·04) and decreased total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol (P=0·008) cross-sectionally at baseline, but the associations were lost during follow-up. Furthermore, higher vitamin D intake was associated with decreased concentration of plasma TAG at baseline (P=0·01) and at the 5-year (P=0·01), but not the 10-year examination. After >20 years of follow-up, vitamin D was not associated with stroke (n 72), myocardial infarctions (n 142), heart failure (n 43) or all-cause mortality (n 281), but was positively associated with increased diastolic blood pressure (P=0·03).

CONCLUSIONS:

The study supports associations of higher vitamin D intake with lower fasting plasma TAG and higher diastolic blood pressure.

KEYWORDS:

All-cause mortality; CVD; Caerphilly Prospective Cohort Study; TAG; Vitamin D

 

Effect of Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acids on the Development of Atrial Fibrillation and the Effect of Replacement of Saturated With Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

Dinesen PT, Joensen AM, Rix TA, Tjønneland A, Schmidt EB, Lundbye-Christensen S, Overvad K.

Am J Cardiol. 2017 Jul 14. pii: S0002-9149(17)31115-3. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2017.06.053. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28803653

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to explore substitution of intake of saturated fatty acids (FAs) with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs and incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in men and women. A total of 57,053 Danish participants aged 50 to 64 years were enrolled in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study in 1993 to 1997 and completed a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Follow-up was registry-based and data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. The statistical model was formulated in such a way that 1 g/day of saturated FAs was replaced with 1 g/day of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated FAs while keeping total fat intake, total energy intake, and energy intake from protein and carbohydrates constant. During a median follow-up of 17 years, 5,175 incident cases of AF occurred. In men, there was a higher hazard of AF when total n-3 polyunsaturated FAs replaced dietary saturated FAs-hazard ratio per 1-g substitution of FAs of 1.08 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.14) in a model adjusted for lifestyle factors. For other substitutions of FAs (monounsaturated, total or n-6 polyunsaturated FAs), no consistent nor statistically significant associations were found. In conclusion, we found a moderately higher risk of AF in men, but not in women, when total n-3 polyunsaturated FAs replaced dietary saturated FAs. Substitution of saturated FAs with monounsaturated, total or n-6 polyunsaturated FAs was not associated with the risk of AF.

 

Intake of different types of red meat, poultry, and fish and incident colorectal cancer in women and men: results from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study.

Vulcan A, Manjer J, Ericson U, Ohlsson B.

Food Nutr Res. 2017 Jul 18;61(1):1341810. doi: 10.1080/16546628.2017.1341810. eCollection 2017.

PMID: 28804436

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1080/16546628.2017.1341810

Abstract

Background : Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered one of the most common forms of cancer in the Western world. High intake of red and processed meat is considered to increase CRC development. Objective : This study examined associations between intake of red meats, poultry, and fish and incident CRC, and if weight status modifies the associations. Design : In the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, dietary data was collected through a modified diet history method. Via the Swedish Cancer Registry, 728 cases of CRC were identified during 428 924 person-years of follow-up of 16 944 women and 10 987 men. Results : Beef intake was inversely associated with colon cancer. However, in men high intake of beef was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer. High intake of pork was associated with increased incidence of CRC, and colon cancer. Processed meat was associated with increased risk of CRC in men. Fish intake was inversely associated with risk of rectal cancer. No significant interactions were found between different types of meat and weight status. Conclusions : Findings suggest that associations between meat intake and CRC differ depending on meat type, sex, and tumor location in the bowel. Weight status did not modify observed associations.

KEYWORDS:

BMI; colon cancer; colorectal cancer; rectal cancer; red meat; sex

 

Effects of alcohol consumption on blood pressure in hypertensive women.

Fisher NDL, Orav EJ, Chang G.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2017 Aug 14:1-6. doi: 10.1080/00952990.2017.1355921. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28806102

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Problem drinking carries significant health burdens, including an increased risk of hypertension. The effect of chronic alcohol intake on blood pressure (BP) in women is understudied and poorly understood.

OBJECTIVES:

We sought to examine the relationships between drinking habits and BP in hypertensive women.

METHODS:

We analyzed drinking habits in 113 women followed in the Brigham and Women's Hospital Hypertension Clinic for at least one year.

RESULTS:

Among these women with well-controlled hypertension, baseline diastolic BP was significantly lower in moderate drinkers compared with women who rarely or never drank. Changes in both systolic and diastolic BP over 12 months showed a significant negative association with changes in percent drinking days. In contrast, there was a trend toward higher baseline systolic BP among those women who consumed more drinks per drinking day.

CONCLUSIONS:

Among these women with controlled hypertension, our data failed to demonstrate an association between drinking beyond recommended limits and higher disease burden. These findings parallel the widely reported difference between drinking frequency, associated with a host of positive health outcomes, and drinking intensity, associated with negative outcomes. Novel to this report is an observed reduction in blood pressure over the one-year follow-up period accompanying an increased drinking frequency in treated hypertensive women. Cautions include the suggestion that a greater number of drinks per drinking day was associated with higher baseline pressure. These data imply that drinking within sensible limits has no negative impact on chronic hypertension. In fact, for women with well-controlled hypertension, such a habit may impart benefit.

KEYWORDS:

Alcohol; blood pressure; hypertension; women

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Nutritional Strategies in the Management of Alzheimer Disease: Systematic Review With Network Meta-Analysis.

Muñoz Fernández SS, Ivanauskas T, Lima Ribeiro SM.

J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2017 Aug 11. pii: S1525-8610(17)30358-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2017.06.015. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28807434

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Alzheimer disease (AD) is the major cause of dependency and disability in the elderly. Numerous studies have sought to achieve its prevention and/or management examining a role for modifiable risk factors, such as nutrition. This work aims to investigate the effects of food and/or nutrients in the management of AD at different stages.

METHODS:

Electronic databases were searched for clinical trials examining the effect of nutrient intervention in individuals with AD, compared with placebo, published up to 2014. The outcomes investigated were neuropsychological assessment scales, neuroimaging, and biomarkers. The Cochrane tool was employed to assess risk of bias. Pairwise meta-analyses were performed in a random-effect model by estimating the weighted mean differences with 95% confidence interval (CI) for each outcome measure. The Network meta-analysis was undertaken on cognitive outcome.

RESULTS:

Selected studies used antioxidants, B-vitamins, inositol, medium-chain triglyceride, omega-3, polymeric formulas, polypeptide, and vitamin D. AD outcome measurements were mainly restricted to cognitive state and functional abilities. Estimate treatment effects from pairwise meta-analyses showed large but nonsignificant effect in the supplementation with proline-rich polypeptide [weighted mean difference 6.93 (95% CI -3.04, 16.89); P = .17] and B-vitamins [weighted mean difference 0.52 (95% CI -0.05, 1.09); P = .07) on cognitive function measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination. The other nutrients supplementation did not show any significant effect on any outcome measures.

CONCLUSIONS:

Isolated nutrient supplementations show no convincing evidence of providing a significant benefit on clinical manifestations or neuropathology of AD. During the initial stages of AD, nutrient supplementation did not show any effect when delivered individually, probably because of their synergistic function on brain, at different domains.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer disease; nutrition; systematic review

 

Association between fasting glucose and all-cause mortality according to sex and age: a prospective cohort study.

Yi SW, Park S, Lee YH, Park HJ, Balkau B, Yi JJ.

Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 15;7(1):8194. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-08498-6.

PMID: 28811570

Abstract

The association of fasting glucose with the risk of death according to sex and age remains unclear, and insufficient information is available on sex- and age-specific glucose concentrations within ethnic groups. This study analyzed a sample of 12,455,361 Korean adults who participated in health examinations during 2001-2004, and were followed up until 2013. Men had 3.0 mg/dL (0.167 mmol/L) higher mean glucose concentrations than women (94.7 vs. 91.7 mg/dL), although women over 73 years had higher levels. For glucose levels of 100-199 mg/dL, each 18 mg/dL (1 mmol/L) increase in fasting glucose increased mortality by 13% (HR = 1.13, [95% CI 1.12 to 1.13], p < 0.001). In individuals with fasting glucose levels of 100-125 mg/dL, each 18 mg/dL increase in fasting glucose was associated with a 30% increase in the risk for mortality (1.30, [1.18 to 1.43]) in those aged 18-34 years, a 32% increase (1.32, [1.26 to 1.39]) in those aged 35-44 years, and a 10% increase (1.10, [1.02 to 1.19]) in those aged 75-99 years. The fasting glucose levels associated with the lowest mortality were 80-94 mg/dL regardless of sex and age. Prediabetes (100-125 mg/dL) was associated with higher mortality. The associations of hyperglycemia with mortality were stronger at younger ages.

 

Water Treatment by Magnetic Field Increases Bone Mineral Density of Rats.

Balieiro Neto G, Engracia Filho JR, de Oliveira BRSM, Coelho CMM, de Souza LFA, Louzada MJQ.

J Clin Densitom. 2017 Aug 11. pii: S1094-6950(17)30019-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jocd.2017.06.002. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28807473

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271446933_Water_Treated_by_Magnetic_Field_Increases_Bone_Mineral_Density_of_Rats

Abstract

Water treatment using a magnetic field is an attractive but controversial issue with regard to its effects on human health. This study aimed to investigate the effects of water treatment using a magnetic field on the bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), bone resistance (BR), blood gas analysis, blood viscosity, and blood biochemical profile of rats. Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: control (n = 24) and magnetic water-treated (n = 24). Each of these groups was subdivided into 3 groups to evaluate 3 consumption periods (15, 30, and 45 d). The animals were kept in metabolic cages throughout the experiment. A completely randomized design distributed to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement was used. No significant difference was found in the water intake, dry matter intake, BA, or femoral head resistance between the groups. However, higher anion gap and lower CHCO3 were found in the arterial blood of the magnetic water-treated group. There was significant interaction between the water consumption period and the BR, BMD, and BMC. With 15 d of consumption, there was no difference in the BMC and BR. With 30 d of consumption, the BR (midshaft), BMD, and BMC showed increases; the increases were greater with 45 d of consumption. In adulthood, every month of the animal is approximately equivalent to 2.5 human years. The consumption of water treated by magnetic field for 45 d provided an effective way to improve BMD, BMC and BR in rats.

KEYWORDS:

Blood biochemical; blood gas; blood viscosity; drinking water; magnetic field

 

Acute cocoa Flavanols intake has minimal effects on exercise-induced oxidative stress and nitric oxide production in healthy cyclists: a randomized controlled trial.

Decroix L, Tonoli C, Soares DD, Descat A, Drittij-Reijnders MJ, Weseler AR, Bast A, Stahl W, Heyman E, Meeusen R.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017 Aug 10;14:28. doi: 10.1186/s12970-017-0186-7. eCollection 2017.

PMID: 28811749

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cocoa flavanols (CF) can stimulate vasodilation by improved nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. This study aimed to examine whether acute CF intake can affect exercise-induced changes in antioxidant capacity, oxidative stress, inflammation and NO production, as well as exercise performance and recovery in well-trained cyclists.

METHODS:

Twelve well-trained male cyclists (mean ± SD age, VO2max: 30 ± 3 years, 63.0 ± 3.5 ml/kg/min) participated in this randomized, double-blind, cross over study. On 2 separate occasions, subjects performed two 30-min time trials 1.5 (TT1) and 3 (TT2) hours after CF (900 mg CF) or placebo (PL, 13 mg CF) intake, interposed by passive rest. Lactate, glucose, heartrate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and power output were measured during the TTs. Blood was drawn at baseline, before and after each TT and analyzed for epicatechin serum concentrations, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity (TEAC), uric acid (UA), malonaldehyde (MDA), L-arginine/ADMA, citrulline, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α plasma concentrations. Relative changes in blood markers and pacing strategy during TT were analysed by repeated measured ANOVA. TT performance was compared between PL and CF by paired t-test.

RESULTS:

Epicatechin concentrations were increased by CF intake. Exercise-induced increase in TEAC/UA was improved by CF intake (F(1) = 5.57; p = .038) (post-TT1: PL: 113.34 ± 3.9%, CF: 117.64 ± 3.96%, post-TT2: PL: 108.59 ± 3.95%, CF: 123.72 ± 7.4% to baseline), while exercise-induced increases in MDA, IL-1 and IL-6 were not affected by CF intake. TNF-α was unaltered by exercise and by CF. Exercise-induced decreases in L-arginine/ADMA and increases in citrulline were not affected by CF intake. TT1 and TT2 performance and exercise-induced physiological changes were unaffected by CF intake.

CONCLUSION:

Acute CF intake increased total antioxidant capacity in rest and during exercise, but did not affect exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, inflammation, nor NO production in healthy athletes. Acute CF intake did not improve TT performance and recovery.

KEYWORDS:

Cocoa; Exercise; Flavanols; Nitric oxide; Oxidative stress

 

[A placebo control was needed but not mentioned in the abstract.]

Role of Vitamin D in reducing number of acute exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients.

Khan DM, Ullah A, Randhawa FA, Iqtadar S, Butt NF, Waheed K.

Pak J Med Sci. 2017 May-Jun;33(3):610-614. doi: 10.12669/pjms.333.12397.

PMID: 28811780

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic incompletely reversible poor airflow and air trapping and usually this debilitating disorder limits the outside activities of the patients depriving them of sunlight which is a rich source of Vitamin D. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation in reducing number of acute exacerbation in COPD patients.

METHODS:

This randomized control trial was conducted at East Medical Ward Mayo Hospital Lahore from January to December 2015 as exacerbations of COPD are season dependent. Diagnosis was confirmed by performing Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs). Basic demographical information was obtained and baseline PFTs of the patient was done. Only Group A patients was treated with oral vitamin D intake of 2000 IU daily for 6 months. Vitamin D level was measured at 0, 2, 4, and 6 months and exacerbation of COPD, FEV1 and FVC was measured weekly. Both the groups were given standard treatment for exacerbation of COPD. Spirometry was repeated at each visit. Blood samples were collected every 2 months for vitamin D. Supplementation was stopped if vitamin D level exceeded 100ng/ml.

RESULTS:

The mean age of the patients was 46.28±8.83 years, the male to female ratio was 1.8:1. The mean 25(OH) level at baseline was 24.08±2.58 and at 6th month was 29.60±8.74. The mean FVC at baseline was 77.83±5.49 and at 6th month was 91.34±5.52. The exacerbation at baseline was present in all 120(100%) patients and at 6th month was reduced to 4(3.3%).

CONCLUSION:

Vitamin D supplementation has significant effect in reducing number of acute exacerbation in COPD patients when it is given for prolonged period.

KEYWORDS:

COPD; Exacerbation; FEV1; FVC; Vitamin D

 

Temporal Relationship Between Hyperuricemia and Insulin Resistance and Its Impact on Future Risk of Hypertension.

Han T, Lan L, Qu R, Xu Q, Jiang R, Na L, Sun C.

Hypertension. 2017 Aug 14. pii: HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.09508. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.09508. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28808071

Abstract

Although hyperuricemia and insulin resistance significantly correlated, their temporal sequence and how the sequence influence on future risk of hypertension are largely unknown. This study assessed temporal relationship between uric acid and insulin resistance and its impact on future risk of hypertension by examining a longitudinal cohort including 8543 subjects aged 20 to 74 years from China, with an average follow-up of 5.3 years. Measurements of fasting uric acid, as well as fasting and 2-hour serum glucose and insulin, were obtained at baseline and follow-up. Indicators of hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance were calculated. Cross-lagged panel and mediation analysis were used to examine the temporal relationship between uric acid and insulin resistance and its impact on follow-up hypertension. After adjusting for covariates, the cross-lagged path coefficients (β1 values) from baseline uric acid to follow-up insulin resistance indices were significantly greater than path coefficients (β2 values) from baseline insulin resistance indices to follow-up uric acid (β1=0.110 versus β2=0.017; P<0.001, for hepatic insulin resistance; β1=-0.208 versus β2=-0.021; P<0.001, for peripheral insulin resistance). The path coefficients from baseline uric acid to follow-up insulin resistance indices in the hypertensive group were significantly greater than that in the normotensive group (P<0.001 for the difference of β1 values in the 2 groups). Insulin resistance partially mediated the effect of uric acid on subsequent hypertension, and the mediation effect of peripheral insulin resistance was significantly greater than that of hepatic insulin resistance (31.3% versus 13.2%; P<0.001, for the difference of mediation effects). These findings provide evidence that higher uric acid levels probably precede insulin resistance, and peripheral insulin resistance likely plays a more important role in the development of hypertension than hepatic insulin resistance does.

KEYWORDS:

hypertension; hyperuricemia; insulin resistance; risk factor; uric acid

 

Fasting insulin, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in non-diabetic adults: a meta-analysis.

Zhang X, Li J, Zheng S, Luo Q, Zhou C, Wang C.

Biosci Rep. 2017 Aug 15. pii: BSR20170947. doi: 10.1042/BSR20170947. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28811358

http://bioscirep.org.sci-hub.cc/lookup/doi/10.1042/BSR20170947

Abstract

Studies on elevated fasting insulin or insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular or all-cause mortality risk in non-diabetic individuals have yielded conflicting results. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association of elevated fasting insulin levels or insulin resistance as defined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in non-diabetic adults. We searched for relevant studies in PubMed and Emabse databases until November 2016. Only prospective observational studies investigating the association of elevated fasting insulin levels or HOMA-IR with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality risk in non-diabetic adults were included. Risk ratio (RR) with its 95% confidence intervals (CI) was pooled for the highest versus the lowest category of fasting insulin levels or HOMA-IR. Seven articles involving 26,976 non-diabetic adults were included. The pooled adjusted RR of all-cause mortality comparing the highest with the lowest category was 1.13 (95% CI 1.00-1.27; p=0.058) for fasting insulin levels and 1.34 (95% CI 1.11-1.62; p=0.002) for HOMA-IR, respectively. When comparing the highest with the lowest category, the pooled adjusted RR of cardiovascular mortality was 2.11 (95% CI 1.01-4.41; p=0.048) for HOMA-IR in two studies and 1.40 (95% CI 0.49-3.96; p=0.526) for fasting insulin levels in one study. Insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR but not fasting insulin appears to be independently associated with greater risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in non-diabetic adults. However, the association of fasting insulin and HOMA-IR with cardiovascular mortality may be unreliable due to the small number of articles included.

KEYWORDS:

HOMA-IR; all-cause mortality; cardiovascular mortality; insulin; insulin resistance; meta-analysis

 

Update on maximal anabolic response to dietary protein.

Kim IY, Deutz NEP, Wolfe RR.

Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun 1. pii: S0261-5614(17)30203-0. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.05.029. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 28807333

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.clnu.2017.05.029

Abstract

The anabolic response to dietary protein can be defined as the difference between protein synthesis and breakdown, or the net protein balance, in response to ingestion of protein alone or a mixed meal containing protein. Others have concluded that a maximal anabolic response can be achieved with ingestion of 20-35 g of a high quality protein, leading to the formulation of a popular concept that the maximal anabolic response can be achieved by distributing the total protein intake evenly throughout the day, rather than eating a majority of dietary protein with dinner. However, this concept was based entirely on the measurement of muscle protein synthesis and thus ignored the potential contributions of suppression of protein breakdown to the anabolic response, as well as the possibility that tissues and organs other than muscle may also play a role in the anabolic response. In this review we discuss the factors comprising the total anabolic response, discuss relevant methodological issues, derive a theoretical maximal anabolic response based on current literature values, and interpret recent papers addressing the issue of maximal anabolic response as well as meal distribution of dietary protein. We conclude that it is not likely that there is a practical limit to the maximal anabolic response to a single meal, and the most efficient way in which to maximize the total anabolic response over a 24-h period is to increase dietary protein at breakfast and lunch without reducing protein intake with dinner.

KEYWORDS:

Essential amino acid; Muscle protein synthesis; Optimal protein intake; Protein intake pattern; Protein quality

Low protein-induced increases in FGF21 drive UCP1-dependent metabolic but not thermoregulatory endpoints.

Hill CM, Laeger T, Albarado DC, McDougal DH, Berthoud HR, Münzberg H, Morrison CD.

Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 15;7(1):8209. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-07498-w.

PMID: 28811495

Abstract

Dietary protein restriction increases adipose tissue uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), energy expenditure and food intake, and these effects require the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). Here we test whether the induction of energy expenditure during protein restriction requires UCP1, promotes a resistance to cold stress, and is dependent on the concomitant hyperphagia. Wildtype, Ucp1-KO and Fgf21-KO mice were placed on control and low protein (LP) diets to assess changes in energy expenditure, food intake and other metabolic endpoints. Deletion of Ucp1 blocked LP-induced increases in energy expenditure and food intake, and exacerbated LP-induced weight loss. While LP diet increased energy expenditure and Ucp1 expression in an FGF21-dependent manner, neither LP diet nor the deletion of Fgf21 influenced sensitivity to acute cold stress. Finally, LP-induced energy expenditure occurred even in the absence of hyperphagia. Increased energy expenditure is a primary metabolic effect of dietary protein restriction, and requires both UCP1 and FGF21 but is independent of changes in food intake. However, the FGF21-dependent increase in UCP1 and energy expenditure by LP has no effect on the ability to acutely respond to cold stress, suggesting that LP-induced increases in FGF21 impact metabolic but not thermogenic endpoints.

 

The Scientist » The Nutshell

Biosensing Chewing Gum for Oral Disease Detection: Study

The sensor is meant to trigger a bitter taste in the presence of inflammation-related enzymes.

By Aggie Mika | August 16, 2017

http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/50092/title/Biosensing-Chewing-Gum-for-Oral-Disease-Detection--Study/&utm_campaign=NEWSLETTER_TS_The-Scientist-Daily_2016&utm_source=hs_email&utm_medium=email&utm_content=55334182&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-84Ytn36ebt8HEmK7uP7CZbk15Q2G8VGQDo7GYAXV-F5IxEdBhap9YMXYQTW1-xF23C3c3pFDar2gR0DrCVThOlWMw0PQ&_hsmi=55334182

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https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-00340-x.pdf

Diagnosing peri-implant disease using the tongue as a 24/7 detector

J. Ritzer, T. Lühmann, C. Rode, M. Pein-Hackelbusch, I. Immohr, U. Schedler, T. Thiele, S. Stübinger, B. v. Rechenberg, J. Waser-Althaus, F. Schlottig, M. Merli, H. Dawe, M. Karpíšek, R. Wyrwa, M. Schnabelrauch & L. Meinel

Nature Communications 8, Article number: 264 (2017)

doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00340-x

Received:

10 February 2017

Accepted:

22 June 2017

Published online:

15 August 2017

Abstract

Our ability of screening broad communities for clinically asymptomatic diseases critically drives population health. Sensory chewing gums are presented targeting the tongue as 24/7 detector allowing diagnosis by “anyone, anywhere, anytime”. The chewing gum contains peptide sensors consisting of a protease cleavable linker in between a bitter substance and a microparticle. Matrix metalloproteinases in the oral cavity, as upregulated in peri-implant disease, specifically target the protease cleavable linker while chewing the gum, thereby generating bitterness for detection by the tongue. The peptide sensors prove significant success in discriminating saliva collected from patients with peri-implant disease versus clinically asymptomatic volunteers. Superior outcome is demonstrated over commercially available protease-based tests in saliva. “Anyone, anywhere, anytime” diagnostics are within reach for oral inflammation. Expanding this platform technology to other diseases in the future features this diagnostic as a massive screening tool potentially maximizing impact on population health.

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Pharmacotherapy for hypertension in adults aged 18 to 59 years.

Musini VM, Gueyffier F, Puil L, Salzwedel DM, Wright JM.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Aug 16;8:CD008276. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008276.pub2. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 28813123

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.sci-hub.cc/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008276.pub2/abstract;jsessionid=C3F5563EBD11CD0C1D8E2E4C53A17491.f03t04

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hypertension is an important risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events including stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure and renal failure. The main goal of treatment is to reduce these events. Systematic reviews have shown proven benefit of antihypertensive drug therapy in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality but most of the evidence is in people 60 years of age and older. We wanted to know what the effects of therapy are in people 18 to 59 years of age.

OBJECTIVES:

To quantify antihypertensive drug effects on all-cause mortality in adults aged 18 to 59 years with mild to moderate primary hypertension. To quantify effects on cardiovascular mortality plus morbidity (including cerebrovascular and coronary heart disease mortality plus morbidity), withdrawal due adverse events and estimate magnitude of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) lowering at one year.

SEARCH METHODS:

The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials up to January 2017: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We contacted authors of relevant papers regarding further published and unpublished work.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

Randomized trials of at least one year' duration comparing antihypertensive pharmacotherapy with a placebo or no treatment in adults aged 18 to 59 years with mild to moderate primary hypertension defined as SBP 140 mmHg or greater or DBP 90 mmHg or greater at baseline, or both.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

The outcomes assessed were all-cause mortality, total cardiovascular (CVS) mortality plus morbidity, withdrawals due to adverse events, and decrease in SBP and DBP. For dichotomous outcomes, we used risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and a fixed-effect model to combine outcomes across trials. For continuous outcomes, we used mean difference (MD) with 95% CI and a random-effects model as there was significant heterogeneity.

MAIN RESULTS:

The population in the seven included studies (17,327 participants) were predominantly healthy adults with mild to moderate primary hypertension. The Medical Research Council Trial of Mild Hypertension contributed 14,541 (84%) of total randomized participants, with mean age of 50 years and mean baseline blood pressure of 160/98 mmHg and a mean duration of follow-up of five years. Treatments used in this study were bendrofluazide 10 mg daily or propranolol 80 mg to 240 mg daily with addition of methyldopa if required. The risk of bias in the studies was high or unclear for a number of domains and led us to downgrade the quality of evidence for all outcomes.Based on five studies, antihypertensive drug therapy as compared to placebo or untreated control may have little or no effect on all-cause mortality (2.4% with control vs 2.3% with treatment; low quality evidence; RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.13). Based on 4 studies, the effects on coronary heart disease were uncertain due to low quality evidence (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.19). Low quality evidence from six studies showed that drug therapy may reduce total cardiovascular mortality and morbidity from 4.1% to 3.2% over five years (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.91) due to reduction in cerebrovascular mortality and morbidity (1.3% with control vs 0.6% with treatment; RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.64). Very low quality evidence from three studies showed that withdrawals due to adverse events were higher with drug therapy from 0.7% to 3.0% (RR 4.82, 95% CI 1.67 to 13.92). The effects on blood pressure varied between the studies and we are uncertain as to how much of a difference treatment makes on average.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:

Antihypertensive drugs used to treat predominantly healthy adults aged 18 to 59 years with mild to moderate primary hypertension have a small absolute effect to reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity primarily due to reduction in cerebrovascular mortality and morbidity. All-cause mortality and coronary heart disease were not reduced. There is lack of good evidence on withdrawal due to adverse events. Future trials in this age group should be at least 10 years in duration and should compare different first-line drug classes and strategies.

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High dietary phosphorus intake is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the large prospective E3N cohort study.

Mancini FR, Affret A, Dow C, Balkau B, Clavel-Chapelon F, Bonnet F, Boutron-Ruault MC, Fagherazzi G.

Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug 5. pii: S0261-5614(17)30266-2. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.07.025. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28818343

http://linkinghub.elsevier.com.sci-hub.cc/retrieve/pii/S0261561417302662

Abstract

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient; the adult recommended daily intake ranges from 550 to 700 mg/day, with a tolerated upper limit of 4000 mg/day. Phosphorus intake has increased in the general population in recent years, and simultaneously an alarming rise of type 2 diabetes incidences has been observed. No study has investigated the relationship between phosphorus intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes. To evaluate the association between phosphorus intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Among 71,270 women from the French E3N-EPIC cohort, 1845 cases of incident type 2 diabetes were validated during follow-up (1993-2011). Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between phosphorus intake and type 2 diabetes risk, adjusted on potential confounders. The overall mean (±SD) phosphorus intake was 1477 mg/day (±391 mg/day). High phosphorus intake was associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. In multivariate models, compared with women in the 1st quartile of phosphorus intake (<1203 mg/day), those included in the 2nd (1203-1434.0 mg/day), 3rd (1434-1700 mg/day), and 4th (>1700 mg/day) were at a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, with a hazards ratios (95% CI) of 1.18 (1.00-1.38), 1.41 (1.20-1.66) and 1.54 (1.25-1.90), respectively. Our results may have important public health implications for dietary recommendations in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. More studies are warranted to better understand the biological mechanisms underlying this positive association.

KEYWORDS:

Dietary intake; E3N cohort; Phosphorus; Risk; Type 2 diabetes

 

Age-related macular degeneration and mortality: the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

McGuinness MB, Finger RP, Karahalios A, Guymer RH, English DR, Chong EW, Hodge AM, Robman LD, Giles GG, Simpson JA; Medscape.

Eye (Lond). 2017 Aug 18. doi: 10.1038/eye.2017.139. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28820184

Abstract

AimsTo assess associations between features of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and mortality.MethodsA total of 21 129 participants from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study aged 47-85 years (60% female) were assessed for AMD (2003-2007). Mortality data to December 31, 2012 were obtained through linkage with the National Death Index. Associations were assessed using Cox regression, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, region of birth, education, physical activity, diet and alcohol.ResultsLate AMD was identified in 122 (0.6%) participants, including those with choroidal neovascularisation (n=55, 0.3%), geographic atrophy (n=87, 0.4%) and reticular pseudodrusen (n=87, 0.4%). After a median follow-up period of 8.1 years, 1669 (8%) participants had died, including those from cardiovascular diseases (386), tobacco-related cancers (179), and neurodegenerative disease (157). There was evidence of an increased rate of all-cause mortality for those with choroidal neovascularisation (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.71 95% CI 1.06-2.76) and geographic atrophy (HR 1.46 95% CI 0.99-2.16). Choroidal neovascularisation was also associated with an increased rate of cardiovascular mortality (HR 3.16 95% CI 1.62-6.15) and geographic atrophy was associated with an increased rate of death from tobacco-related cancer (HR 2.86 95% CI 1.15-7.09). Weak evidence was also present for an association between choroidal neovascularisation and death from neurodegenerative disease (HR 2.49 95% CI 0.79-7.85). Neither reticular pseudodrusen nor the earlier stages of AMD were associated with mortality.ConclusionsLate AMD is associated with an increased rate of all-cause mortality. Choroidal neovascularisation and geographic atrophy were associated with death from cardiovascular disease and tobacco-related cancer, respectively.

 

Relationship of Alcohol Consumption to All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Cancer-Related Mortality in U.S. Adults.

Xi B, Veeranki SP, Zhao M, Ma C, Yan Y, Mi J.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Aug 22;70(8):913-922. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.06.054.

PMID: 28818200

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.06.054

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Previous studies have revealed inconsistent findings regarding the association of light to moderate alcohol consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality.

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of this study was to examine the association between alcohol consumption and risk of mortality from all causes, cancer, and CVD in U.S. adults.

METHODS:

Data were obtained by linking 13 waves of the National Health Interview Surveys (1997 to 2009) to the National Death Index records through December 31, 2011. A total of 333,247 participants ≥18 years of age were included. Self-reported alcohol consumption patterns were categorized into 6 groups: lifetime abstainers; lifetime infrequent drinkers; former drinkers; and current light, moderate, or heavy drinkers. Secondary exposure included participants' binge-drinking status. The main outcome was all-cause, cancer, or CVD mortality.

RESULTS:

After a median follow-up of 8.2 years (2.7 million person-years), 34,754 participants died of all causes (including 8,947 CVD deaths and 8,427 cancer deaths). Compared with lifetime abstainers, those who were light or moderate alcohol consumers were at a reduced risk of mortality for all causes (light-hazard ratio {HR}: 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76 to 0.82; moderate-HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.82) and CVD (light-HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.80; moderate-HR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.78), respectively. In contrast, there was a significantly increased risk of mortality for all causes (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.19) and cancer (HR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.42) in adults with heavy alcohol consumption. Binge drinking ≥1 d/week was also associated with an increased risk of mortality for all causes (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.23) and cancer (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.41).

CONCLUSIONS:

Light and moderate alcohol intake might have a protective effect on all-cause and CVD-specific mortality in U.S. adults. Heavy or binge drinking was associated with increased risk of all-cause and cancer-specific mortality.

KEYWORDS:

abstain; binge drinking; cancer; cardiovascular disease; moderate drinking

 

[This paper seems to be an abstract only.]

Serum calcium and incident and fatal prostate cancer in the Swedish AMORIS study.

Van Hemelrijck M, Hermans R, Michaelsson K, Garmo H, Hammar N, Jungner I, Walldius G, Lambe M, Holmberg L.

J Clin Oncol. 2012 Feb 10;30(5_suppl):36. doi: 10.1200/jco.2012.30.5_suppl.36.

PMID: 28142902

Abstract

36 Background: Many observational studies have shown a positive association between intake of dairy products and prostate cancer (PCa) risk. From a biological point of view it is of interest to study this association as bone was recently shown to be a positive regulator of male fertility which suggests that regulation of bone remodeling and reproduction are linked. Since androgens promote cell proliferation and inhibit prostate cell death, it is possible that calcium (Ca) is linked to PCa risk via its link with the reproductive system. We studied the association between serum Ca and PCa while also accounting for levels of albumin, a protein to which Ca is bound.

METHODS:

A cohort based on 192,183 men with baseline information on Ca (mmol/L) and albumin (g/L) was selected from the Swedish Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) study. Age-stratified multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze associations between Ca and incident and fatal PCa risk. All models were adjusted for fasting status, glucose levels, socio-economic status, season at time of Ca measurement, Charlson comorbidity index, and history of fractures.

RESULTS:

A 6,202 men were diagnosed with PCa and 672 died of PCa during mean follow-up of 12 years. A weak negative association was found between PCa risk and Ca (HR per SD: 0.97 (95%CI: 0.95-1.00)). A similar association was also found between albumin-corrected Ca and PCa risk (HR: 0.96 (0.89-1.03), 0.94 (0.87-1.01), and 0.92 (0.86-0.99) for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartile compared to the 1st; P for trend: 0.02). No association was found with fatal PCa, nor was there effect-modification by overweight. A strong positive association between Ca and death was observed when censoring for PCa (HR per SD: 1.13 (95%CI: 1.12-1.15)).

CONCLUSIONS:

Serum levels of Ca were weakly negatively associated with PCa risk in our study when adjusted for age and history of comorbidities and fractures. A negative association between Ca and PCa risk is likely explained by the strong relation between Ca and non-PCa death. These competing risks need to be handled in order to define whether Ca is causally involved in PCa aetiology or whether it only acts a marker of other metabolic events in the causal pathway.

 

Vitamin D intake during the first 4 years and onset of asthma by age 5: a nested case-control study.

Nwaru BI, Hadkhale K, Hämäläinen N, Takkinen HM, Ahonen S, Ilonen J, Toppari J, Niemelä O, Haapala AM, Veijola R, Knip M, Virtanen SM.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2017 Aug 17. doi: 10.1111/pai.12773. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28815786

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Early life vitamin D intake has been linked to asthma risk in childhood, but the role of longitudinal vitamin D exposure has not been previously evaluated. We investigated the association between vitamin D intake during the first 4 years of life and asthma risk by age 5.

METHODS:

Within a Finnish population-based birth cohort, 182 incident asthma cases were matched to 728 controls on sex, genetic risk for type 1 diabetes, delivery hospital, and time of birth. Vitamin D intake was assessed by age-specific 3-day food records. Parents completed a validated version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire at 5 years.

RESULTS:

At 3 months, supplements were the main source of vitamin D intake; intake from foods increased from 3 months on, mainly from fortified milk products. Vitamin D intake at each specific age was associated with an increased risk of any asthma, atopic and non-atopic asthma, but only intake at 1 and 2 years was statistically significantly associated with asthma. Longitudinal vitamin D intake was associated with an increased risk of asthma (OR 1.24; 95%CI 1.00-1.53) CONCLUSIONS: Increased vitamin D intake in childhood, particularly intake at 1 and 2 years of age, may increase risk of childhood asthma. This might reflect a true effect or residual confounding by lifestyle or environmental factors. Repeated assessment of vitamin D intake allowed evaluation of the longitudinal and age-dependent impact of vitamin D on the risk of asthma. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm or question these findings.

KEYWORDS:

Asthma; Children; Diet; longitudinal study; vitamin D

 

Therapeutic potential of systemic brain rejuvenation strategies for neurodegenerative disease.

Horowitz AM, Villeda SA.

F1000Res. 2017 Aug 1;6:1291. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.11437.1. eCollection 2017. Review.

PMID: 28815019

Abstract

Neurodegenerative diseases are a devastating group of conditions that cause progressive loss of neuronal integrity, affecting cognitive and motor functioning in an ever-increasing number of older individuals. Attempts to slow neurodegenerative disease advancement have met with little success in the clinic; however, a new therapeutic approach may stem from classic interventions, such as caloric restriction, exercise, and parabiosis. For decades, researchers have reported that these systemic-level manipulations can promote major functional changes that extend organismal lifespan and healthspan. Only recently, however, have the functional effects of these interventions on the brain begun to be appreciated at a molecular and cellular level. The potential to counteract the effects of aging in the brain, in effect rejuvenating the aged brain, could offer broad therapeutic potential to combat dementia-related neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. In particular, results from heterochronic parabiosis and young plasma administration studies indicate that pro-aging and rejuvenating factors exist in the circulation that can independently promote or reverse age-related phenotypes. The recent demonstration that human umbilical cord blood similarly functions to rejuvenate the aged brain further advances this work to clinical translation. In this review, we focus on these blood-based rejuvenation strategies and their capacity to delay age-related molecular and functional decline in the aging brain. We discuss new findings that extend the beneficial effects of young blood to neurodegenerative disease models. Lastly, we explore the translational potential of blood-based interventions, highlighting current clinical trials aimed at addressing therapeutic applications for the treatment of dementia-related neurodegenerative disease in humans.

KEYWORDS:

blood plasma administration; brain rejuvenation; caloric restriction; exercise; healthspan; neurodegenerative disease

 

Soy food intake and risk of gastric cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

Weng KG, Yuan YL.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Aug;96(33):e7802. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000007802.

PMID: 28816973

Abstract

Epidemiological studies were inconsistent on the association between soy food intake and risk of gastric cancer (GC). This study aimed to determine the role of soy food intake in the development of GC.A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science to identify all relevant studies. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model, and the dose-response relationship between soy food intake and GC risk was also assessed.Thirteen prospective studies were identified with a total of 517,106 participants and 5800 cases. Among 11 types of soy food, high intake of total soy food (the highest vs the lowest category: RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.98) and nonfermented soy food (RR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.50-0.79) were inversely associated with GC risk, while high intake of miso soup was associated with the risk in male (RR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.02-1.36). In dose-response meta-analysis, total soy food intake (0-150 g/day) showed no significant association with GC risk, while high intake of nonfermented soy food was inversely related, especially an intake of more than 100 g/day. In male, miso soup intake (1-5 cups/day) was significantly associated with GC risk.High intake of nonfermented soy food might reduce the risk of GC, while miso soup intake might increase the risk in male.

 

Long-Term Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Decreased Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis.

Grosso G, Micek A, Godos J, Pajak A, Sciacca S, Bes-Rastrollo M, Galvano F, Martinez-Gonzalez MA.

Nutrients. 2017 Aug 17;9(8). pii: E890. doi: 10.3390/nu9080890.

PMID: 28817085

http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/9/8/890/htm

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To perform a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association between long-term coffee intake and risk of hypertension.

METHODS:

An online systematic search of studies published up to November 2016 was performed. Linear and non-linear dose-response meta-analyses were conducted; potential evidence of heterogeneity, publication bias, and confounding effect of selected variables were investigated through sensitivity and meta-regression analyses.

RESULTS:

Seven cohorts including 205,349 individuals and 44,120 cases of hypertension were included. In the non-linear analysis, there was a 9% significant decreased risk of hypertension per seven cups of coffee a day, while, in the linear dose-response association, there was a 1% decreased risk of hypertension for each additional cup of coffee per day. Among subgroups, there were significant inverse associations for females, caffeinated coffee, and studies conducted in the US with longer follow-up. Analysis of potential confounders revealed that smoking-related variables weakened the strength of association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension.

CONCLUSIONS:

Increased coffee consumption is associated with a modest decrease in risk of hypertension in prospective cohort studies. Smoking status is a potential effect modifier on the association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension.

KEYWORDS:

coffee; cohort; hypertension; meta-analysis; risk; smoking

 

Too much standing is bad, study finds — it's time to move

People who stand 4 to 5 hours a day have higher risk of heart disease, research shows

CBC News Posted: Aug 18, 2017 5:00 AM ET Last Updated: Aug 18, 2017

http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/standing-sitting-work-move-1.4252006

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

The Relationship Between Occupational Standing and Sitting and Incident Heart Disease Over a 12-Year Period in Ontario, Canada

Peter Smith Huiting Ma Richard H Glazier Mahée Gilbert-Ouimet Cameron Mustard

American Journal of Epidemiology, kwx298, https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwx298

Published: 11 August 2017 Article history

Abstract

While a growing body of research is examining the impacts of prolonged occupational sitting on cardiovascular and other health risk factors, relatively little work examined the effects of occupational standing. The objectives of this paper were to examine the relationship between occupations that require predominantly sitting, and those that require predominantly standing, and incident heart disease. A prospective cohort study combining responses to a population health survey with administrative health care records, linked at the individual level was conducted in Ontario, Canada. The sample included 7320 employed labour market participants (50% male) working 15 hours a week or more and free of heart disease at baseline. Incident heart disease was assessed using administrative records over an approximately 12-year follow-up period (2003-2015). Models were adjusted for a wide range of potential confounding factors. Occupations involving predominantly standing were associated with an approximately two-fold risk of heart disease compared to occupations involving predominantly sitting. This association was robust to adjustment for other health, socio-demographic and work variables. Cardiovascular risk associated with occupations that involve combinations of sitting, standing and walking differed for men and women, with these occupations associated with lower cardiovascular risk estimates among men, but elevated risk estimates among women.

administrative data, Canada, heart diseases, sitting position, standing position, occupational exposure

 

Saturday August 19, 2017

Skeletons say arthritis isn't about aging - it's about activity

http://www.cbc.ca/radio/quirks/august-19-2017-1.4252722/skeletons-say-arthritis-isn-t-about-aging-it-s-about-activity-1.4252755

 

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of resveratrol for Alzheimer disease.

Turner RS, Thomas RG, Craft S, van Dyck CH, Mintzer J, Reynolds BA, Brewer JB, Rissman RA, Raman R, Aisen PS; Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study.

Neurology. 2015 Oct 20;85(16):1383-91. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000002035. Epub 2015 Sep 11.

PMID: 26362286 Free PMC Article

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4626244/

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter 52-week phase 2 trial of resveratrol in individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) examined its safety and tolerability and effects on biomarker (plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42, CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, tau, and phospho-tau 181) and volumetric MRI outcomes (primary outcomes) and clinical outcomes (secondary outcomes).

METHODS:

Participants (n = 119) were randomized to placebo or resveratrol 500 mg orally once daily (with dose escalation by 500-mg increments every 13 weeks, ending with 1,000 mg twice daily). Brain MRI and CSF collection were performed at baseline and after completion of treatment. Detailed pharmacokinetics were performed on a subset (n = 15) at baseline and weeks 13, 26, 39, and 52.

RESULTS:

Resveratrol and its major metabolites were measurable in plasma and CSF. The most common adverse events were nausea, diarrhea, and weight loss. CSF Aβ40 and plasma Aβ40 levels declined more in the placebo group than the resveratrol-treated group, resulting in a significant difference at week 52. Brain volume loss was increased by resveratrol treatment compared to placebo.

CONCLUSIONS:

Resveratrol was safe and well-tolerated. Resveratrol and its major metabolites penetrated the blood-brain barrier to have CNS effects. Further studies are required to interpret the biomarker changes associated with resveratrol treatment.

CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE:

This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with AD resveratrol is safe, well-tolerated, and alters some AD biomarker trajectories. The study is rated Class II because more than 2 primary outcomes were designated.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Resveratrol for Alzheimer's disease.

Sawda C, Moussa C, Turner RS.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Aug 16. doi: 10.1111/nyas.13431. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 28815614

Abstract

The amyloid hypothesis suggests that the progressive accumulation and deposition of central nervous system (CNS) amyloid with aging is the proximate cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, targeting molecular mechanisms of aging may be a viable treatment approach. Caloric restriction prevents diseases of aging, including AD, in animal models, perhaps by activation of sirtuins. The sirtuins (e.g., mammalian SIRT1) are deacetylases that link energy balance (NAD+ /NADH) to regulation of gene transcription. Resveratrol is a potent activator of SIRT1, and thus may mimic caloric restriction to prevent diseases of aging. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II trial of resveratrol for individuals with mild-to-moderate AD. Resveratrol (1) is detectable in cerebrospinal fluid (at low nanomolar levels), (2) is safe and well tolerated, (3) alters AD biomarker trajectories, (4) preserves blood-brain barrier integrity, and (5) modulates the CNS immune response. Further studies are needed to determine the safety and efficacy of resveratrol and the validity of this approach in the treatment and prevention of AD and other diseases of aging.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer's disease; amyloid; polyphenol; resveratrol; sirtuin

 

[it seems to be an abstact only report.]

Trans-Pacific variation in outcomes for men treated with primary androgen deprivation therapy for localized prostate cancer.

Hinotsu S, Namiki M, Carroll P, Akaza H.

J Clin Oncol. 2013 Feb 20;31(6_suppl):92. doi: 10.1200/jco.2013.31.6_suppl.92.

PMID: 28137121

Abstract

92 Background: Primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT) is endorsed as an option for monotherapy for localized prostate cancer by guidelines in Asia but not in the United States (US) or Europe. PADT use is common, however, in both the US and Japan. Prior studies on either side of the Pacific have reported disparate outcomes for PADT; we aimed to explore these differences in a direct comparison study.

METHODS:

Data were drawn from the US community-based CaPSURE registry and from J-CaP, comprising men in Japan treated with PADT. 1934 men treated with PADT were included from CaPSURE, and 16,300 treated in J-CaP. Risk adjustment was based on the validated Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (J-CAPRA) score. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess prostate cancer-specific mortality (CSM), adjusting for age, J-CAPRA, year of diagnosis, and treatment type (combined androgen blockade [CAB] vs. castration (medical or surgical) monotherapy).

RESULTS:

Men treated with PADT in J-CaP were older than those in CaPSURE (mean age 75.0 vs. 72.7, p<0.001), and had higher risk disease (mean J-CAPRA score 3.0 vs. 2.1, p<0.001). They were more likely to be treated with CAB: 67.1% vs. 44.5% (p<0.001). In the Cox model, the hazard ratio (HR) for PCSM was 0.31 for J-CaP compared to CaPSURE, 95% CI 0.25-0.40. In J-CaP, CAB improved survival compared to castration alone (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.66-1.0), but this effect was not observed in CaPSURE (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.69-1.34). For all-cause mortality, the HR for J-CaP was 0.27 (95% CI 0.24-0.30).

CONCLUSIONS:

Adjusting for multiple factors including disease risk and type of androgen ablation, men treated with PADT in Japan compared to the US have more than 3-fold lower CSM and 4-fold better overall survival. CAB improved outcomes compared to castration alone in J-CaP but not in CaPSURE. These findings support existing guidelines both encouraging PADT in Asia and discouraging its use in the West. The reasons for these substantial differences likely include both genetic and dietary/environmental factors, as well as potential confounding variables such as comorbidities. Such factors may explain varying biology of prostate cancer on both sides of the Pacific.

 

Aspirin versus Placebo in Pregnancies at High Risk for Preterm Preeclampsia.

Rolnik DL, Wright D, Poon LC, O'Gorman N, Syngelaki A, de Paco Matallana C, Akolekar R, Cicero S, Janga D, Singh M, Molina FS, Persico N, Jani JC, Plasencia W, Papaioannou G, Tenenbaum-Gavish K, Meiri H, Gizurarson S, Maclagan K, Nicolaides KH.

N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 17;377(7):613-622. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1704559. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

PMID: 28657417 Free Article

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317988130_Aspirin_versus_Placebo_in_Pregnancies_at_High_Risk_for_Preterm_Preeclampsia

Abstract

Background Preterm preeclampsia is an important cause of maternal and perinatal death and complications. It is uncertain whether the intake of low-dose aspirin during pregnancy reduces the risk of preterm preeclampsia. Methods In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 1776 women with singleton pregnancies who were at high risk for preterm preeclampsia to receive aspirin, at a dose of 150 mg per day, or placebo from 11 to 14 weeks of gestation until 36 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was delivery with preeclampsia before 37 weeks of gestation. The analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Results A total of 152 women withdrew consent during the trial, and 4 were lost to follow up, which left 798 participants in the aspirin group and 822 in the placebo group. Preterm preeclampsia occurred in 13 participants (1.6%) in the aspirin group, as compared with 35 (4.3%) in the placebo group (odds ratio in the aspirin group, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.74; P=0.004). Results were materially unchanged in a sensitivity analysis that took into account participants who had withdrawn or were lost to follow-up. Adherence was good, with a reported intake of 85% or more of the required number of tablets in 79.9% of the participants. There were no significant between-group differences in the incidence of neonatal adverse outcomes or other adverse events. Conclusions Treatment with low-dose aspirin in women at high risk for preterm preeclampsia resulted in a lower incidence of this diagnosis than placebo.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Aspirin to Prevent Preeclampsia.

Greene MF, Solomon CG.

N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 17;377(7):690-691. doi: 10.1056/NEJMe1708920. No abstract available.

PMID: 28813213

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1056/NEJMe1708920

 

Direct detection of early-stage cancers using circulating tumor DNA

Jillian Phallen1, Mark Sausen2, Vilmos Adleff1, Alessandro Leal1, Carolyn Hruban1, James White1, Valsamo Anagnostou1, Jacob Fiksel1, Stephen Cristiano1, Eniko Papp1,*, Savannah Speir1, Thomas Reinert3, Mai-Britt Worm Orntoft3, Brian D. Woodward4, Derek Murphy2, Sonya Parpart-Li2, David Riley2, Monica Nesselbush2, Naomi Sengamalay2, Andrew Georgiadis2, Qing Kay Li1, Mogens Rørbæk Madsen5, Frank Viborg Mortensen6, Joost Huiskens7,8, Cornelis Punt8, Nicole van Grieken9, Remond Fijneman10, Gerrit Meijer10, Hatim Husain4, Robert B. Scharpf1, Luis A. Diaz Jr1,†, Siân Jones2, Sam Angiuoli2, Torben Ørntoft3, Hans Jørgen Nielsen11, Claus Lindbjerg Andersen3 and Victor E. Velculescu1,‡

+ See all authors and affiliations

Science Translational Medicine 16 Aug 2017:

Vol. 9, Issue 403, eaan2415

DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aan2415

Finding smaller needles in haystacks

The detection and analysis of cell-free DNA in patients’ blood are becoming increasingly accepted in oncology. However, this approach has generally been applied for the monitoring of patients with existing tumors. It has not been useful for early diagnosis of cancer because of insufficient sensitivity to detect really small tumors that only shed minute quantities of DNA into the blood, as well as difficulties with identifying cancer-associated genetic changes without knowing what mutations are present in the primary tumor. A method developed by Phallen et al., called targeted error correction sequencing, addresses both of these limitations and demonstrates the feasibility of detecting circulating cell-free DNA from many early tumors, suggesting its potential use for cancer screening.

Abstract

Early detection and intervention are likely to be the most effective means for reducing morbidity and mortality of human cancer. However, development of methods for noninvasive detection of early-stage tumors has remained a challenge. We have developed an approach called targeted error correction sequencing (TEC-Seq) that allows ultrasensitive direct evaluation of sequence changes in circulating cell-free DNA using massively parallel sequencing. We have used this approach to examine 58 cancer-related genes encompassing 81 kb. Analysis of plasma from 44 healthy individuals identified genomic changes related to clonal hematopoiesis in 16% of asymptomatic individuals but no alterations in driver genes related to solid cancers. Evaluation of 200 patients with colorectal, breast, lung, or ovarian cancer detected somatic mutations in the plasma of 71, 59, 59, and 68%, respectively, of patients with stage I or II disease. Analyses of mutations in the circulation revealed high concordance with alterations in the tumors of these patients. In patients with resectable colorectal cancers, higher amounts of preoperative circulating tumor DNA were associated with disease recurrence and decreased overall survival. These analyses provide a broadly applicable approach for noninvasive detection of early-stage tumors that may be useful for screening and management of patients with cancer.

 

A new therapeutic target in view?

Orla M. Smith

The genetics, pathology, and clinical manifestations of neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are heterogeneous, which makes the development and testing of candidate therapeutics difficult. Le Pichon et al. identified dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) as a common regulator of neuronal degeneration in mouse models of ALS and Alzheimer's disease and in postmortem brain tissue from human patients. In several mouse models of neurodegenerative disease, deletion of DLK or treatment with a DLK inhibitor protected neurons and slowed disease progression. Thus, DLK may represent a therapeutic target for a number of neurodegenerative diseases.

Sci. Transl. Med. 9, eaag0394 (2017).

 

Science Says: DNA test results may not change health habits

Don't bet on DNA test results helping you to stay healthy

By Malcolm Ritter, The Associated Press Posted: Aug 17, 2017

http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/dna-testing-1.4251280

Edited by AlPater

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N-acetylcysteine protects against star fruit-induced acute kidney injury.

Shimizu MH, Gois PH, Volpini RA, Canale D, Luchi WM, Froeder L, Heilberg IP, Seguro AC.

Ren Fail. 2017 Nov;39(1):193-202. doi: 10.1080/0886022X.2016.1256315. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

PMID: 27845599

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Star fruit (SF) is a popular fruit, commonly cultivated in many tropical countries, that contains large amount of oxalate. Acute oxalate nephropathy and direct renal tubular damage through release of free radicals are the main mechanisms involved in SF-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on SF-induced nephrotoxicity due to its potent antioxidant effect.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Male Wistar rats received SF juice (4 mL/100 g body weight) by gavage after a 12 h fasting and water deprivation. Fasting and water deprivation continued for 6 h thereafter to warrant juice absorption. Thereafter, animals were allocated to three experimental groups: SF (n = 6): received tap water; SF + NAC (n = 6): received NAC (4.8 g/L) in drinking water for 48 h after gavage; and Sham (n = 6): no interventions. After 48 h, inulin clearance studies were performed to determine glomerular filtration rate. In a second series of experiment, rats were housed in metabolic cages for additional assessments.

RESULTS:

SF rats showed markedly reduced inulin clearance associated with hyperoxaluria, renal tubular damage, increased oxidative stress and inflammation. NAC treatment ameliorated all these alterations. Under polarized light microscopy, SF rats exhibited intense calcium oxalate birefringence crystals deposition, dilation of renal tubules and tubular epithelial degeneration, which were attenuate by NAC therapy.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our data show that therapeutic NAC attenuates renal dysfunction in a model of acute oxalate nephropathy following SF ingestion by reducing oxidative stress, oxaluria, and inflammation. This might represent a novel indication of NAC for the treatment of SF-induced AKI.

KEYWORDS:

Acute kidney injury; N-acetylcysteine; acute oxalate nephropathy; oxidative stress; star fruit

 

Underestimated incidence of kidney disease in nonrenal outpatient.

Lu Z, Yin J, Zhang G, Wu R, Zhao Q, Wang N, Yan C, Wang F.

Ren Fail. 2017 Nov;39(1):328-332. doi: 10.1080/0886022X.2017.1279551.

PMID: 28118757

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been regarded as a severe threaten to public health, a large percentage of CKD are secondary to other diseases. Serum creatinine is the most common marker of renal function, but it did not always reflect glomerular filtration rate (GFR) accurately. In order to investigate the prevalence of kidney disease in non-renal departments and to provide a basis for the prevention of kidney injury, the present study was conducted in several medical centers.

METHODS:

A total of 17,462 outpatients were selected randomly from the departments of cardiology, endocrinology, and neurology in 16 hospitals and the incidence of kidney disease was screened. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated by using MDRD-formula.

RESULTS:

There are 5293 (30.1%) patients' eGFR above 90 mL/min/1.73m2 among all the subjects in non-renal departments, and 4055(23%) patients' eGFR lower than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 including 80 patients whose eGFR were below 15 mL/min/1.73 m2. Furthermore, among 16616 subjects who have a normal SCr level, there are 3209 respondents' eGFR lower than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Moreover, individuals with hypertension or diabetes had a high prevalence of decreased renal function.

CONCLUSIONS:

This survey indicated kidney injury wildly existed in non-renal outpatients, and the incidence of CKD is underestimated.

KEYWORDS:

Kidney injury; chronic kidney disease; coronary disease; diabetes mellitus; hypertension

 

Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies.

Dinu M, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A, Sofi F.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Nov 22;57(17):3640-3649. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2016.1138447.

PMID: 26853923

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1080/10408398.2016.1138447

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Beneficial effects of vegetarian and vegan diets on health outcomes have been supposed in previous studies.

OBJECTIVES:

Aim of this study was to clarify the association between vegetarian, vegan diets, risk factors for chronic diseases, risk of all-cause mortality, incidence, and mortality from cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, total cancer and specific type of cancer (colorectal, breast, prostate and lung), through meta-analysis.

METHODS:

A comprehensive search of Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar was conducted.

RESULTS:

Eighty-six cross-sectional and 10 cohort prospective studies were included. The overall analysis among cross-sectional studies reported significant reduced levels of body mass index, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and glucose levels in vegetarians and vegans versus omnivores. With regard to prospective cohort studies, the analysis showed a significant reduced risk of incidence and/or mortality from ischemic heart disease (RR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.82) and incidence of total cancer (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.87 to 0.98) but not of total cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, all-cause mortality and mortality from cancer. No significant association was evidenced when specific types of cancer were analyzed. The analysis conducted among vegans reported significant association with the risk of incidence from total cancer (RR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.95), despite obtained only in a limited number of studies.

CONCLUSIONS:

This comprehensive meta-analysis reports a significant protective effect of a vegetarian diet versus the incidence and/or mortality from ischemic heart disease (-25%) and incidence from total cancer (-8%). Vegan diet conferred a significant reduced risk (-15%) of incidence from total cancer.

KEYWORDS:

Vegetarian; diet; meta-analysis; vegan

 

Olive oil abrogates acrylamide induced nephrotoxicity by modulating biochemical and histological changes in rats.

Ghorbel I, Elwej A, Fendri N, Mnif H, Jamoussi K, Boudawara T, Grati Kamoun N, Zeghal N.

Ren Fail. 2017 Nov;39(1):236-245. doi: 10.1080/0886022X.2016.1256320. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

PMID: 27846768

Abstract

Acrylamide (ACR) is one of the most important contaminants occurring in foods heated at high temperatures. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective efficacy of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), a main component of the Mediterranean diet, against nephrotoxicity induced by ACR. Rats have received by gavage during 21 days either ACR (40 mg/kg body weight) or ACR-associated with EVOO (300 μl) or only EVOO (300 μl). Acrylamide induced nephrotoxicity as evidenced by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), protein carbonyls (PCOs) and a decrease in glutathione, non-protein thiols (NPSHs), and vitamin C levels. Activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also decreased. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, creatinine, urea, and uric acid, urinary volume and creatinine clearance levels were modified. EVOO supplementation improved all the parameters indicated above. Kidney histoarchitecture confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of EVOO. EVOO, when added to the diet, may have a beneficial role against kidney injury by scavenging free radicals and by its potent antioxidant power.

KEYWORDS:

Acrylamide; antioxidant status; extra virgin olive oil; nephrotoxicity; rats

 

A comprehensive meta-analysis on evidence of Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease: Are individual components equal?

Grosso G, Marventano S, Yang J, Micek A, Pajak A, Scalfi L, Galvano F, Kales SN.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Oct 13;57(15):3218-3232. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2015.1107021.

PMID: 26528631

Abstract

Many studies have reported that higher adherence to Mediterranean diet may decrease cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. We performed a meta-analysis to explore the association in prospective studies and randomized control trials (RCTs) between Mediterranean diet adherence and CVD incidence and mortality. The PubMed database was searched up to June 2014. A total of 17 studies were extracted and 11 qualified for the quantitative analysis. Individuals in the highest quantile of adherence to the diet had lower incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.76, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.68, 0.83] and mortality (RR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.83) from CVD compared to those least adherent. A significant reduction of risk was found also for coronary heart disease (CHD) (RR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.86), myocardial infarction (MI) (RR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.83), and stroke (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.96) incidence. Pooled analyses of individual components of the diet revealed that the protective effects of the diet appear to be most attributable to olive oil, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. An average reduced risk of 40% for the aforementioned outcomes has been retrieved when pooling results of RCTs. A Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with lower risks of CVD incidence and mortality, including CHD and MI. The relative effects of specific food groups should be further investigated.

KEYWORDS:

Prevention; fruit; legumes; olive oil; prospective cohort studies; randomized controlled trials; vegetables

 

Vitamin D and pancreas: The role of sunshine vitamin in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer.

Altieri B, Grant WB, Della Casa S, Orio F, Pontecorvi A, Colao A, Sarno G, Muscogiuri G.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Nov 2;57(16):3472-3488. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2015.1136922.

PMID: 27030935

Abstract

Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D exerts multiple effects beyond bone and calcium metabolism. Vitamin D seems to play a role in pancreatic disease, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as pancreatic cancer. Vitamin D's immune-modulatory action suggests that it could help prevent type 1 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, vitamin D may influence β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and systematic inflammation-all characteristic pathways of that disease. Data from observational studies correlated vitamin D deficiency with risk of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Prospective and ecological studies of pancreatic cancer incidence generally support a beneficial effect of higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration as well as inverse correlations between UVB dose or exposure and incidence and/or mortality rate of pancreatic cancer. This review discusses the literature regarding vitamin D's role in risk of diabetes and pancreatic cancer. The results to date generally satisfy Hill's criteria for causality regarding vitamin D and incidence of these pancreatic diseases. However, large randomized, blinded, prospective studies are required to more fully evaluate the potential therapeutic role of vitamin D in preventing pancreatic diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Vitamin D; insulin resistance; insulin secretion; insulin sensitivity; pancreatic cancer; type 1 diabetes mellitus; type 2 diabetes mellitus

 

A review of the relative efficacy of dietary, nutritional supplements, lifestyle, and drug therapies in the management of hypertension.

Caligiuri SPB, Pierce GN.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Nov 2;57(16):3508-3527. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2016.1142420.

PMID: 27494115

Abstract

Despite advancements in hypertensive therapies, the prevalence of hypertension and associated morbidities are still immense. Physicians are in great need for updated information on novel and effective antihypertensive therapies. Therefore, the study objective was to provide comprehensive information on the efficacy of available antihypertensive therapies. Antihypertensive therapies were divided into four general approaches: diet, nutritional supplements, lifestyle modification, and conventional antihypertensive medications. A search of PubMed and Google Scholar resulted in an analysis of 30 antihypertensive therapies from meta-analyses and randomized-controlled trials (RCTs). The studies were analyzed using the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology classification system. Calculated average blood pressure reductions were: (systolic/diastolic) 6/4 mmHg, 4/2 mmHg, 5/3 mmHg, and 9/5 mmHg for dietary, nutritional supplements, lifestyle, and medications, respectively. The results demonstrate that dietary, nutritional supplement and lifestyle strategies have a solid level of evidence to support their efficacy as antihypertensive strategies. These strategies can be as effective as medications and, in some cases, even more effective. Dissemination of this information to physicians/dietitians can help facilitate an important shift in hypertension management.

KEYWORDS:

Blood pressure; functional foods; guidelines; nutrition; pharmaceuticals

 

Hypocholesterolemic efficacy of royal jelly in healthy mild hypercholesterolemic adults.

Chiu HF, Chen BK, Lu YY, Han YC, Shen YC, Venkatakrishnan K, Golovinskaia O, Wang CK.

Pharm Biol. 2017 Dec;55(1):497-502.

PMID: 27937077

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13880209.2016.1253110

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/13880209.2016.1253110?needAccess=true

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Royal jelly (RJ) has been reported for its health promoting factors such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and lipid lowering activities.

OBJECTIVE:

The present randomized, placebo-controlled study examines the hypolipidemic beneficial effect of RJ through evaluating anthropometric measurements, lipid profile and various hormone levels in mildly hypercholesterolemic participants.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Forty subjects with mild hypercholesterolemia (180-200 mg/dL) were randomly selected and divided into two groups as experimental or placebo, who requested to intake nine capsules (350 mg/capsule) of RJ or placebo/day, respectively, for three months with one month of follow-up without any supplementation.

RESULTS:

No significant changes were noted in any of the anthropometric parameters like body weight, waist and body fat. The serum total cholesterol (TC; 207.05-183.15 mg/dL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c; 126.44-120.31 mg/dL) levels were reduced significantly (p < 0.05) after administration of RJ. However, triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels were not considerably altered. Moreover, three months of RJ consumption significantly ameliorated (p < 0.05) the concentration of sex hormones like dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S; 1788.09-1992.31 ng/mL). Also, intake of RJ did not elicit any hepatic or renal damage.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:

Intervention with RJ for three months considerably lowered the TC and LDL-c levels through improving the levels of DHEA-S and thus alleviates the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

KEYWORDS:

Lipids; cardiovascular disease; dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate; hypercholesterolemia; royal jelly

 

Effectiveness of Screening Modalities in Colorectal Cancer: A Network Meta-Analysis.

Zhang J, Cheng Z, Ma Y, He C, Lu Y, Zhao Y, Chang X, Zhang Y, Bai Y, Cheng N.

Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2017 Apr 4. pii: S1533-0028(16)30157-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clcc.2017.03.018. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 28687458

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate on the effectiveness of screening modalities in the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) occurrence and deaths. General meta-analysis was performed to produce pooled estimates of the effect of CRC incidence and mortality using a search of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for eligible studies from January 1992 to March 2016. A network meta-analysis was performed to synthetically compare the effectiveness of 5 frequently used screening modalities. A total of 44 studies with a focus on mortality from CRC using different screening methods were included. General meta-analysis showed that fecal immunohistochemical testing (FIT), flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS), colonoscopy, combination of fecal occult blood testing and FS screening respectively reduced CRC mortality by 59% (relative risk [RR], 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.59), 33% (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.58-0.78), 61% (RR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.31-0.50), 38% (RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.91) compared with no screening, whereas guaiac fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) reduced CRC-related mortality by 14% (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.82-0.90). Subgroup analysis showed that summary estimates of reduction in distal CRC mortality and proximal CRC mortality were 26% (95% CI, 62%-89%) and 10% (95% CI, 83%-98%). A network meta-analysis revealed rank probability analysis in which the colonoscopy had a 94.6% probability of being the most effective examination to reduce CRC mortality. In addition, the network meta-analysis estimated odds ratio, which was a 79% reduction (95% CI, 0.09-0.60) in CRC mortality when screening with FIT was compared with annual or biennial gFOBT and colonoscopy was approximately 80% more effective than gFOBT for reducing CRC mortality (RR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.13-0.54). Analysis of the effects of different screening methods showed that there was a significant reduction in the incidence of colon cancer, excluding gFOBT. This meta-analysis confirmed that gFOBT, FIT, FS, and colonoscopy were all effective in preventing CRC deaths and a major reduction in distal but not proximal CRC mortality was found. In addition, they were more effective in preventing CRC incidence in addition to gFOBT. The network meta-analysis suggests that colonoscopy is the most effective screening for preventing CRC deaths.

KEYWORDS:

CRC; Colonoscopy; Incidence; Mortality

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Exercise and BDNF reduce Aβ production by enhancing α-secretase processing of APP.

Nigam SM, Xu S, Kritikou JS, Marosi K, Brodin L, Mattson MP.

J Neurochem. 2017 Jul;142(2):286-296. doi: 10.1111/jnc.14034. Epub 2017 May 18.

PMID: 28382744

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1111/jnc.14034

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by aggregation of toxic forms of amyloid β peptide (Aβ). Treatment strategies have largely been focused on inhibiting the enzymes (β- and γ-secretases) that liberate Aβ from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). While evidence suggests that individuals who exercise regularly are at reduced risk for AD and studies of animal models demonstrate that running can ameliorate brain Aβ pathology and associated cognitive deficits, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. However, considerable evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediates beneficial effects of exercise on neuroplasticity and cellular stress resistance. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BDNF promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing. Using a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and cultured human neural cells, we demonstrate that exercise and BDNF reduce production of toxic Aβ peptides through a mechanism involving enhanced α-secretase processing of APP. This anti-amyloidogenic APP processing involves subcellular redistribution of α-secretase and an increase in intracellular neuroprotective APP peptides capable of binding and inhibiting β-secretase. Moreover, our results suggest that BDNF's ability to promote neurite outgrowth is primarily exerted through pathways other than APP processing. Exercise and other factors that enhance BDNF signaling may therefore have both therapeutic and prophylactic value in the battle against AD. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 191.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer's disease; BDNF; alpha-secretase; amyloid precursor protein; exercise

 

Effects of 1,5-anhydroglucitol on postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels and hydrogen excretion in rats and healthy humans.

Nakamura S, Tanabe K, Yoshinaga K, Shimura F, Oku T.

Br J Nutr. 2017 Jul;118(2):81-91. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517001866.

PMID: 28820081

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1017/S0007114517001866

Abstract

The inhibition by 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol (1,5-AG) was determined on disaccharidases of rats and humans. Then, the metabolism and fate of 1,5-AG was investigated in rats and humans. Although 1,5-AG inhibited about 50 % of sucrase activity in rat small intestine, the inhibition was less than half of d-sorbose. 1,5-AG strongly inhibited trehalase and lactase, whereas d-sorbose inhibited them very weakly. 1,5-AG noncompetitively inhibited sucrase. The inhibition of 1,5-AG on sucrase and maltase was similar between humans and rats. 1,5-AG in serum increased 30 min after oral administration of 1,5-AG (600 mg) in rats, and mostly 100 % of 1,5-AG was excreted into the urine 24 h after administration. 1,5-AG in serum showed a peak 30 min after ingestion of 1,5-AG (20 g) by healthy subjects, and decreased gradually over 180 min. About 60 % of 1,5-AG was excreted into the urine for 9 h following ingestion. Hydrogen was scarcely excreted in both rats and humans 24 h after administration of 1,5-AG. Furthermore, 1,5-AG significantly suppressed the blood glucose elevation, and hydrogen excretion was increased following the simultaneous ingestion of sucrose and 1,5-AG in healthy subjects. 1,5-AG also significantly suppressed the blood glucose elevation following the simultaneous ingestion of glucose and 1,5-AG; however, hydrogen excretion was negligible. The available energy of 1,5-AG, which is absorbed readily from the small intestine and excreted quickly into the urine, is 0 kJ/g (0 kcal/g). Furthermore, 1,5-AG might suppress the blood glucose elevation through the inhibition of sucrase, as well as intestinal glucose absorption.

KEYWORDS:

1; BBMV brush border membrane vesicles; FOS fructo-oligosaccharide; 1; 5-AF 1; 5-AG 1; 5-Anhydro-d-glucitol; 5-Anhydroglucitol; 5-anhydro-d-fructose; 5-anhydro-d-glucitol; Disaccharidase; Hydrogen excretion; Postprandial blood glucose

 

High-dose B-vitamin supplements and risk for age-related cataract: a population-based prospective study of men and women.

Selin JZ, Lindblad BE, Bottai M, Morgenstern R, Wolk A.

Br J Nutr. 2017 Jul;118(2):154-160. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517001994.

PMID: 28820082

Abstract

Previous studies that have investigated the association between B-vitamin supplement use and risk for cataract yield conflicting results. The aim of this study was to examine the association between use of high-dose B-vitamin supplements (approximately 10 times recommended daily intake) and risk for age-related cataract in a population-based prospective study of 13 757 women from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and 22 823 men from the Cohort of Swedish Men. Dietary supplement use and potential confounders were assessed using a questionnaire at baseline. Information on cataract diagnosis and extraction was obtained through linkage to registers. During the follow-up period between January 1998 and December 2011, we identified 8395 cataract cases (3851 for women and 4544 for men). The use of B vitamins plus other supplements and B vitamins only was associated with 9 % (95 % CI 2, 17) and 27 % (95 % CI 12, 43) increased risk for cataract, respectively. The hazard ratios for use of B vitamins only and risk for cataract stratified by different age groups were as follows: <60 years: 1·88 (95 % CI 1·47, 2·39); 60-69 years: 1·21 (95 % CI 0·96, 1·53); and ≥70 years: 1·09 (95 % CI 0·91, 1·31) (P interaction=0·002). Our results suggest that the use of high-dose B-vitamin supplements was associated with an increased risk for cataract. This association might be confined to younger participants.

KEYWORDS:

HR hazard ratio RCT randomised clinical trial RDI recommended daily intake; B-vitamin supplements; Cataracts; Nutritional epidemiology; Prospective cohort studies

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Coffee, Caffeine, and Health Outcomes: An Umbrella Review

Annual Review of Nutrition

Vol. 37:131-156 (Volume publication date August 2017)

https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064941

Giuseppe Grosso,1,2 Justyna Godos,1,3 Fabio Galvano,3 and Edward L. Giovannucci

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064941

Abstract

To evaluate the associations between coffee and caffeine consumption and various health outcomes, we performed an umbrella review of the evidence from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Of the 59 unique outcomes examined in the selected 112 meta-analyses of observational studies, coffee was associated with a probable decreased risk of breast, colorectal, colon, endometrial, and prostate cancers; cardiovascular disease and mortality; Parkinson's disease; and type-2 diabetes. Of the 14 unique outcomes examined in the 20 selected meta-analyses of observational studies, caffeine was associated with a probable decreased risk of Parkinson's disease and type-2 diabetes and an increased risk of pregnancy loss. Of the 12 unique acute outcomes examined in the selected 9 meta-analyses of RCTs, coffee was associated with a rise in serum lipids, but this result was affected by significant heterogeneity, and caffeine was associated with a rise in blood pressure. Given the spectrum of conditions studied and the robustness of many of the results, these findings indicate that coffee can be part of a healthful diet.

Keywords

coffee, caffeine, cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disease

 

Trimethylamine N-Oxide, the Microbiome, and Heart and Kidney Disease.

Zeisel SH, Warrier M.

Annu Rev Nutr. 2017 Jul 17. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064732. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28715991

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064732

Abstract

Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a biologically active molecule and is a putative promoter of chronic diseases including atherosclerosis in humans. Host intestinal bacteria produce its precursor trimethylamine (TMA) from carnitine, choline, or choline-containing compounds. Most of the TMA produced is passively absorbed into portal circulation, and hepatic flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) efficiently oxidize TMA to TMAO. Both observational and experimental studies suggest a strong positive correlation between increased plasma TMAO concentrations and adverse cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. However, a clear mechanistic link between TMAO and such diseases is not yet validated. Therefore, it is debated whether increased TMAO concentrations are the cause or result of these diseases. Here, we have tried to review the current understanding of the properties and physiological functions of TMAO, its dietary sources, and its effects on human metabolism. Studies that describe the potential role of TMAO in the etiology of cardiovascular and other diseases are also discussed.

" Dr. Zeisel is a founder of Nutrigene

Sciences, LLC, a company in which he owns stock equity. He receives research funding from

Balchem, Inc., a company that manufactures choline chloride and therefore could have an interest

in TMAO as it affects use of choline as a diet supplement or food ingredient. The funded research

is unrelated to TMA or TMAO. He serves on the Scientific Advisory Board of Metabolon. He

is a paid consultant for Nestle, Enzymotec, Bayer Consumer Healthcare, DSM, and Pharmavite."

 

Nature, Nurture, and Cancer Risks: Genetic and Nutritional Contributions to Cancer

Annual Review of Nutrition

Vol. 37:293-320 (Volume publication date August 2017)

https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071715-051004

Evropi Theodoratou,1,2,* Maria Timofeeva,2,* Xue Li,1 Xiangrui Meng,1 and John P.A. Ioannidis

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071715-051004

Abstract

It is speculated that genetic variants are associated with differential responses to nutrients (known as gene–diet interactions) and that these variations may be linked to different cancer risks. In this review, we critically evaluate the evidence across 314 meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials of dietary risk factors and the five most common cancers (breast, lung, prostate, colorectal, and stomach). We also critically evaluate the evidence across 13 meta-analyses of observational studies of gene–diet interactions for the same cancers. Convincing evidence for association was found only for the intake of alcohol and whole grains in relation to colorectal cancer risk. Three nutrient associations had highly suggestive evidence and another 15 associations had suggestive evidence. Among the examined gene–diet interactions, only one had moderately strong evidence.

Keywords

diet, genes, cancer, interaction, nutrigenetics, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer

 

Dietary Fat and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Recent Controversies and Advances.

Wang DD, Hu FB.

Annu Rev Nutr. 2017 Jun 23. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064614. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28645222

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064614

Abstract

Health effects of dietary fats have been extensively studied for decades. However, controversies exist on the effects of various types of fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acid (SFA), on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current evidence supports that different types of dietary fatty acids have divergent effects on CVD risk, and the effects also depend strongly on the comparison or replacement macronutrient. A significant reduction in CVD risk can be achieved if SFAs are replaced by unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids. Intake of industrially produced trans fat is consistently associated with higher CVD risk. Both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with lower CVD risk, although the effects of fish oil supplementation remains inconsistent. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans place greater emphasis on types of detary fat than total amount of dietary fat and recommend replacing SFAs with unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fatty acides for CVD prevention.

 

BLOG Read this if you have a frail loved one

Seniors

Brian Goldman

Here’s a prescription that seniors should not take sitting down. The best way to stay vital is to stand up and keep moving

http://www.cbc.ca/radio/whitecoat/blog/read-this-if-you-have-a-frail-loved-one-1.4255217

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CMAJ August 21, 2017 vol. 189 no. 33 doi: 10.1503/cmaj.161034

Research

Association between sedentary time and mortality across levels of frailty

Olga Theou, PhD⇑, Joanna M. Blodgett, MSc, Judith Godin, PhD, Kenneth Rockwood, MD

http://www.cmaj.ca/content/189/33/E1056.full

http://www.cmaj.ca/content/189/33/E1056.full.pdf+html

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviours are associated with adverse health outcomes in middle-aged and older adults, even among those who exercise. We examined whether the degree of frailty affects the association between sedentary behaviours and higher risk of mortality.

METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we used data from 3141 community-dwelling adults 50 years of age or older from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 cohorts of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Time engaged in sedentary behaviours was measured using uniaxial accelerometers, and frailty was based on a 46-item frailty index. Mortality data were linked up to 2011. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of sedentary behaviour.

RESULTS: We found that for people with low levels of frailty (frailty index score ≤ 0.1), sedentary time was not predictive of mortality, regardless of physical activity level (adjusted HR 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70–1.15). Among people who were vulnerable (0.1 < frailty index score ≤ 0.2) or frail (frailty index score > 0.2), sedentary time was associated with higher mortality only among those who were physically inactive (not meeting the criterion for moderate physical activity) (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02–1.33 for the group defined by 0.1 < frailty index score ≤ 0.2; HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.11–1.46 for the group defined by 0.2 < frailty index score ≤ 0.3; HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.19–1.50 for frailty index score > 0.3).

INTERPRETATION: The effect of sedentary behaviours on mortality varied by level of frailty. Adults with the highest frailty level experienced the greatest adverse impact. Low frailty levels (frailty index score ≤ 0.1) seemed to eliminate the increased risk of mortality associated with prolonged sitting, even among people who did not meet recommended physical activity guidelines.

 

Cerebral Perfusion and the Risk of Dementia: A Population-Based Study.

Wolters FJ, Zonneveld HI, Hofman A, van der Lugt A, Koudstaal PJ, Vernooij MW, Ikram MA; Heart-Brain Connection Collaborative Research Group.

Circulation. 2017 Jun 6. pii: CIRCULATIONAHA.117.027448. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.027448. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28588075

Abstract

Background -Cerebral hypoperfusion has previously been associated with mild cognitive impairment and dementia in various cross-sectional studies, but whether hypoperfusion precedes neurodegeneration is unknown. We prospectively determined the association of cerebral perfusion with subsequent cognitive decline and development of dementia. Methods -Between 2005 and 2012, we measured cerebral blood flow by 2D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in non-demented participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study. We determined the association of cerebral perfusion (mL/100mL/minute) with risk of dementia (until 2015) using a Cox model, adjusting for age, sex, demographics, cardiovascular risk factors and APOE genotype. We repeated analyses for Alzheimer's disease, and accounting for stroke. We used linear regression to determine change in cognitive performance during two consecutive examination rounds in relation to perfusion. Finally, we investigated whether associations were modified by baseline severity of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Results -Of 4759 participants (median age 61.3 years, 55.2% women) with a median follow-up of 6.9 years, 123 participants developed dementia (97 Alzheimer's disease). Lower cerebral perfusion was associated with higher risk of dementia (adjusted HR,95%CI, per standard deviation decrease: 1.31,1.07-1.61), similar for Alzheimer's disease only, and unaltered by accounting for stroke. Risk of dementia with hypoperfusion was higher with increasing severity of WMH (with severe WMH -HR 1.54,1.11-2.14). At cognitive re-examination after on average 5.7 years, lower baseline perfusion was associated with accelerated decline in cognition (global cognition: β=-0.029, p=0.003), which was similar after excluding those with incident dementia, and again most profound in individuals with higher volume of WMH (p-value for interaction=0.019). Conclusions -Cerebral hypoperfusion is associated with accelerated cognitive decline and an increased risk of dementia in the general population.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer's disease; cerebral blood flow; cerebral small vessel disease; dementia; epidemiology

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News From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

August 22/29, 2017

Professional Jobs Linked With ALS and Parkinson Disease Deaths

Article Information

JAMA. 2017;318(8):691. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.10459

Contrary to conventional wisdom, more people with white-collar jobs like systems analysts or engineers die of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Parkinson disease than farmers or construction workers who are exposed to toxins linked with both diseases.

http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2649200?amp;utm_source=JAMALatestIssue&utm_campaign=22-08-2017

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Mortality from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Parkinson's Disease Among Different Occupation Groups - United States, 1985-2011.

Beard JD, Steege AL, Ju J, Lu J, Luckhaupt SE, Schubauer-Berigan MK.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Jul 14;66(27):718-722. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6627a2.

PMID: 28704346 Free Article

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/pdfs/mm6627a2.pdf

https://www.crsociety.org/topic/11801-als-papers-citations-and-possibly-links-and-excerpts-or-my-synopses/page-13?hl=28704346&do=findComment&comment=22799

 

Bilateral Oophorectomy and Accelerated Aging: Cause or Effect?

Rocca WA, Gazzuola Rocca L, Smith CY, Grossardt BR, Faubion SS, Shuster LT, Kirkland JL, Stewart EA, Miller VM.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017 Sep 1;72(9):1213-1217. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glx026.

PMID: 28329133

https://academic.oup.com/biomedgerontology/article/72/9/1213/3057304/Bilateral-Oophorectomy-and-Accelerated-Aging-Cause

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The cause-effect relationship between bilateral oophorectomy and accelerated aging remains controversial. We conducted new analyses to further address this controversy.

METHODS:

The Rochester Epidemiology Project records-linkage system was used to identify all premenopausal women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy for a noncancerous condition before age 50 years between 1988 and 2007 in Olmsted County, MN. Each woman was randomly matched to a referent woman born in the same year (±1 year) who had not undergone bilateral oophorectomy. We studied the rate of accumulation of 18 common chronic conditions over a median of approximately 14 years of follow-up (historical cohort study). Analyses were restricted to women free of any of the 18 chronic conditions at the time of oophorectomy (or index date).

RESULTS:

After adjustments for race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, smoking, and age and calendar year at the index date, women who underwent oophorectomy before age 46 years experienced an accelerated rate of accumulation of the 18 chronic conditions considered together (hazard ratio = 1.24; 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.37; p < .001). The single-year incidence rate of new conditions was most different in the first 6 years after oophorectomy but the difference attenuated thereafter. Findings did not vary by surgical indication for the oophorectomy.

CONCLUSIONS:

Bilateral oophorectomy is associated with a higher risk of multimorbidity among women who did not have any of the 18 selected conditions at baseline. The association did not vary by surgical indication for oophorectomy. Our findings suggest that bilateral oophorectomy is causally linked to accelerated aging.

KEYWORDS:

Accelerated aging; Bilateral oophorectomy; Cohort study; Estrogen therapy; Multimorbidity

 

A 2-Year Follow-Up After a 2-Year RCT with Vitamin D and Exercise: Effects on Falls, Injurious Falls and Physical Functioning Among Older Women.

Uusi-Rasi K, Patil R, Karinkanta S, Kannus P, Tokola K, Lamberg-Allardt C, Sievänen H.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017 Sep 1;72(9):1239-1245. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glx044.

PMID: 28369286

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Both exercise and vitamin D are recommended means to prevent falls among older adults, but their combined effects on fall-induced injuries are scarcely studied.

METHODS:

A 2-year follow-up of a previous 2-year randomized controlled trial with vitamin D and exercise (Ex) of 409 older home-dwelling women using a factorial 2 × 2 design (D-Ex-, D+Ex-, D-Ex+, D+Ex+). Besides monthly fall diaries, femoral neck bone mineral density (fn-BMD), and physical functioning were assessed at 1 and 2 years after the intervention.

RESULTS:

After the intervention, S-25OHD concentrations declined to baseline levels in both supplement groups. The groups did not differ for change in fn-BMD or physical functioning, except for leg extensor muscle strength, which remained about 10% greater in the exercise groups compared with the reference group (D-Ex-). There were no between-group differences in the rate of all falls, but medically attended injurious falls reduced in D+Ex- and D-Ex+ groups compared with D-Ex-. However, all former treatment groups had less medically attended injured fallers, HRs (95% CI) being 0.62 (0.39-1.00) for D+Ex-, 0.46 (0.28-0.76) for D-Ex+, and 0.55 (0.34-0.88) for D+Ex+, compared with D-Ex-.

CONCLUSIONS:

Exercise-induced benefits in physical functioning partly remained 2 years after cessation of supervised training. Although there was no difference in the rate of all falls, former exercise groups continued to have lower rate of medically attended injured fallers compared with referents even 2 years after the intervention. Vitamin D without exercise was associated with less injurious falls with no difference in physical functioning.

KEYWORDS:

Exercise; Injurious falls; Physical functioning; Vitamin D

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Exercise and vitamin D in fall prevention among older women: a randomized clinical trial.

Uusi-Rasi K, Patil R, Karinkanta S, Kannus P, Tokola K, Lamberg-Allardt C, Sievänen H.

JAMA Intern Med. 2015 May;175(5):703-11. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.0225.

PMID: 25799402

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

While vitamin D supplementation and exercise are recommended for prevention of falls for older people, results regarding these 2 factors are contradictory.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the effectiveness of targeted exercise training and vitamin D supplementation in reducing falls and injurious falls among older women.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

A 2-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled vitamin D and open exercise trial conducted between April 2010 and March 2013 in Tampere, Finland. Participants were 409 home-dwelling women 70 to 80 years old. The main inclusion criteria were at least 1 fall during the previous year, no use of vitamin D supplements, and no contraindication to exercise.

INTERVENTIONS:

Four study groups, including placebo without exercise, vitamin D (800 IU/d) without exercise, placebo and exercise, and vitamin D (800 IU/d) and exercise.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

The primary outcome was monthly reported falls. Injurious falls and the number of fallers and injured fallers were reported as secondary outcomes. In addition, bone density, physical functioning (muscle strength, balance, and mobility), and vitamin D metabolism were assessed.

RESULTS:

Intent-to-treat analyses showed that neither vitamin D nor exercise reduced falls. Fall rates per 100 person-years were 118.2, 132.1, 120.7, and 113.1 in the placebo without exercise, vitamin D without exercise, placebo and exercise, and vitamin D and exercise study groups, respectively; however, injurious fall rates were 13.2, 12.9, 6.5, and 5.0, respectively. Hazard ratios for injured fallers were significantly lower among exercisers with vitamin D (0.38; 95% CI, 0.17-0.83) and without vitamin D (0.47; 95% CI, 0.23-0.99). Vitamin D maintained femoral neck bone mineral density and increased tibial trabecular density slightly. However, only exercise improved muscle strength and balance. Vitamin D did not enhance exercise effects on physical functioning.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

The rate of injurious falls and injured fallers more than halved with strength and balance training in home-dwelling older women, while neither exercise nor vitamin D affected the rate of falls. Exercise improved physical functioning. Future research is needed to determine the role of vitamin D in the enhancement of strength, balance, and mobility.

 

Chronic Inflammation: Accelerator of Biological Aging.

Fougère B, Boulanger E, Nourhashémi F, Guyonnet S, Cesari M.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017 Sep 1;72(9):1218-1225. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glw240.

PMID: 28003373

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1093/gerona/glw240

Abstract

Biological aging is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation level. This chronic phenomenon has been named "inflamm-aging" and is a highly significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the older persons. The most common theories of inflamm-aging include redox stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, glycation, deregulation of the immune system, hormonal changes, epigenetic modifications, and dysfunction telomere attrition. Inflamm-aging plays a role in the initiation and progression of age-related diseases such as type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, frailty, sarcopenia, osteoporosis, and cancer. This review will cover the identification of pathways that control age-related inflammation across multiple systems and its potential causal role in contributing to adverse health outcomes.

KEYWORDS:

aging; biology; chronic diseases; inflammation

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An Update on Inflamm-Aging: Mechanisms, Prevention, and Treatment.

Xia S, Zhang X, Zheng S, Khanabdali R, Kalionis B, Wu J, Wan W, Tai X.

J Immunol Res. 2016;2016:8426874. doi: 10.1155/2016/8426874. Epub 2016 Jul 14. Review.

PMID: 27493973 Free PMC Article

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4963991/

Abstract

Inflamm-aging is a challenging and promising new branch of aging-related research fields that includes areas such as immunosenescence. Increasing evidence indicates that inflamm-aging is intensively associated with many aging diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, heart disease, type II diabetes, and cancer. Mounting studies have focused on the role of inflamm-aging in disease progression and many advances have been made in the last decade. However, the underlying mechanisms by which inflamm-aging affects pathological changes and disease development are still unclear. Here, we review studies of inflamm-aging that explore the concept, pathological features, mechanisms, intervention, and the therapeutic strategies of inflamm-aging in disease progression.

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EDITORIAL

Paradox of Appropriate Implantable Cardioverter‐Defibrillator Therapy: Saving Lives But Revealing an Increased Mortality Risk

Ryan G. Aleong, William H. Sauer

https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.007087

Journal of the American Heart Association. 2017;6:e007087

Originally published August 19, 2017

DefibrillatorsEditorialsICD therapiesOutcomesventricular tachycardia arrhythmia

At one time, implantation of an implantable cardioverter‐defibrillator (ICD) was reserved for those patients who survived sudden cardiac death (SCD) from ventricular arrhythmia and had a secondary‐prevention‐only indication. However, along with improvements in device technology and the implant procedure, the indications for offering an ICD broadened to include those at the highest risk of SCD from ventricular arrhythmia for primary prevention. Patients receiving an ICD for primary prevention have a lower rate of appropriate ICD therapy but more comorbidities compared with those who receive an ICD after surviving SCD. In general, primary‐prevention ICD patients live longer than those with a secondary‐prevention indication. However, once a primary‐prevention patient receives appropriate therapy and thus is declared a secondary‐prevention patient, are the improved patient characteristics still associated with reduced mortality?

In the current issue of JAHA, Almehmadi and colleagues present an interesting analysis of the implications of ICD shock or antitachycardia pacing (ATP) in a large cohort of patients who received ICDs for primary‐ and secondary‐prevention indications.1 Several important findings resulted from this analysis. First, patients who receive any appropriate ICD therapy, either shock or ATP, have increased mortality no matter what the initial indication. Second, patients who received an ICD for a secondary‐prevention indication have higher risk of subsequent ICD therapy compared with those with a primary‐prevention ICD. The most important finding, however, was that the risk of subsequent death was similar in both groups (primary versus secondary prevention) once they received any ICD therapy. This finding was surprising because patients in the primary‐prevention ICD group were older and had more comorbidities, with higher incidence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension and more advanced heart failure. Given that the secondary‐indication ICD group was “healthier,” this finding suggests that a higher burden of ventricular arrhythmias was a risk factor sufficient to confer increased mortality. Furthermore, mortality risk was increased in both groups regardless of whether the patient received ATP or an ICD shock, in contrast to the MADIT‐RIT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial–Reduce Inappropriate Therapy) trial.2

...

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Almehmadi F, Porta‐Sánchez A, Ha ACT, Fischer HD, Wang X, Austin PC, Lee DS, Nanthakumar K.

Mortality implications of appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in secondary prevention patients: contrasting mortality in primary prevention patients from a prospective population‐based registry.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6:e006220. DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.117.006220.

FREE Full Text

http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/6/8/e006220?ijkey=bc3bbd40e92ccf9d23761cf48f4521cd1b54552e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Abstract

Background We sought to examine the mortality impact of appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy between patients who received ICD for primary versus secondary prevention purposes.

Methods and Results From a prospective, population‐based registry, we identified 7020 patients who underwent de novo ICD implantation between February 2007 and May 2012 in Ontario, Canada. The primary outcome was all‐cause mortality. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard modeling to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics and analyzed the mortality impact of first appropriate ICD therapy (shock and antitachycardia pacing [ATP]) as a time‐varying covariate. There were 1929 (27.5%) patients who received ICDs for secondary prevention purposes. The median follow‐up period was 5.02 years. Compared with those with secondary prevention ICDs, patients with primary prevention ICDs had more medical comorbidities, and lower ejection fraction. Patients who experienced appropriate ICD shock or ATP had greater risk of death compared with those who did not, irrespective of implant indication. In the primary prevention group, the adjusted hazard ratios of death for appropriate shock and ATP were 2.00 (95% CI: 1.72–2.33) and 1.73 (95% CI: 1.52–1.97), respectively. In the secondary prevention group, the adjusted hazard ratios of death for appropriate ICD shock and ATP were 1.46 (95% CI: 1.20–1.77) and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.16–1.64), respectively.

Conclusions Despite having a more favorable clinical profile, occurrence of appropriate ICD shock or ATP in patients with secondary prevention ICDs was associated with similar magnitudes of mortality risk as those with primary prevention ICDs. A heightened degree of care is warranted for all patients who experience appropriate ICD shock or ATP therapy.

 

Association of High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol Versus Apolipoprotein A-I With Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer-Norfolk Prospective Population Study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, and the Women's Health Study.

van Capelleveen JC, Bochem AE, Boekholdt SM, Mora S, Hoogeveen RC, Ballantyne CM, Ridker PM, Sun W, Barter PJ, Tall AR, Zwinderman AH, Kastelein JJP, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT, Hovingh GK.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Aug 3;6(8). pii: e006636. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.006636.

PMID: 28775061 Free Article

http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/6/8/e006636?etoc=

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The contribution of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk stratification over and above high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is unclear. We studied the associations between plasma levels of HDL-C and apoA-I, either alone or combined, with risk of CHD events and cardiovascular risk factors among apparently healthy men and women.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

HDL-C and apoA-I levels were measured among 17 661 participants of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer)-Norfolk prospective population study. Hazard ratios for CHD events and distributions of risk factors were calculated by quartiles of HDL-C and apoA-I. Results were validated using data from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) and WHS (Women's Health Study) cohorts, comprising 15 494 and 27 552 individuals, respectively. In EPIC-Norfolk, both HDL-C and apoA-I quartiles were strongly and inversely associated with CHD risk. Within HDL-C quartiles, higher apoA-I levels were not associated with lower CHD risk; in fact, CHD risk was higher within some HDL-C quartiles. ApoA-I levels were associated with higher levels of CHD risk factors: higher body mass index, HbA1c, non-HDL-C, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, systolic blood pressure, and C-reactive protein, within fixed HDL-C quartiles. In contrast, HDL-C levels were consistently inversely associated with overall CHD risk and CHD risk factors within apoA-I quartiles (P<0.001). These findings were validated in the ARIC and WHS cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings demonstrate that apoA-I levels do not offer predictive information over and above HDL-C. In fact, within some HDL-C quartiles, higher apoA-I levels were associated with higher risk of CHD events, possibly because of the unexpected higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in association with higher apoA-I levels.

KEYWORDS:

apolipoprotein A‐I; cardiovascular disease; coronary heart disease; high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol

 

Effect of Intensive Blood-Pressure Treatment on Patient-Reported Outcomes.

Berlowitz DR, Foy CG, Kazis LE, Bolin LP, Conroy MB, Fitzpatrick P, Gure TR, Kimmel PL, Kirchner K, Morisky DE, Newman J, Olney C, Oparil S, Pajewski NM, Powell J, Ramsey T, Simmons DL, Snyder J, Supiano MA, Weiner DE, Whittle J; SPRINT Research Group.

N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 24;377(8):733-744. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1611179.

PMID: 28834483

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1056/NEJMoa1611179

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The previously published results of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial showed that among participants with hypertension and an increased cardiovascular risk, but without diabetes, the rates of cardiovascular events were lower among those who were assigned to a target systolic blood pressure of less than 120 mm Hg (intensive treatment) than among those who were assigned to a target of less than 140 mm Hg (standard treatment). Whether such intensive treatment affected patient-reported outcomes was uncertain; those results from the trial are reported here.

METHODS:

We randomly assigned 9361 participants with hypertension to a systolic blood-pressure target of less than 120 mm Hg or a target of less than 140 mm Hg. Patient-reported outcome measures included the scores on the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey, the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item depression scale (PHQ-9), patient-reported satisfaction with their blood-pressure care and blood-pressure medications, and adherence to blood-pressure medications. We compared the scores in the intensive-treatment group with those in the standard-treatment group among all participants and among participants stratified according to physical and cognitive function.

RESULTS:

Participants who received intensive treatment received an average of one additional antihypertensive medication, and the systolic blood pressure was 14.8 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 14.3 to 15.4) lower in the group that received intensive treatment than in the group that received standard treatment. Mean PCS, MCS, and PHQ-9 scores were relatively stable over a median of 3 years of follow-up, with no significant differences between the two treatment groups. No significant differences between the treatment groups were noted when participants were stratified according to baseline measures of physical or cognitive function. Satisfaction with blood-pressure care was high in both treatment groups, and we found no significant difference in adherence to blood-pressure medications.

CONCLUSIONS:

Patient-reported outcomes among participants who received intensive treatment, which targeted a systolic blood pressure of less than 120 mm Hg, were similar to those among participants who received standard treatment, including among participants with decreased physical or cognitive function.

 

Cost-Effectiveness of Intensive versus Standard Blood-Pressure Control.

Bress AP, Bellows BK, King JB, Hess R, Beddhu S, Zhang Z, Berlowitz DR, Conroy MB, Fine L, Oparil S, Morisky DE, Kazis LE, Ruiz-Negrón N, Powell J, Tamariz L, Whittle J, Wright JT Jr, Supiano MA, Cheung AK, Weintraub WS, Moran AE; SPRINT Research Group.

N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 24;377(8):745-755. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1616035.

PMID: 28834469

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1056/NEJMsa1616035

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), adults at high risk for cardiovascular disease who received intensive systolic blood-pressure control (target, <120 mm Hg) had significantly lower rates of death and cardiovascular disease events than did those who received standard control (target, <140 mm Hg). On the basis of these data, we wanted to determine the lifetime health benefits and health care costs associated with intensive control versus standard control.

METHODS:

We used a microsimulation model to apply SPRINT treatment effects and health care costs from national sources to a hypothetical cohort of SPRINT-eligible adults. The model projected lifetime costs of treatment and monitoring in patients with hypertension, cardiovascular disease events and subsequent treatment costs, treatment-related risks of serious adverse events and subsequent costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for intensive control versus standard control of systolic blood pressure.

RESULTS:

We determined that the mean number of QALYs would be 0.27 higher among patients who received intensive control than among those who received standard control and would cost approximately $47,000 more per QALY gained if there were a reduction in adherence and treatment effects after 5 years; the cost would be approximately $28,000 more per QALY gained if the treatment effects persisted for the remaining lifetime of the patient. Most simulation results indicated that intensive treatment would be cost-effective (51 to 79% below the willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per QALY and 76 to 93% below the threshold of $100,000 per QALY), regardless of whether treatment effects were reduced after 5 years or persisted for the remaining lifetime.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this simulation study, intensive systolic blood-pressure control prevented cardiovascular disease events and prolonged life and did so at levels below common willingness-to-pay thresholds per QALY, regardless of whether benefits were reduced after 5 years or persisted for the patient's remaining lifetime.

 

THIS WEEK IN SCIENCE

Research in Science journals.

SCIENCE25 AUG 2017 : 768

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IMMUNOLOGY

Tolerogenic T cells need probiotics

Seth Thomas Scanlon

CD4+CD8αα+ double-positive intraepithelial lymphocytes (DP IELs) are a recently discovered class of intestinal T cells believed to take part in a variety of immune responses, including oral tolerance. These cells are absent in germ-free mice, but the mechanisms driving their development are unclear. Cervantes-Barragan et al. found that a particular species of probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus reuteri, induces DP IELs. This does not occur by stimulating the immune system directly. Instead, L. reuteri generates a specific derivative of dietary tryptophan that promotes differentiation of DP IEL precursors. These findings underscore the delicate interplay between benign bacteria, diet, and gut health.

Science, this issue p. 806

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<i>Lactobacillus reuteri</i> induces gut intraepithelial CD4<sup>+</sup>CD8αα<sup>+</sup> T cells.

Cervantes-Barragan L, Chai JN, Tianero MD, DiLuccia B, Ahern PP, Merriman J, Cortez VS, Caparon MG, Donia MS, Gilfillan S, Cella M, Gordon JI, Hsieh CS, Colonna M.

Science. 2017 Aug 3. pii: eaah5825. doi: 10.1126/science.aah5825. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28775213

Editor's Summary

Lactobacillus reuteri induces a specific type of gut intraepithelial T cell via tryptophan catabolites that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

Abstract

The small intestine contains CD4+CD8αα+ double-positive intraepithelial lymphocytes (DP IELs), which originate from intestinal CD4+ T cells through down-regulation of the transcription factor Thpok and have regulatory functions. DP IELs are absent in germ-free mice, which suggests that their differentiation depends on microbial factors. We found that DP IEL numbers in mice varied in different vivaria, correlating with the presence of Lactobacillus reuteri. This species induced DP IELs in germ-free mice and conventionally-raised mice lacking these cells. L. reuteri did not shape the DP-IEL-TCR (TCR, T cell receptor) repertoire but generated indole derivatives of tryptophan that activated the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor in CD4+ T cells, allowing Thpok down-regulation and differentiation into DP IELs. Thus, L. reuteri, together with a tryptophan-rich diet, can reprogram intraepithelial CD4+ T cells into immunoregulatory T cells.

 

THIS WEEK IN SCIENCE

Research in Science journals.

SCIENCE25 AUG 2017 : 768

>>>>>>

Editor's Summary

MICROBIOTA

Seasonal diets, seasonal microbiota

Caroline Ash

Among the Hadza of western Tanzania, a few hundred people still live in small groups as hunter-gatherers, reliant solely on the wild environment for food. Smits et al. found that the microbiota of these people reflects the seasonal availability of different types of food (see the Perspective by Peddada). Between seasons, striking differences were observed in their gut microbial communities, with some taxa apparently disappearing, only to reappear when the seasons turned. Further comparison of the Hadza microbiota with that of diverse urbanized peoples revealed distinctly different patterns of microbial community composition.

Science, this issue p. 802; see also p. 754

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Seasonal change in the gut

BY SHYAMAL PEDDADA

SCIENCE25 AUG 2017 : 754-755

The gut microbiome of Hadza hunter-gatherers changes with the season

Science 25 Aug 2017:

Vol. 357, Issue 6353, pp. 754-755

DOI: 10.1126/science.aao2997

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1126/science.aao2997

Summary

We live in a dynamic environment where diet, weather, social interactions, lifestyles, and a host of other factors change on a regular basis. Consequently, the microbial composition of even a healthy person's gut is subject to natural variations; however, not much is known about these variations. On page 802 of this issue, Smits et al. (1) study seasonal changes in the gut microbiome of the Hadza population (see the photo), a hunter-gatherer community residing near Lake Eyasi in Tanzania, Africa, during the wet and dry seasons of 2013 and 2014. Using a new methodology, they identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs)—clusters of reads that are a proxy for taxons—that respond to seasonal changes in diet, activity, and the external environment, thereby maintaining a healthy gut.

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Seasonal cycling in the gut microbiome of the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania

BY SAMUEL A. SMITS, JEFF LEACH, ERICA D. SONNENBURG, CARLOS G. GONZALEZ, JOSHUA S. LICHTMAN, GREGOR REID, ROB KNIGHT, ALPHAXARD MANJURANO, JOHN CHANGALUCHA, JOSHUA E. ELIAS, MARIA GLORIA DOMINGUEZ-BELLO, JUSTIN L. SONNENBURG

SCIENCE25 AUG 2017 : 802-806

The composition of microbes in the guts of the Hadza hunter-gatherers undergoes an annual cyclic reconfiguration.

editor's summary.

Seasonal diets, seasonal microbiota

Among the Hadza of western Tanzania, a few hundred people still live in small groups as hunter-gatherers, reliant solely on the wild environment for food. Smits et al. found that the microbiota of these people reflects the seasonal availability of different types of food (see the Perspective by Peddada). Between seasons, striking differences were observed in their gut microbial communities, with some taxa apparently disappearing, only to reappear when the seasons turned. Further comparison of the Hadza microbiota with that of diverse urbanized peoples revealed distinctly different patterns of microbial community composition.

Abstract

Although humans have cospeciated with their gut-resident microbes, it is difficult to infer features of our ancestral microbiome. Here, we examine the microbiome profile of 350 stool samples collected longitudinally for more than a year from the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. The data reveal annual cyclic reconfiguration of the microbiome, in which some taxa become undetectable only to reappear in a subsequent season. Comparison of the Hadza data set with data collected from 18 populations in 16 countries with varying lifestyles reveals that gut community membership corresponds to modernization: Notably, the taxa within the Hadza that are the most seasonally volatile similarly differentiate industrialized and traditional populations. These data indicate that some dynamic lineages of microbes have decreased in prevalence and abundance in modernized populations.

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Favourable nutrient intake and displacement with long-term walnut supplementation among elderly: results of a randomised trial.

Bitok E, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Rajaram S, Serra-Mir M, Roth I, Feitas-Simoes T, Ros E, Sabaté J.

Br J Nutr. 2017 Aug;118(3):201-209. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517001957.

PMID: 28831957

http://www.cambridge.org.ololo.sci-hub.cc/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/favourable-nutrient-intake-and-displacement-with-longterm-walnut-supplementation-among-elderly-results-of-a-randomised-trial/E9505B2162D5EE533054EAD4D90B0ECA

Abstract

Older adults tend to require fewer energy content and higher levels of nutrients to promote and maintain optimal health. Regrettably, dietary variety and quality are known to decline with advancing age. We conducted a 2-year prospective, randomised, dietary intervention trial where we asked free-living elderly subjects (63-79 years) on self-selected habitual diets to incorporate walnuts daily into their diet (15 % energy). We then compared their nutrient intake with that of a similar group of concurrent participants on self-selected habitual diets but abstaining from walnut consumption (control). No recipes or advice on use of nuts were provided. Dietary intake was assessed by multiple unannounced 24-h telephone dietary recalls. On average, walnut supplement consumption was 43 g/d or 1171·5 kJ (281 kcal). The mean daily energy intake was 954 kJ (228 kcal) higher in the walnut group than in the control group (P<0·001). Compared with control, participants in the walnut group reported significantly higher intake of total protein, vegetable protein, total PUFA and n-3 and n-6 PUFA; and significantly lower intake of total carbohydrate, animal protein, SFA, and Na. An estimated 19 % of total energy and 25 % of total fat from other food sources was displaced. Displacement of MUFA and total PUFA was 21 and 16 %, respectively. Thus adding a daily supplement of walnuts to an ad libitum diet of older adults can induce favourable modifications to the nutrient profile in a way that addresses declining nutrient intake associated with aging.

KEYWORDS:

ALA α-linolenic acid; Diet quality; Nutrient displacement; Nuts; Walnuts

" participants received

28, 42 or 56 g (1, 1·5 or 2·0 oz)/d of packaged walnuts on the

basis of individual energy needs"

"This work was supported by a grant from the California

Walnut Commission"

"The Principal Investigators of the study (J. S. and E. R.) have

received grants for research through their institutions from the

California Walnut Commission and are non-paid members of its

Scientific Advisory Committee."

 

Processed red meat contribution to dietary patterns and the associated cardio-metabolic outcomes.

Lenighan YM, Nugent AP, Li KF, Brennan L, Walton J, Flynn A, Roche HM, McNulty BA.

Br J Nutr. 2017 Aug;118(3):222-228. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517002008.

PMID: 28831958

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1017/S0007114517002008

Abstract

Evidence suggests that processed red meat consumption is a risk factor for CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This analysis investigates the association between dietary patterns, their processed red meat contributions, and association with blood biomarkers of CVD and T2D, in 786 Irish adults (18-90 years) using cross-sectional data from a 2011 national food consumption survey. All meat-containing foods consumed were assigned to four food groups (n 502) on the basis of whether they contained red or white meat and whether they were processed or unprocessed. The remaining foods (n 2050) were assigned to twenty-nine food groups. Two-step and k-means cluster analyses were applied to derive dietary patterns. Nutrient intakes, plasma fatty acids and biomarkers of CVD and T2D were assessed. A total of four dietary patterns were derived. In comparison with the pattern with lower contributions from processed red meat, the dietary pattern with greater processed red meat intakes presented a poorer Alternate Healthy Eating Index (21·2 (sd 7·7)), a greater proportion of smokers (29 %) and lower plasma EPA (1·34 (sd 0·72) %) and DHA (2·21 (sd 0·84) %) levels (P<0·001). There were no differences in classical biomarkers of CVD and T2D, including serum cholesterol and insulin, across dietary patterns. This suggests that the consideration of processed red meat consumption as a risk factor for CVD and T2D may need to be re-assessed.

KEYWORDS:

%TE percentage of total energy; T2D type 2 diabetes; CVD; Dietary pattern analysis; Processed red meat; Type 2 diabetes

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Medline seems to be on holidays.

 

Recommended fat intake should increase, Canadian researchers say

Low-fat diets have led to dangerously high carbohydrate consumption, study suggests

By Nicole Ireland, CBC News Posted: Aug 29, 2017

http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/canadian-researchers-fat-carbohydrates-the-lancet-1.4266130

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Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study

Mahshid Dehghan, Andrew Mente, Xiaohe Zhang, Sumathi Swaminathan, Wei Li, Viswanathan Mohan, Romaina Iqbal, Rajesh Kumar, Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen, Annika Rosengren, Leela Itty Amma, Alvaro Avezum, Jephat Chifamba, Rafael Diaz, Rasha Khatib, Scott Lear, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Xiaoyun Liu, Rajeev Gupta, Noushin Mohammadifard, Nan Gao, Aytekin Oguz, Anis Safura Ramli, Pamela Seron, Yi Sun, Andrzej Szuba, Lungiswa Tsolekile, Andreas Wielgosz, Rita Yusuf, Afzal Hussein Yusufali, Koon K Teo, Sumathy Rangarajan, Gilles Dagenais, Shrikant I Bangdiwala, Shofiqul Islam, Sonia S Anand, Salim Yusuf on behalf of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study investigators

Lancet Published: 29 August 2017 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32252-3

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32252-3

Summary

Background

The relationship between macronutrients and cardiovascular disease and mortality is controversial. Most available data are from European and North American populations where nutrition excess is more likely, so their applicability to other populations is unclear.

Methods

The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large, epidemiological cohort study of individuals aged 35–70 years (enrolled between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013) in 18 countries with a median follow-up of 7·4 years (IQR 5·3–9·3). Dietary intake of 135 335 individuals was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. The primary outcomes were total mortality and major cardiovascular events (fatal cardiovascular disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure). Secondary outcomes were all myocardial infarctions, stroke, cardiovascular disease mortality, and non-cardiovascular disease mortality. Participants were categorised into quintiles of nutrient intake (carbohydrate, fats, and protein) based on percentage of energy provided by nutrients. We assessed the associations between consumption of carbohydrate, total fat, and each type of fat with cardiovascular disease and total mortality. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using a multivariable Cox frailty model with random intercepts to account for centre clustering.

Findings

During follow-up, we documented 5796 deaths and 4784 major cardiovascular disease events. Higher carbohydrate intake was associated with an increased risk of total mortality (highest [quintile 5] vs lowest quintile [quintile 1] category, HR 1·28 [95% CI 1·12–1·46], ptrend=0·0001) but not with the risk of cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular disease mortality. Intake of total fat and each type of fat was associated with lower risk of total mortality (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, total fat: HR 0·77 [95% CI 0·67–0·87], ptrend<0·0001; saturated fat, HR 0·86 [0·76–0·99], ptrend=0·0088; monounsaturated fat: HR 0·81 [0·71–0·92], ptrend<0·0001; and polyunsaturated fat: HR 0·80 [0·71–0·89], ptrend<0·0001). Higher saturated fat intake was associated with lower risk of stroke (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, HR 0·79 [95% CI 0·64–0·98], ptrend=0·0498). Total fat and saturated and unsaturated fats were not significantly associated with risk of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular disease mortality.

Interpretation

High carbohydrate intake was associated with higher risk of total mortality, whereas total fat and individual types of fat were related to lower total mortality. Total fat and types of fat were not associated with cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular disease mortality, whereas saturated fat had an inverse association with stroke. Global dietary guidelines should be reconsidered in light of these findings.

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COMMENT

PURE study challenges the definition of a healthy diet: but key questions remain

Christopher E Ramsden, Anthony F Domenichiello

Lancet Published: 29 August 2017 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32241-9

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32241-9

Summary

The relationships between diet, cardiovascular disease, and death are topics of major public health importance, and subjects of great controversy.1,2 In European and North American countries, the most enduring and consistent diet advice is to restrict saturated fatty acids, by replacing animal fats with vegetable oils and complex carbohydrates (and more recently whole grains).1,3 In The Lancet, Mahshid Dehghan and colleagues4 echo the views of a growing number of scientists by stating that advice to restrict saturated fatty acids “is largely based on selective emphasis on some observational and clinical data, despite the existence of several randomised trials and observational studies that do not support these conclusions”.

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Fruit, vegetable, and legume intake, and cardiovascular disease and deaths in 18 countries (PURE): a prospective cohort study

Victoria Miller, Andrew Mente, Mahshid Dehghan, Sumathy Rangarajan, Xiaohe Zhang, Sumathi Swaminathan, Gilles Dagenais, Rajeev Gupta, Viswanathan Mohan, Scott Lear, Shrikant I Bangdiwala, Aletta E Schutte, Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen, Alvaro Avezum, Yuksel Altuntas, Khalid Yusoff, Noorhassim Ismail, Nasheeta Peer, Jephat Chifamba, Rafael Diaz, Omar Rahman, Noushin Mohammadifard, Fernando Lana, Katarzyna Zatonska, Andreas Wielgosz, Afzalhussein Yusufali, Romaina Iqbal, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Rasha Khatib, Annika Rosengren, V Raman Kutty, Wei Li, Jiankang Liu, Xiaoyun Liu, Lu Yin, Koon Teo, Sonia Anand, Salim Yusuf on behalf of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study investigators

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32253-5

Summary

Background

The association between intake of fruits, vegetables, and legumes with cardiovascular disease and deaths has been investigated extensively in Europe, the USA, Japan, and China, but little or no data are available from the Middle East, South America, Africa, or south Asia.

Methods

We did a prospective cohort study (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology [PURE] in 135 335 individuals aged 35 to 70 years without cardiovascular disease from 613 communities in 18 low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries in seven geographical regions: North America and Europe, South America, the Middle East, south Asia, China, southeast Asia, and Africa. We documented their diet using country-specific food frequency questionnaires at baseline. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect information about demographic factors, socioeconomic status (education, income, and employment), lifestyle (smoking, physical activity, and alcohol intake), health history and medication use, and family history of cardiovascular disease. The follow-up period varied based on the date when recruitment began at each site or country. The main clinical outcomes were major cardiovascular disease (defined as death from cardiovascular causes and non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure), fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal and non-fatal strokes, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality. Cox frailty models with random effects were used to assess associations between fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption with risk of cardiovascular disease events and mortality.

Findings

Participants were enrolled into the study between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013. For the current analysis, we included all unrefuted outcome events in the PURE study database through March 31, 2017. Overall, combined mean fruit, vegetable and legume intake was 3·91 (SD 2·77) servings per day. During a median 7·4 years (5·5–9·3) of follow-up, 4784 major cardiovascular disease events, 1649 cardiovascular deaths, and 5796 total deaths were documented. Higher total fruit, vegetable, and legume intake was inversely associated with major cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality in the models adjusted for age, sex, and centre (random effect). The estimates were substantially attenuated in the multivariable adjusted models for major cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio {HR} 0·90, 95% CI 0·74–1·10, ptrend=0·1301), myocardial infarction (0·99, 0·74–1·31; ptrend=0·2033), stroke (0·92, 0·67–1·25; ptrend=0·7092), cardiovascular mortality (0·73, 0·53–1·02; ptrend=0·0568), non-cardiovascular mortality (0·84, 0·68–1·04; ptrend =0·0038), and total mortality (0·81, 0·68–0·96; ptrend<0·0001). The HR for total mortality was lowest for three to four servings per day (0·78, 95% CI 0·69–0·88) compared with the reference group, with no further apparent decrease in HR with higher consumption. When examined separately, fruit intake was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular, and total mortality, while legume intake was inversely associated with non-cardiovascular death and total mortality (in fully adjusted models). For vegetables, raw vegetable intake was strongly associated with a lower risk of total mortality, whereas cooked vegetable intake showed a modest benefit against mortality.

Interpretation

Higher fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption was associated with a lower risk of non-cardiovascular, and total mortality. Benefits appear to be maximum for both non-cardiovascular mortality and total mortality at three to four servings per day (equivalent to 375–500 g/day).

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COMMENT

Fruits, vegetables, and legumes: sound prevention tools

Estefania Toledo, Miguel A Martínez-González

Lancet Published: 29 August 2017 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32251-1

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32251-1

Summary

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for a third of all deaths. Three of four cardiovascular deaths and more than 80% of premature deaths attributable to non-communicable diseases occur in low-income and middle-income countries.1 Thus, preventive strategies to tackle premature mortality and, particularly, cardiovascular mortality represent a major public health goal not only for high-income countries, but also for low-income and middle-income countries. The most effective and sustainable preventive strategies should rely on healthy diet and lifestyle.

 

The Scientist » News & Opinion » Daily News

A Bacterial Messenger Molecule Extends Healthspan

E. coli that make indoles protect older worms, flies, and mice from frailty.

By Sandhya Sekar | August 28, 2017

http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/50187/title/A-Bacterial-Messenger-Molecule-Extends-Healthspan/&utm_campaign=NEWSLETTER_TS_The-Scientist-Daily_2016&utm_source=hs_email&utm_medium=email&utm_content=55701204&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-8gKvZUmiXwFDlHLohQwtTSYbA3DHlhSfwqvSlVxGiEHdODhSWKAqZWFhyZyjdPZ94_MXeN1CVQmwshfvOEaeICBnit8Q&_hsmi=55701204

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Indoles from commensal bacteria extend healthspan.

Sonowal R, Swimm A, Sahoo A, Luo L, Matsunaga Y, Wu Z, Bhingarde JA, Ejzak EA, Ranawade A, Qadota H, Powell DN, Capaldo CT, Flacker JM, Jones RM, Benian GM, Kalman D.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Aug 21. pii: 201706464. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1706464114. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28827345

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1073/pnas.1706464114

Abstract

Multiple studies have identified conserved genetic pathways and small molecules associated with extension of lifespan in diverse organisms. However, extending lifespan does not result in concomitant extension in healthspan, defined as the proportion of time that an animal remains healthy and free of age-related infirmities. Rather, mutations that extend lifespan often reduce healthspan and increase frailty. The question arises as to whether factors or mechanisms exist that uncouple these processes and extend healthspan and reduce frailty independent of lifespan. We show that indoles from commensal microbiota extend healthspan of diverse organisms, including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and mice, but have a negligible effect on maximal lifespan. Effects of indoles on healthspan in worms and flies depend upon the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a conserved detector of xenobiotic small molecules. In C. elegans, indole induces a gene expression profile in aged animals reminiscent of that seen in the young, but which is distinct from that associated with normal aging. Moreover, in older animals, indole induces genes associated with oogenesis and, accordingly, extends fecundity and reproductive span. Together, these data suggest that small molecules related to indole and derived from commensal microbiota act in diverse phyla via conserved molecular pathways to promote healthy aging. These data raise the possibility of developing therapeutics based on microbiota-derived indole or its derivatives to extend healthspan and reduce frailty in humans.

KEYWORDS:

C. elegans; aging; aryl hydrocarbon receptor; frailty; microbiota

 

Personal profile: interview with Michael Rae. Interview by Vicki Glaser.

Rae M.

Rejuvenation Res. 2011 Feb;14(1):95-7. doi: 10.1089/rej.2011.1160. No abstract available.

PMID: 21329454

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1089/rej.2011.1160

Edited by AlPater

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Role of Total, Red, Processed, and White Meat Consumption in Stroke Incidence and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

Kyuwoong Kim, Junghyeon Hyeon, Sang Ah Lee, Sung Ok Kwon, Hyejin Lee, NaNa Keum, Jong‐Koo Lee, Sang Min Park

Journal of the American Heart Association. 2017;6:e005983, originally published August 30, 2017

https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.005983

http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/6/9/e005983

Abstract

Background Previous meta‐analyses on meat intake and risk of stroke did not report the effect of white meat (poultry meat, excluding fish) and did not examine stroke incidence and mortality separately. We aimed to investigate the relationship of total (red and processed meat), red (unprocessed or fresh red meat), and processed (processed red meat) consumption along with white meat on risk of stroke incidence and mortality.

Methods and Results Articles were identified from databases and reference lists of relevant studies up to October 28, 2016. We selected prospective cohort studies on meat consumption specified by types of meat and stroke incidence and mortality reporting relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. The pooled relative risk was estimated using the random‐effects model. Based on the inclusion criteria, 10 articles containing 15 studies (5 articles with 7 studies including 9522 cases of stroke incidence and 254 742 participants and 5 articles with 8 studies containing 12 999 cases of stroke mortality and 487 150 participants) were selected for quantitative synthesis. The pooled relative risks (95% confidence intervals) for total, red, processed and white meat consumption and total stroke incidence were 1.18 (1.09–1.28), 1.11 (1.03–1.20), 1.17 (1.08–1.25), and 0.87 (0.78–0.97), respectively. Total meat consumption (0.97 [0.85–1.11]) and red meat consumption 0.87 (0.64–1.18) were not significantly associated with stroke‐related death.

Conclusions The relationship between meat intake and risk of stroke may differ by type of meat. Recommendations for replacing proportions of red and processed meats to white meat for the prevention of stroke may be considered in clinical practice.

cerebrovascular accident, cerebrovascular infarction, cerebrovascular ischemia, meat consumption

 

Physical Activity Frequency and the Risk of Stroke: A Nationwide Cohort Study in Korea

Han‐Gil Jeong, Do Yeon Kim, Dong‐Wan Kang, Beom Joon Kim, Chi Kyung Kim, Yerim Kim, Wookjin Yang, Eun‐Sun Park, Seung‐Hoon Lee

Journal of the American Heart Association. 2017;6:e005671, originally published August 30, 2017

https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.005671

http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/6/9/e005671

Abstract

Background The current guideline recommends moderate‐ to vigorous‐intensity physical activity (PA) at least 40 min/day for 3 to 4 days/week. Although recent evidence has demonstrated that low‐dose PA could reduce cardiovascular mortality, the relationship between low‐dose PA and the risk of stroke remains uncertain.

Methods and Results Using data from a nation‐wide sample cohort in Korea, we examined 336 326 individuals who received a general health examination between 2009 and 2010. Level of PA was assessed using a questionnaire for weekly PA frequencies regarding 3 intensity categories: light, moderate, and vigorous. Moderate‐ to vigorous‐intensity PA (MVPA) was classified into 4 frequency categories: none, 1 to 2, 3 to 4, or ≥5 times/week. Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to estimate the risk of stroke. During the average follow‐up of 3.6 years, 2213 stroke cases occurred. MVPA was none in 50%, 1 to 2 times/week in 20%, 3 to 4 times/week in 13%, and ≥5 times/week in 18% of the cohort. Individuals with MVPA 1 to 2 times/week had a 16% reduced risk of stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.73–0.96) compared with those with no MVPA. The population attributable fraction of no MVPA was 12%, which was the second most important risk factor for a stroke after hypertension.

Conclusions Even 1 to 2 times a week of MVPA might be beneficial to prevent a first‐ever stroke in the general population, although a quantitative validation of the questionnaire is needed. From a public health perspective, we need to encourage inactive people to start exercising with more‐achievable goals.

Keyywords: physical activity, primary prevention, risk factorstroke

 

Follicle‐Stimulating Hormone, Its Association with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, and 10‐Year Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Women

Ningjian Wang, Hongfang Shao, Yi Chen, Fangzhen Xia, Chen Chi, Qin Li, Bing Han, Yincheng Teng, Yingli Lu

Journal of the American Heart Association. 2017;6:e005918, originally published August 30, 2017

https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.005918

http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/6/9/e005918

Abstract

Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in postmenopausal women. Follicle‐stimulating hormone (FSH) shows negative associations with obesity and diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women. We aimed to study the associations between FSH and 10‐year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in postmenopausal women.

Methods and Results SPECT‐China (the Survey on Prevalence in East China for Metabolic Diseases and Risk Factors) is a 22‐site, population‐based study conducted during 2014–2015. This study included 2658 postmenopausal women. A newly developed effective tool for 10‐year ASCVD risk prediction among Chinese was adopted. Regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship among FSH, 10‐year ASCVD risk, and multiple cardiometabolic risk factors. With the increase in FSH quartiles, the mean 10‐year ASCVD risk in postmenopausal women decreased from 4.9% to 3.3%, and most metabolic parameters were significantly ameliorated (all P for trend <0.05). In regression analyses, a 1‐SD increment in ln‐FSH was negatively associated with continuous (B −0.12, 95% confidence interval, −0.16, −0.09, P<0.05) and categorical (odds ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval, 0.49, 0.85, P<0.05) 10‐year ASCVD risk. These significant associations existed in subgroups with or without medication use, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Body mass index and waist circumference (both B −0.35, 95% confidence interval, −0.40, −0.30, P<0.05) had the largest associations of all metabolic measures, and blood pressure had the smallest association.

Conclusions Serum FSH levels were negatively associated with 10‐year ASCVD risk in postmenopausal women. Among cardiometabolic factors, obesity indices had the largest associations with FSH. These results indicated that a low FSH might be a risk factor or a biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease risk factors, endocrinology, follicle‐stimulating hormone, menopause

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The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or noncommunicable chronic diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Dibaba DT, Xun P, Song Y, Rosanoff A, Shechter M, He K.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jul 19. pii: ajcn155291. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.117.155291. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28724644

Abstract

Background: To our knowledge, the effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) in individuals with preclinical or noncommunicable diseases has not been previously investigated in a meta-analysis, and the findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been inconsistent.Objective: We sought to determine the pooled effect of magnesium supplementation on BP in participants with preclinical or noncommunicable diseases.Design: We identified RCTs that were published in English before May 2017 that examined the effect of magnesium supplementation on BP in individuals with preclinical or noncommunicable diseases through PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, clinicaltrials.gov, SpringerLink, and Google Scholar databases as well as the reference lists from identified relevant articles. Random- and fixed-effects models were used to estimate the pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs in changes in BP from baseline to the end of the trial in both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between the magnesium-supplementation group and the control group.Results: Eleven RCTs that included 543 participants with follow-up periods that ranged from 1 to 6 mo (mean: 3.6 mo) were included in this meta-analysis. The dose of elemental magnesium that was used in the trials ranged from 365 to 450 mg/d. All studies reported BP at baseline and the end of the trial. The weighted overall effects indicated that the magnesium-supplementation group had a significantly greater reduction in both SBP (SMD: -0.20; 95% CI: -0.37, -0.03) and DBP (SMD: -0.27; 95% CI: -0.52, -0.03) than did the control group. Magnesium supplementation resulted in a mean reduction of 4.18 mm Hg in SBP and 2.27 mm Hg in DBP.Conclusion: The pooled results suggest that magnesium supplementation significantly lowers BP in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or other noncommunicable chronic diseases.

KEYWORDS:

blood pressure; cardiovascular diseases; insulin resistance; magnesium; magnesium supplementation; meta-analysis; noncommunicable chronic diseases; prediabetes; supplementation; type 2 diabetes

 

Consumption of protein beverages as a strategy to promote increased energy intake in older adults.

Leidy HJ.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug 9. pii: ajcn164160. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.117.164160. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

PMID: 28793986

http://sci-hub.cc/10.3945/ajcn.117.164160

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Effects of randomized whey-protein loads on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying, and plasma gut-hormone concentrations in older men and women.

Giezenaar C, Trahair LG, Luscombe-Marsh ND, Hausken T, Standfield S, Jones KL, Lange K, Horowitz M, Chapman I, Soenen S.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jul 26. pii: ajcn154377. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.117.154377. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28747330

Abstract

Background: Protein- and energy-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. Information about the effects of protein on energy intake and related gastrointestinal mechanisms and whether these differ between men and women is limited.Objective: We determined the effects of whey protein on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying, and gut hormones in healthy older men and women.Design: Eight older women and 8 older men [mean ± SEM age: 72 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 25 ± 1] were studied on 3 occasions in which they received protein loads of 30 g (120 kcal) or 70 g (280 kcal) or a flavored water control drink (0 kcal). At regular intervals over 180 min, appetite (visual analog scales), gastric emptying (3-dimensional ultrasonography), and blood glucose and plasma gut-hormone concentrations [insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)] were measured, and ad libitum energy intake was quantified from a buffet meal (180-210 min; energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying in the men have been published previously).Results: Energy intake at the buffet meal was ∼80% higher in older men than in older women (P < 0.001). Energy intake was not suppressed by protein compared with the control in men or women (P > 0.05). There was no effect of sex on gastric emptying, appetite, gastrointestinal symptoms, glucose, or gut hormones (P > 0.05). There was a protein load-dependent slowing of gastric emptying, an increase in concentrations of insulin, glucagon, cholecystokinin, GIP, GLP-1, and PYY, and an increase in total energy intake (drink plus meal: 12% increase with 30 g and 32% increase with 70 g; P < 0.001). Energy intake at the buffet meal was inversely related to the stomach volume and area under the curve of hormone concentrations (P < 0.05).Conclusion: In older men and women, whey-protein drinks load-dependently slow gastric emptying and alter gut hormone secretion compared with a control but have no suppressive effect on subsequent ad libitum energy intake.

KEYWORDS:

aging; appetite and energy intake; gastrointestinal function; gastrointestinal mechanisms; sex; whey protein

 

Nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes.

Hashemian M, Murphy G, Etemadi A, Dawsey SM, Liao LM, Abnet CC.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug 2. pii: ajcn159467. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.117.159467. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28768652

http://sci-hub.cc/10.3945/ajcn.117.159467

Abstract

Background: Nut consumption has been associated with decreased risk of colorectal, endometrial, lung, and pancreatic cancers. Polyphenols, fiber, vitamins, and minerals in nuts may confer this observed protective effect. To our knowledge, no prospective study has evaluated the effect of nut consumption on esophageal and gastric cancers.Objective: The objective was to evaluate the associations between nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancers and their different subtypes.Design: In this study we used data from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, which enrolled 566,407 persons who were 50-71 y old at baseline (1995-1996). The median follow-up time was 15.5 y. Intakes of nuts and peanut butter were assessed through the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for esophageal and gastric cancers and their subtypes.Results: We identified 966 incident cases of esophageal adenocarcinomas, 323 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 698 cases of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and 732 cases of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma. Compared with those who did not consume nuts or peanut butter [lowest category of consumption (C0)], participants in the highest category of nut consumption (C3) had a lower risk of developing gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma [C3 compared with C0, HR: 0.73 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.94)]. This inverse association was also seen for peanut butter consumption [C3 compared with C0, HR: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.94)]. We observed no significant associations between the highest and lowest intakes of nuts or peanut butter and the risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma, or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.Conclusions: Among older American adults, both nut and peanut butter consumption were inversely associated with the risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma.

KEYWORDS:

Mediterranean diet; adenocarcinoma; esophageal cancer; gastric cancer; nut; peanut butter; prevention; squamous cell carcinoma

 

Independent and joint associations of grip strength and adiposity with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in 403,199 adults: the UK Biobank study.

Kim Y, Wijndaele K, Lee DC, Sharp SJ, Wareham N, Brage S.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug 9. pii: ajcn156851. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.117.156851. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28793990

http://sci-hub.cc/10.3945/ajcn.117.156851

Abstract

Background: Higher grip strength (GS) is associated with lower mortality risk. However, whether this association is independent of adiposity is uncertain.Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between GS, adiposity, and mortality.Design: The UK Biobank study is an ongoing prospective cohort of >0.5 million UK adults aged 40-69 y. Baseline data collection (2006-2010) included measurements of GS and adiposity indicators, including body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2). Age- and sex-specific GS quintiles were used. BMI was classified according to clinical cutoffs.Results: Data from 403,199 participants were included in analyses. Over a median 7.0-y of follow-up, 8287 all-cause deaths occurred. The highest GS quintile had 32% (95% CI: 26%, 38%) and 25% (95% CI: 16%, 33%) lower all-cause mortality risks for men and women, respectively, compared with the lowest GS quintile, after adjustment for confounders and BMI. Obesity class II (BMI ≥35) was associated with a greater all-cause mortality risk. The highest GS quintile and obesity class II category showed relatively higher all-cause mortality hazards (not statistically significant in men) than the highest GS quintile and the normal weight category; however, the increased risk was relatively lower than the risk for the lowest GS quintile and obesity class II category. All-cause mortality risks were generally lower for obese but stronger individuals than for nonobese but weaker individuals. Similar patterns of associations were observed for cardiovascular mortality.Conclusions: Lower grip strength and excess adiposity are both independent predictors of higher mortality risk. The higher mortality risk associated with excess adiposity is attenuated, although not completely attenuated, by greater GS. Interventions and policies should focus on improving the muscular strength of the population regardless of their degree of adiposity.

KEYWORDS:

UK Biobank; adiposity; grip strength; mortality; muscle strength; obesity

 

An obesity-metastasis connection

Gemma Alderton

Obesity is associated with increased mortality from some types of cancer—but what are the mechanisms involved? One explanation is that obesity induces systemic inflammation, and Quail et al. investigated whether this promotes breast cancer metastasis to the lung in genetically engineered mice. They found that obesity increased the number and activation of neutrophils, which are inflammatory immune cells, especially in the lungs, and that this increased lung metastasis. Weight loss resulting from switching diets reduced the obesity-induced increases in lung metastasis in mice. It will be important to test whether weight loss in obese breast cancer patients can offset the higher mortality rates.

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Nat. Cell Biol. 19, 974 (2017).

 

Anti-inflammatory prevents heart attacks

Jennifer Couzin-Frankel

Science 01 Sep 2017:

Vol. 357, Issue 6354, pp. 855

DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6354.855

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1126/science.357.6354.855

Summary

A clinical trial of more than 10,000 heart attack patients has confirmed cardiologists' long-standing suspicion that inflammation helps trigger heart attacks. By giving patients an antibody targeting a key molecule in the inflammatory pathway, investigators reduced heart disease and stroke by 15%, they reported last week. The finding won't immediately lead to new treatments, because the effect was modest, and the drug is pricy and can cause serious side effects. But the result is a proof of principle, and likely to spur development of inflammation-targeting therapies. The trial also recorded fewer cases of lung cancer in those on the treatment, consistent with basic research findings hinting that the same inflammatory pathway may initiate or spur tumor growth.

 

PERSPECTIVENEUROLOGY

Finding a new purpose for old drugs

Evan Y. Snyder

Science 01 Sep 2017:

Vol. 357, Issue 6354, pp. 869-870

DOI: 10.1126/science.aao2992

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1126/science.aao2992

Drugs used for the treatment of asthma might prevent Parkinson's disease

Summary

The history of Parkinson's disease (PD) therapeutics might be said to typify much of the history of clinical medicine in general. On page 891 of this issue, Mittal et al. (1), true to that tradition, provide an intriguing, unexpected, and potentially highly impactful observation that will likely form the basis of clinical practice in PD patients long before we have a true grasp on the mechanism of action (MOA).

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β2-Adrenoreceptor is a regulator of the α-synuclein gene driving risk of Parkinson’s disease

BY SHUCHI MITTAL, KJETIL BJØRNEVIK, DOO SOON IM, ADRIAN FLIERL, XIANJUN DONG, JOSEPH J. LOCASCIO, KRISTINE M. ABO, ELIZABETH LONG, MING JIN, BING XU, YANG K. XIANG, JEAN-CHRISTOPHE ROCHET, ANDERS ENGELAND, PATRIZIA RIZZU, PETER HEUTINK, TIM BARTELS, DENNIS J. SELKOE, BARBARA J. CALDARONE, MARCIE A. GLICKSMAN, VIKRAM KHURANA, BIRGITT SCHÜLE, DAVID S. PARK, TROND RIISE, CLEMENS R. SCHERZER

SCIENCE01 SEP 2017 : 891-898

Regulating the transcription of α-synuclein may constitute a potential target for therapeutic intervention in Parkinson’s disease.

Editor's Summary

Elucidating the risk of Parkinson's disease

High expression of the α-synuclein gene (SNCA) is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), but certain drugs may mitigate this risk. Mittal et al. ran a small-molecule screen to identify compounds that regulate levels of SNCA expression and found that several β2-adrenoreceptor (β2AR) agonists reduced them (see the Perspective by Snyder). These compounds modulated epigenetic marks at the SNCA gene, effectively suppressing SNCA transcription. The authors looked at the pharmaceutical history of more than 4 million Norwegians over an 11-year period and found a reduced risk of PD among those that were taking one of the β2AR agonists for other medical problems.

Science, this issue p. 891; see also p. 869

Abstract

Copy number mutations implicate excess production of α-synuclein as a possibly causative factor in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Using an unbiased screen targeting endogenous gene expression, we discovered that the β2-adrenoreceptor (β2AR) is a regulator of the α-synuclein gene (SNCA). β2AR ligands modulate SNCA transcription through histone 3 lysine 27 acetylation of its promoter and enhancers. Over 11 years of follow-up in 4 million Norwegians, the β2AR agonist salbutamol, a brain-penetrant asthma medication, was associated with reduced risk of developing PD (rate ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 0.76). Conversely, a β2AR antagonist correlated with increased risk. β2AR activation protected model mice and patient-derived cells. Thus, β2AR is linked to transcription of α-synuclein and risk of PD in a ligand-specific fashion and constitutes a potential target for therapies.

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Leucine-Induced Upregulation of Terminal Oligopyrimidine mRNA Translation in Skeletal Muscle: Just the Tip of the Iceberg?

Kimball SR.

J Nutr. 2017 Sep;147(9):1603-1604. doi: 10.3945/jn.117.256289. Epub 2017 Aug 2. No abstract available.

PMID: 28768833

http://sci-hub.cc/10.3945/jn.117.256289

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Leucine Differentially Regulates Gene-Specific Translation in Mouse Skeletal Muscle.

Drummond MJ, Reidy PT, Baird LM, Dalley BK, Howard MT.

J Nutr. 2017 Sep;147(9):1616-1623. doi: 10.3945/jn.117.251181. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

PMID: 28615380

http://sci-hub.cc/10.3945/jn.117.251181

Abstract

Background: Amino acids, especially leucine, are particularly effective in promoting protein synthesis. Leucine is known to increase the rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1-dependent, as well as -independent, signaling pathways. However, the overall translation program is poorly defined, and it is unknown how the activation of these pathways differentially controls the translation of specific mRNAs.Objective: Ribosome profiling and RNA sequencing were used to precisely define the translational program activated by an acute oral dose of leucine.Methods: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were deprived of food overnight before the delivery of an acute dose of l-leucine (9.4 mg) (n = 6) or vehicle (n = 5) and tissues collected 30 min later. Ribosome footprints and total RNA were isolated and subjected to deep sequencing. Changes in gene-specific mRNA abundance and ribosome occupancy were determined between the leucine-treated and control groups by aligning sequence reads to Reference Sequence database mRNAs and applying statistical features of the Bioconductor package edgeR.Results: Our data revealed mRNA features that confer translational control of skeletal muscle mRNAs in response to an acute dose of leucine. The subset of skeletal muscle mRNAs that are activated consists largely of terminal oligopyrimidine mRNAs (false discovery rate: <0.05), whereas those with reduced translation had 5' untranslated regions with increased length. Only the small nuclear RNAs, which are required for ribosome biogenesis, were significantly altered in RNA abundance. The inferred functional translational program activated by dietary leucine includes increased protein synthesis capacity and energy metabolism, upregulation of sarcomere-binding proteins, modulation of circadian rhythm, and suppression of select immune components.Conclusions: These results clarify the translation program acutely stimulated by leucine in mouse skeletal muscle and establish new methodologies for use in future studies of skeletal muscle disease or aging and further examination of downstream effects of leucine on gene expression.

KEYWORDS:

RNA sequencing; leucine; mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1; protein synthesis; ribosome profiling; translation

 

Brachial and Cerebrovascular Functions Are Enhanced in Postmenopausal Women after Ingestion of Chocolate with a High Concentration of Cocoa.

Marsh CE, Carter HH, Guelfi KJ, Smith KJ, Pike KE, Naylor LH, Green DJ.

J Nutr. 2017 Aug 9. pii: jn250225. doi: 10.3945/jn.117.250225. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28794213

http://sci-hub.cc/10.3945/jn.117.250225

Abstract

Background: Cocoa contains polyphenols that are thought to be beneficial for vascular health.Objective: We assessed the impact of chocolate containing distinct concentrations of cocoa on cerebrovascular function and cognition.Methods: Using a counterbalanced within-subject design, we compared the acute impact of consumption of energy-matched chocolate containing 80%, 35%, and 0% single-origin cacao on vascular endothelial function, cognition, and cerebrovascular function in 12 healthy postmenopausal women (mean ± SD age: 57.3 ± 5.3 y). Participants attended a familiarization session, followed by 3 experimental trials, each separated by 1 wk. Outcome measures included cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) responses, recorded before and during completion of a computerized cognitive assessment battery (CogState); brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD); and hemodynamic responses (heart rate and blood pressure).Results: When CBFv data before and after chocolate intake were compared between conditions through the use of 2-factor ANOVA, an interaction effect (P = 0.003) and main effects for chocolate (P = 0.043) and time (P = 0.001) were evident. Post hoc analysis revealed that both milk chocolate (MC; 35% cocoa; P = 0.02) and dark chocolate (DC; 80% cocoa; P = 0.003) induced significantly lower cerebral blood flow responses during the cognitive tasks, after normalizing for changes in arterial pressure. DC consumption also increased brachial FMD compared with the baseline value before chocolate consumption (P = 0.002), whereas MC and white chocolate (0% cocoa) caused no change (P-interaction between conditions = 0.034).Conclusions: Consumption of chocolate containing high concentrations of cocoa enhanced vascular endothelial function, which was reflected by improvements in FMD. Cognitive function outcomes did not differ between conditions; however, cerebral blood flow responses during these cognitive tasks were lower in those consuming MC and DC. These findings suggest that chocolate containing high concentrations of cocoa may modify the relation between cerebral metabolism and blood flow responses in postmenopausal women.

 

Meal Frequency and Timing Are Associated with Changes in Body Mass Index in Adventist Health Study 2.

Kahleova H, Lloren JI, Mashchak A, Hill M, Fraser GE.

J Nutr. 2017 Sep;147(9):1722-1728. doi: 10.3945/jn.116.244749. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

PMID: 28701389

http://sci-hub.cc/10.3945/jn.116.244749

Abstract

Background: Scientific evidence for the optimal number, timing, and size of meals is lacking.Objective: We investigated the relation between meal frequency and timing and changes in body mass index (BMI) in the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2), a relatively healthy North American cohort.Methods: The analysis used data from 50,660 adult members aged ≥30 y of Seventh-day Adventist churches in the United States and Canada (mean ± SD follow-up: 7.42 ± 1.23 y). The number of meals per day, length of overnight fast, consumption of breakfast, and timing of the largest meal were exposure variables. The primary outcome was change in BMI per year. Linear regression analyses (stratified on baseline BMI) were adjusted for important demographic and lifestyle factors.Results: Subjects who ate 1 or 2 meals/d had a reduction in BMI per year (in kg · m-2 · y-1) (-0.035; 95% CI: -0.065, -0.004 and -0.029; 95% CI: -0.041, -0.017, respectively) compared with those who ate 3 meals/d. On the other hand, eating >3 meals/d (snacking) was associated with a relative increase in BMI (P < 0.001). Correspondingly, the BMI of subjects who had a long overnight fast (≥18 h) decreased compared with those who had a medium overnight fast (12-17 h) (P < 0.001). Breakfast eaters (-0.029; 95% CI: -0.047, -0.012; P < 0.001) experienced a decreased BMI compared with breakfast skippers. Relative to subjects who ate their largest meal at dinner, those who consumed breakfast as the largest meal experienced a significant decrease in BMI (-0.038; 95% CI: -0.048, -0.028), and those who consumed a big lunch experienced a smaller but still significant decrease in BMI than did those who ate their largest meal at dinner.Conclusions: Our results suggest that in relatively healthy adults, eating less frequently, no snacking, consuming breakfast, and eating the largest meal in the morning may be effective methods for preventing long-term weight gain. Eating breakfast and lunch 5-6 h apart and making the overnight fast last 18-19 h may be a useful practical strategy.

KEYWORDS:

Adventist Health Study 2; BMI; meal frequency; meal timing; weight control

 

Dietary acid load and mortality among Japanese men and women: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

Akter S, Nanri A, Mizoue T, Noda M, Sawada N, Sasazuki S, Tsugane S; Japan Public Health Center–based Prospective Study Group.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jul;106(1):146-154. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.117.152876. Epub 2017 May 24.

PMID: 28539378

Abstract

Background: Diet-induced metabolic acidosis has been linked to cardiometabolic abnormalities including hypertension and type 2 diabetes. However, there are limited data on its association with other chronic diseases and mortality.Objective: The present study aimed to examine the association between dietary acid load and total and cause-specific mortality.Design: This study was a large-scale, population-based, prospective cohort study in Japan involving 42,736 men and 49,742 women, aged 45-75 y, who had no history of cancer, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), or chronic liver disease at baseline. Dietary intake was assessed by using a validated 147-item food-frequency questionnaire. Potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) scores were derived from nutrient intake. Death and cause of death were identified by using the residential registry and death certificates. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for total and cause-specific mortality with adjustment for potential confounding variables.Results: During a median follow-up of 16.9 y, 12,993 total deaths occurred. A higher PRAL score was associated with higher total mortality: the multivariable-adjusted HR for total mortality for the highest compared with the lowest quartiles of PRAL scores was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.18; P-trend < 0.001). This score was positively associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and particularly from IHD; the HRs (95% CIs) for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of PRAL score were 1.16 (1.06, 1.28) and 1.16 (1.02, 1.33) for CVD and IHD mortality, respectively. There was no association between PRAL score and cancer mortality. Similar associations were observed between NEAP score and total and cause-specific mortality.Conclusion: A high dietary acid load score was associated with a higher risk of total mortality and mortality from CVD, particularly from IHD, in Japanese adults.

KEYWORDS:

Japanese; cancer; cardiovascular disease; dietary acid load; mortality; prospective

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http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/S0002-8223(95)00219-7

 

Associations of Dairy Intake with Incident Prediabetes or Diabetes in Middle-Aged Adults Vary by Both Dairy Type and Glycemic Status.

Hruby A, Ma J, Rogers G, Meigs JB, Jacques PF.

J Nutr. 2017 Sep;147(9):1764-1775. doi: 10.3945/jn.117.253401. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

PMID: 28768835

http://sci-hub.cc/10.3945/jn.117.253401

Abstract

Background: Inconsistent evidence describes the association between dietary intake of dairy and milk-based products and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk.Objective: Our objective was to assess associations between consumption of milk-based products, incident prediabetes, and progression to T2D in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort.Methods: Total dairy and milk-based product consumption was assessed by ≤4 food-frequency questionnaires across a mean of 12 y of follow-up in 2809 participants [mean ± SD age: 54.0 ± 9.7 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 27.1 ± 4.7; 54% female]. Prediabetes was defined as the first occurrence of fasting plasma glucose ≥5.6 to <7.0 mmol/L (≥100 to <126 mg/dL), and T2D was defined as the first occurrence of fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L (≥126 mg/dL) or diabetes treatment. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of incident outcomes relative to dairy product intake in subsets of the cohort who were at risk of developing the outcomes. Spline regressions were used to examine potential nonlinear relations.Results: Of 1867 participants free of prediabetes at baseline, 902 (48%) developed prediabetes. Total, low-fat, and high-fat dairy consumptions were associated with a 39%, 32%, and 25% lower risk of incident prediabetes, respectively, in the highest compared with the lowest intakes (≥14 compared with <4 servings/wk). Total, low-fat and skim milk, whole-milk, and yogurt intakes were associated nonlinearly with incident prediabetes; moderate intake was associated with the greatest relative risk reduction. Neither cheese nor cream and butter was associated with prediabetes. Of 925 participants with prediabetes at baseline, 196 (21%) developed T2D. Only high-fat dairy and cheese showed evidence of dose-response, inverse associations with incident T2D, with 70% and 63% lower risk, respectively, of incident T2D between the highest and lowest intake categories (≥14 compared with <1 serving/wk for high-fat dairy, ≥4 compared with <1 serving/wk for cheese).Conclusion: Associations of dairy with incident prediabetes or diabetes varied both by dairy product and type and by baseline glycemic status in this middle-aged US population. Baseline glycemic status may partially underlie prior equivocal evidence regarding the role of dairy intake in diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

cheese; dairy; diabetes; prediabetes; yogurt

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I think that studies proclaiming the benefits of olive oil are too frequently mired in the confounding myriad foods of Mediterranean, which might, instead of the Med diet be called the Mud diet. Their is also the issue that studies are often done using Mediterranean countries' subjects for whom olive oil is the holy grail and how do you hide the fact that they are getting olive oil generally and when compared to, say, nuts? And the extra costs for the benefit of polyphenols from extra-virgin olive oil might as well or better be spent on polyphenols from other foods. Searching https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=(rats+OR+mice)+olive+oil+mortality+canolapresented the pdf-availed paper:

Dietary canola oil modifies myocardial fatty acids and inhibits cardiac arrhythmias in rats.

McLennan PL, Dallimore JA.

J Nutr. 1995 Apr;125(4):1003-9.

PMID: 7722678

Abstract

Previous research showed that dietary fish oil was potently antiarrhythmic in rats but olive oil was not. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that canola oil, another major dietary source of oleic acid additionally containing the (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid [18:3(n-3)], can reduce vulnerability to cardiac arrhythmia in rats. Rats were randomly assigned to one of four experimental diet groups for 12 wk. The fat source in the diets was 12% olive (63% oleic acid), canola (55% oleic, 8% alpha-linolenic acid), soybean [50% linoleic 18:2(n-6), 7% alpha-linolenic acid] or sunflower seed oil (64% linoleic acid). Arrhythmias were induced by coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. Incidence of ventricular fibrillation, mortality and arrhythmia score during reperfusion were significantly lower in rats fed the diet containing canola oil than in those fed the olive oil diet. No difference in the severity of arrhythmias was seen in groups fed diets containing soybean or sunflower seed oils. Analysis of myocardial phospholipid fatty acids showed that consumption of canola oil decreased the ratio of (n-6)/(n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids relative to the other diets, as does dietary fish oil. These results suggest that regular substitution of canola oil for other dietary lipid sources may assist in reducing the likelihood of a transient ischemic event leading to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias, but the effectiveness of alpha-linolenic acid is reduced by high levels of linoleic acid.

Supported by Meadow Lea Foods [who sell margarines containg canola and sunflower oils].

(Table 5).

The total incidence of ventricular fibrillation in

reperfusion after either 5 or 15 min ischemia was

significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the canola oil- than

the olive oil-fed animals (olive oil: 45% ventricular

fibrillation n = 20; canola oil: 4% n = 23; soybean oil:

38% n = 21; sunflower seed oil: 35% n = 23). Total

arrhythmic mortality during ischemia and reperfusion

was also significantly lower {P < 0.05) in the canola

oil- than the olive oil-fed animals (olive oil: 33%

died n = 24; canola oil: 8% n = 26; soybean oil: 22% n

= 23; sunflower seed oil: 17% n - 24).

 

The Association Between Vasectomy and Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Bhindi B, Wallis CJD, Nayan M, Farrell AM, Trost LW, Hamilton RJ, Kulkarni GS, Finelli A, Fleshner NE, Boorjian SA, Karnes RJ.

JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Jul 17. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.2791. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28715534

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Despite 3 decades of study, there remains ongoing debate regarding whether vasectomy is associated with prostate cancer.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine if vasectomy is associated with prostate cancer.

DATA SOURCES:

The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched for studies indexed from database inception to March 21, 2017, without language restriction.

STUDY SELECTION:

Cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies reporting relative effect estimates for the association between vasectomy and prostate cancer were included.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:

Two investigators performed study selection independently. Data were pooled separately by study design type using random-effects models. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess risk of bias.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

The primary outcome was any diagnosis of prostate cancer. Secondary outcomes were high-grade, advanced, and fatal prostate cancer.

RESULTS:

Fifty-three studies (16 cohort studies including 2 563 519 participants, 33 case-control studies including 44 536 participants, and 4 cross-sectional studies including 12 098 221 participants) were included. Of these, 7 cohort studies (44%), 26 case-control studies (79%), and all 4 cross-sectional studies were deemed to have a moderate to high risk of bias. Among studies deemed to have a low risk of bias, a weak association was found among cohort studies (7 studies; adjusted rate ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09; P < .001; I2 = 9%) and a similar but nonsignificant association was found among case-control studies (6 studies; adjusted odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.88-1.29; P = .54; I2 = 37%). Effect estimates were further from the null when studies with a moderate to high risk of bias were included. Associations between vasectomy and high-grade prostate cancer (6 studies; adjusted rate ratio, 1.03; 95% CI 0.89-1.21; P = .67; I2 = 55%), advanced prostate cancer (6 studies; adjusted rate ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.98-1.20; P = .11; I2 = 18%), and fatal prostate cancer (5 studies; adjusted rate ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.92-1.14; P = .68; I2 = 26%) were not significant (all cohort studies). Based on these data, a 0.6% (95% CI 0.3%-1.2%) absolute increase in lifetime risk of prostate cancer associated with vasectomy and a population-attributable fraction of 0.5% (95% CI 0.2%-0.9%) were calculated.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

This review found no association between vasectomy and high-grade, advanced-stage, or fatal prostate cancer. There was a weak association between vasectomy and any prostate cancer that was closer to the null with increasingly robust study design. This association is unlikely to be causal and should not preclude the use of vasectomy as a long-term contraceptive option.

 

Association of History of Dizziness and Long-term Adverse Outcomes With Early vs Later Orthostatic Hypotension Assessment Times in Middle-aged Adults.

Juraschek SP, Daya N, Rawlings AM, Appel LJ, Miller ER 3rd, Windham BG, Griswold ME, Heiss G, Selvin E.

JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Jul 24. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.2937. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28738139

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.2937

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Guidelines recommend assessing orthostatic hypotension (OH) 3 minutes after rising from supine to standing positions. It is not known whether measurements performed immediately after standing predict adverse events as strongly as measurements performed closer to 3 minutes.

OBJECTIVE:

To compare early vs later OH measurements and their association with history of dizziness and longitudinal adverse outcomes.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

This was a prospective cohort study of middle-aged (range, 44-66 years) participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (1987-1989).

EXPOSURES:

Orthostatic hypotension, defined as a drop in blood pressure (BP) (systolic BP ≥20 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥10 mm Hg) from the supine to standing position, was measured up to 5 times at 25-second intervals.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

We determined the association of each of the 5 OH measurements with history of dizziness on standing (logistic regression) and risk of fall, fracture, syncope, motor vehicle crashes, and all-cause mortality (Cox regression) over a median of 23 years of follow-up (through December 31, 2013).

RESULTS:

In 11 429 participants (mean age, 54 years; 6220 [54%] were women; 2934 [26%] were black) with at least 4 OH measurements after standing, after adjustment OH assessed at measurement 1 (mean {SD}, 28 [5.4] seconds; range, 21-62 seconds) was the only measurement associated with higher odds of dizziness (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.18-1.89). Measurement 1 was associated with the highest rates of fracture, syncope, and death at 18.9, 17.0, and 31.4 per 1000 person-years. Measurement 2 was associated with the highest rate of falls and motor vehicle crashes at 13.2 and 2.5 per 1000 person-years. Furthermore, after adjustment measurement 1 was significantly associated with risk of fall (hazard ratio {HR}, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03-1.44), fracture (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34), syncope (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.20-1.63), and mortality (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.23-1.51). Measurement 2 (mean {SD}, 53 {7.5} seconds; range, 43-83 seconds) was associated with all long-term outcomes, including motor vehicle crashes (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.04-1.96). Measurements obtained after 1 minute were not associated with dizziness and were inconsistently associated with individual long-term outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

In contrast with prevailing recommendations, OH measurements performed within 1 minute of standing were the most strongly related to dizziness and individual adverse outcomes, suggesting that OH be assessed within 1 minute of standing.

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Early Orthostatic Hypotension and Orthostatic Intolerance-More Than an Observation or Annoyance.

Singer W, Low PA.

JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Jul 24. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.2923. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

PMID: 28738118

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.2923

 

Association of Ozone Exposure With Cardiorespiratory Pathophysiologic Mechanisms in Healthy Adults.

Day DB, Xiang J, Mo J, Li F, Chung M, Gong J, Weschler CJ, Ohman-Strickland PA, Sundell J, Weng W, Zhang Y, Zhang JJ.

JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Jul 17. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.2842. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28715576

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Exposure to ozone has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but the underlying biological mechanisms are not yet understood.

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the association between ozone exposure and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic mechanisms.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

A longitudinal study involving 89 healthy adult participants living on a work campus in Changsha City, China, was conducted from December 1, 2014, to January 31, 2015. This unique quasiexperimental setting allowed for better characterization of air pollutant exposure effects because the participants spent most of their time in controlled indoor environments. Concentrations of indoor and outdoor ozone, along with the copollutants particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide, were monitored throughout the study period and then combined with time-activity information and filtration conditions of each residence and office to estimate 24-hour and 2-week combined indoor and outdoor mean exposure concentrations. Associations between each exposure measure and outcome measure were analyzed using single-pollutant and 2-pollutant linear mixed models controlling for ambient temperature, secondhand smoke exposure, and personal-level time-varying covariates.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Biomarkers indicative of inflammation and oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, blood pressure, thrombotic factors, and spirometry were measured at 4 sessions.

RESULTS:

Of the 89 participants, 25 (28%) were women and the mean (SD) age was 31.5 (7.6) years. The 24-hour ozone exposure concentrations ranged from 1.4 to 19.4 parts per billion (ppb), corresponding to outdoor concentrations ranging from 4.3 to 47.9 ppb. Within this range, in models controlling for a second copollutant and other potential confounders, a 10-ppb increase in 24-hour ozone was associated with mean increases of 36.3% (95% CI, 29.9%-43.0%) in the level of platelet activation marker soluble P-selectin, 2.8% (95% CI, 0.6%-5.1%) in diastolic blood pressure, 18.1% (95% CI, 4.5%-33.5%) in pulmonary inflammation markers fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and 31.0% (95% CI, 0.2%-71.1%) in exhaled breath condensate nitrite and nitrate as well as a -9.5% (95% CI, -17.7% to -1.4%) decrease in arterial stiffness marker augmentation index. A 10-ppb increase in 2-week ozone was associated with increases of 61.1% (95% CI, 37.8%-88.2%) in soluble P-selectin level and 126.2% (95% CI, 12.1%-356.2%) in exhaled breath condensate nitrite and nitrate level. Other measured biomarkers, including spirometry, showed no significant associations with either 24-hour ozone or 2-week ozone exposures.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Short-term ozone exposure at levels not associated with lung function changes was associated with platelet activation and blood pressure increases, suggesting a possible mechanism by which ozone may affect cardiovascular health.

 

Injurious Falls and Syncope in Older Community-Dwelling Adults Meeting Inclusion Criteria for SPRINT.

Sexton DJ, Canney M, O'Connell MDL, Moore P, Little MA, O'Seaghdha CM, Kenny RA.

JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Jul 17. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.2924. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

PMID: 28715566

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.2924

Edited by AlPater

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Increased risk of influenza among vaccinated adults who are obese.

Neidich SD, Green WD, Rebeles J, Karlsson EA, Schultz-Cherry S, Noah TL, Chakladar S, Hudgens MG, Weir SS, Beck MA.

Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 Sep;41(9):1324-1330. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2017.131. Epub 2017 Jun 6.

PMID: 28584297

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Influenza infects 5-15% of the global population each year, and obesity has been shown to be an independent risk factor for increased influenza-related complications including hospitalization and death. However, the risk of developing influenza or influenza-like illness (ILI) in a vaccinated obese adult population has not been addressed.

OBJECTIVE:

This study evaluated whether obesity was associated with increased risk of influenza and ILI among vaccinated adults.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS:

During the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 influenza seasons, we recruited 1042 subjects to a prospective observational study of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) in adults. A total of 1022 subjects completed the study. Assessments of relative risk for laboratory confirmed influenza and ILI were determined based on body mass index. Seroconversion and seroprotection rates were determined using prevaccination and 26-35 days post vaccination serum samples. Recruitment criteria for this study were adults 18 years of age and older receiving the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) for the years 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. Exclusion criteria were immunosuppressive diseases, use of immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive drugs, acute febrile illness, history of Guillain-Barre syndrome, use of theophylline preparations or use of warfarin.

RESULTS:

Among obese, 9.8% had either confirmed influenza or influenza-like-illness compared with 5.1% of healthy weight participants. Compared with vaccinated healthy weight, obese participants had double the risk of developing influenza or ILI (relative risk=2.01, 95% CI 1.12, 3.60, P=0.020). Seroconversion or seroprotection rates were not different between healthy weight and obese adults with influenza or ILI.

CONCLUSIONS:

Despite robust serological responses, vaccinated obese adults are twice as likely to develop influenza and ILI compared with healthy weight adults. This finding challenges the current standard for correlates of protection, suggesting use of antibody titers to determine vaccine effectiveness in an obese population may provide misleading information.

 

Is it time to update body mass index standards in the elderly or embrace measurements of body composition?

Ben-Yacov L, Ainembabazi P, Stark AH.

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr 12. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2017.39. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

PMID: 28402323

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1038/ejcn.2017.39

 

Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, assessment of the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements in prehypertension.

Pelliccia F, Pasceri V, Marazzi G, Arrivi A, Cacciotti L, Pannarale G, Speciale G, Greco C, Gaudio C.

J Hum Hypertens. 2017 Apr 27. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2017.35. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28447625

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1038/jhh.2017.35

Abstract

We aimed to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of a protocol including lifestyle modifications and a novel combination of dietary supplements in prehypertension. A prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 176 subjects (103 men, aged 52±10 years), with blood pressure (BP) of 130-139 mm Hg systolic and/or 85-89 mm Hg diastolic entered. After a single-blind run-in period, participants were randomised to twice daily placebo (n=88) or a commercially available combination pill (n=88). Primary endpoints were the differences in clinic BP between the two groups at the end of the trial. Secondary endpoints included intragroup differences in clinic BP during the study period and response rates (that is, BP <130/85 mm Hg or a BP reduction >5 mm Hg on week 12). Baseline characteristics were similar among the treatment groups. At 12 weeks, the supplement group had lower systolic BP (124±9 versus 132±7 mm Hg, P<0.0001) and similar diastolic BP (81±8 versus 82±7 mm Hg, P=0.382) compared to the placebo group. With respect to baseline measures, changes in BP with supplements were statistically significant for systolic (-9.3±4.2 mm Hg, P<0.0001) and diastolic values (-4.2±3.6 mm Hg, P<0.0001). Changes versus baseline in systolic and diastolic BP, conversely, were not different on placebo. The overall response rate at week 12 was significantly greater with supplements than placebo (58% (51 of 88) and 25% (22 of 88), respectively, P<0.0001). This randomised trial shows that combination of supplements with BP-lowering effect is an effective additional treatment to conventional lifestyle modifications for a better control of systolic BP in prehypertension.

 

The Scientist » News & Opinion » Daily News

Fingerprints of Ongoing Human Evolution Found

Genetic variants in Alzheimer’s and smoking-related genes appear to be under selection pressure, according to a study comparing the genomes of old and young participants.

By Shawna Williams | September 5, 2017

http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/50251/title/Fingerprints-of-Ongoing-Human-Evolution-Found/&utm_campaign=NEWSLETTER_TS_The-Scientist-Daily_2016&utm_source=hs_email&utm_medium=email&utm_content=56019487&_hsenc=p2ANqtz--3uGm-KI843d-pn68pb09Z0S-vMijGAVUWvra8e61erS027PpSZNHnTE2kuMeBSz8dH-h0BmAOOcW7Ql_LILpHoN6U7Q&_hsmi=56019487

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Identifying genetic variants that affect viability in large cohorts

Hakhamanesh Mostafavi, Tomaz Berisa, Felix R. Day, John R. B. Perry, Molly Przeworski, Joseph K. Pickrell

PLOS Biol Published: September 5, 2017https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2002458

Abstract

A number of open questions in human evolutionary genetics would become tractable if we were able to directly measure evolutionary fitness. As a step towards this goal, we developed a method to examine whether individual genetic variants, or sets of genetic variants, currently influence viability. The approach consists in testing whether the frequency of an allele varies across ages, accounting for variation in ancestry. We applied it to the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort and to the parents of participants in the UK Biobank. Across the genome, we found only a few common variants with large effects on age-specific mortality: tagging the APOE ε4 allele and near CHRNA3. These results suggest that when large, even late-onset effects are kept at low frequency by purifying selection. Testing viability effects of sets of genetic variants that jointly influence 1 of 42 traits, we detected a number of strong signals. In participants of the UK Biobank of British ancestry, we found that variants that delay puberty timing are associated with a longer parental life span (P~6.2 × 10−6 for fathers and P~2.0 × 10−3 for mothers), consistent with epidemiological studies. Similarly, variants associated with later age at first birth are associated with a longer maternal life span (P~1.4 × 10−3). Signals are also observed for variants influencing cholesterol levels, risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), body mass index, as well as risk of asthma. These signals exhibit consistent effects in the GERA cohort and among participants of the UK Biobank of non-British ancestry. We also found marked differences between males and females, most notably at the CHRNA3 locus, and variants associated with risk of CAD and cholesterol levels. Beyond our findings, the analysis serves as a proof of principle for how upcoming biomedical data sets can be used to learn about selection effects in contemporary humans.

Author summary

Our global understanding of adaptation in humans is limited to indirect statistical inferences from patterns of genetic variation, which are sensitive to past selection pressures. We introduced a method that allowed us to directly observe ongoing selection in humans by identifying genetic variants that affect survival to a given age (i.e., viability selection). We applied our approach to the GERA cohort and parents of the UK Biobank participants. We found viability effects of variants near the APOE and CHRNA3 genes, which are associated with the risk of Alzheimer disease and smoking behavior, respectively. We also tested for the joint effect of sets of genetic variants that influence quantitative traits. We uncovered an association between longer life span and genetic variants that delay puberty timing and age at first birth. We also detected detrimental effects of higher genetically predicted cholesterol levels, body mass index, risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), and risk of asthma on survival. Some of the observed effects differ between males and females, most notably those at the CHRNA3 gene and variants associated with risk of CAD and cholesterol levels. Beyond this application, our analysis shows how large biomedical data sets can be used to study natural selection in humans.

 

Effect of Colonoscopy Outreach vs Fecal Immunochemical Test Outreach on Colorectal Cancer Screening CompletionA Randomized Clinical Trial

Amit G. Singal, MD, MS; Samir Gupta, MD, MSCS; Celette Sugg Skinner, PhD; et al.

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1001/jama.2017.11389

JAMA. 2017;318(9):806-815. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.11389

This randomized clinical trial conducted in an urban safety-net health system compares the effectiveness of fecal immunochemical test outreach and colonoscopy outreach to increase completion of the screening process (screening initiation and follow-up) within 3 years.

Key Points

Question Which screening strategy is most effective in promoting colorectal cancer (CRC) screening process completion among individuals who are not up to date with CRC screening?

Findings In this randomized clinical trial that included 5999 patients who were followed up for 3 years, screening process completion occurred in 28.0% in the mailed fecal immunochemical test (FIT) outreach group, 38.4% in the mailed colonoscopy outreach group, and 10.7% in the usual care group; the result for each intervention was significantly greater than for usual care.

Meaning Outreach interventions offering FIT or colonoscopy may be more effective than usual care in increasing the proportion of persons who complete the CRC screening process.

Abstract

Importance Mailed fecal immunochemical test (FIT) outreach is more effective than colonoscopy outreach for increasing 1-time colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, but long-term effectiveness may need repeat testing and timely follow-up for abnormal results.

Objective Compare the effectiveness of FIT outreach and colonoscopy outreach to increase completion of the CRC screening process (screening initiation and follow-up) within 3 years.

Design, Setting, and Participants Pragmatic randomized clinical trial from March 2013 to July 2016 among 5999 participants aged 50 to 64 years who were receiving primary care in Parkland Health and Hospital System and were not up to date with CRC screenings.

Interventions Random assignment to mailed FIT outreach (n = 2400), mailed colonoscopy outreach (n = 2400), or usual care with clinic-based screening (n = 1199). Outreach included processes to promote repeat annual testing for individuals in the FIT outreach group with normal results and completion of diagnostic and screening colonoscopy for those with an abnormal FIT result or assigned to colonoscopy outreach.

Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcome was screening process completion, defined as adherence to colonoscopy completion, annual testing for a normal FIT result, diagnostic colonoscopy for an abnormal FIT result, or treatment evaluation if CRC was detected. Secondary outcomes included detection of any adenoma or advanced neoplasia (including CRC) and screening-related harms (including bleeding or perforation).

Results All 5999 participants (median age, 56 years; women, 61.9%) were included in the intention-to-screen analyses. Screening process completion was 38.4% in the colonoscopy outreach group, 28.0% in the FIT outreach group, and 10.7% in the usual care group. Compared with the usual care group, between-group differences for completion were higher for both outreach groups (27.7% [95% CI, 25.1% to 30.4%] for the colonoscopy outreach group; 17.3% [95% CI, 14.8% to 19.8%] for FIT outreach group), and highest in the colonoscopy outreach group (10.4% [95% CI, 7.8% to 13.1%] for the colonoscopy outreach group vs FIT outreach group; P < .001 for all comparisons). Compared with usual care, the between-group differences in adenoma and advanced neoplasia detection rates were higher for both outreach groups (colonoscopy outreach group: 10.3% [95% CI, 9.5% to 12.1%] for adenoma and 3.1% [95% CI, 2.0% to 4.1%] for advanced neoplasia, P < .001 for both comparisons; FIT outreach group: 1.3% [95% CI, −0.1% to 2.8%] for adenoma and 0.7% [95% CI, −0.2% to 1.6%] for advanced neoplasia, P < .08 and P < .13, respectively), and highest in the colonoscopy outreach group (colonoscopy outreach group vs FIT outreach group: 9.0% [95% CI, 7.3% to 10.7%] for adenoma and 2.4% [95% CI, 1.3% to 3.3%] for advanced neoplasia, P < .001 for both comparisons). There were no screening-related harms in any groups.

Conclusions and Relevance Among persons aged 50 to 64 years receiving primary care at a safety-net institution, mailed outreach invitations offering FIT or colonoscopy compared with usual care increased the proportion completing CRC screening process within 3 years. The rate of screening process completion was higher with colonoscopy than FIT outreach.

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Effect of Physician Notification Regarding Nonadherence to Colorectal Cancer Screening on Patient Participation in Fecal Immunochemical Test Cancer ScreeningA Randomized Clinical Trial

Cédric Rat, MD, PhD; Corinne Pogu, MD; Delphine Le Donné, MD; et al.

JAMA. 2017;318(9):816-824. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.11387

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1001/jama.2017.11387

This cluster randomized trial compares the effect on successful colorectal cancer (CRC) screening of 2 physician notification types (patient-specific vs regional nonresponse to a CRC screening invitation) vs no notification.

Key Points

Question Does providing general practitioners in France with a list of nonadherent patients improve patient participation in fecal immunochemical test colorectal cancer screening?

Findings In this randomized clinical trial, providing general practitioners with a list of patients who had not undergone fecal immunochemical test screening resulted in a small but significant increase in patient participation compared with patients who received usual care. Generic reminders with general information did not increase patient participation.

Meaning Providing general practitioners in France with a list of their nonadherent patients resulted in a modest increase in patient participation in fecal immunochemical test screening.

Abstract

Importance Increasing participation in fecal screening tests is a major challenge in countries that have implemented colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs.

Objective To determine whether providing general practitioners (GPs) a list of patients who are nonadherent to CRC screening enhances patient participation in fecal immunochemical testing (FIT).

Design, Setting, and Participants A 3-group, cluster-randomized study was conducted from July 14, 2015, to July 14, 2016, on the west coast of France, with GPs in 801 practices participating and involving adult patients (50-74 years) who were at average risk of CRC and not up-to-date with CRC screening. The final follow-up date was July 14, 2016.

Interventions General practitioners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: 496 received a list of patients who had not undergone CRC screening (patient-specific reminders group, 10 476 patients), 495 received a letter describing region-specific CRC screening adherence rates (generic reminders group, 10 606 patients), and 455 did not receive any reminders (usual care group, 10 147 patients).

Main Outcomes and Measures The primary end point was patient participation in CRC screening 1 year after the intervention.

Results Among 1482 randomized GPs (mean age, 53.4 years; 576 women [38.9%]), 1446 participated; of the 33 044 patients of these GPs (mean age, 59.7 years; 17 949 women [54.3%]), follow-up at 1 year was available for 31 229 (94.5%). At 1 year, 24.8% (95% CI, 23.4%-26.2%) of patients in the specific reminders group, 21.7% (95% CI, 20.5%-22.8%) in the generic reminders group, and 20.6% (95% CI, 19.3%-21.8%) in the usual care group participated in the FIT screening. The between-group differences were 3.1% (95% CI, 1.3%-5.0%) for the patient-specific reminders group vs the generic reminders group, 4.2% (95% CI, 2.3%-6.2%) for the patient-specific reminders group vs the usual care group, and 1.1% (95% CI, −0.6% to 2.8%) for generic reminders group vs the usual care group.

Conclusions and Relevance Providing French GPs caring for adults at average risk of CRC with a list of their patients who were not up-to-date with their CRC screening resulted in a small but significant increase in patient participation in FIT screening at 1 year compared with patients who received usual care. Providing GPs with generic reminders about regional rates of CRC screening did not increase screening rates compared with usual care.

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Editorial

Using Outreach to Improve Colorectal Cancer Screening

Michael Pignone, MD, MPH; David P. Miller

JAMA. 2017;318(9):799-800. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.10606

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, with more than 50 000 deaths expected in 2017.1 Screening can reduce CRC mortality, and several methods of screening are available and recommended for average-risk adults aged 50 years to 75 years.2- 4 Modeling studies suggest that several different methods of screening produce relatively similar levels of mortality reduction if there is good adherence to the underlying screening program.5

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1001/jama.2017.10606

 

Medical News & Perspectives

Chess Study Revives Debate Over Cognition-Enhancing Drugs

Jeff Lyon

JAMA. 2017;318(9):784-786. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.8114

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1001/jama.2017.8114

This Medical News article explores the nonmedical and medical uses of cognition enhancing drugs.

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The use of pharmacologic cognitive enhancers in competitive chess.

Franke AG, Dietz P, Ranft K, Balló H, Simon P, Lieb K.

Epidemiology. 2017 Aug 16. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000737. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

PMID: 28817470

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1097/EDE.0000000000000737

Abstract

Stimulants and caffeine have been proposed for cognitive enhancement by healthy subjects. This study investigated whether performance in chess - a competitive mind game requiring highly complex cognitive skills - can be enhanced by methylphenidate, modafinil or caffeine. In a phase IV, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 39 male chess players received 2×200mg modafinil, 2×20mg methylphenidate, and 2×200mg caffeine or placebo in a 4×4 crossover design. They played twenty 15-minute games during two sessions against a chess program (Fritz 12; adapted to players' strength) and completed several neuropsychological tests. Marked substance effects were observed since all three substances significantly increased average reflection time per game compared to placebo resulting in a significantly increased number of games lost on time with all three treatments. Treatment effects on chess performance were not seen if all games (n=3059) were analysed. Only when controlling for game duration as well as when excluding those games lost on time, both modafinil and methylphenidate enhanced chess performance as demonstrated by significantly higher scores in the remaining 2876 games compared to placebo. In conjunction with results from neuropsychological testing we conclude that modifying effects of stimulants on complex cognitive tasks may in particular result from more reflective decision making processes. When not under time pressure, such effects may result in enhanced performance. Yet, under time constraints more reflective decision making may not improve or even have detrimental effects on complex task performance.

KEYWORDS:

Caffeine; Chess; Cognitive enhancement; Methylphenidate; Modafinil; Stimulants

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Methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine for cognitive enhancement in chess: A double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

Franke AG, Gränsmark P, Agricola A, Schühle K, Rommel T, Sebastian A, Balló HE, Gorbulev S, Gerdes C, Frank B, Ruckes C, Tüscher O, Lieb K.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017 Mar;27(3):248-260. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2017.01.006. Epub 2017 Jan 22.

PMID: 28119083

 

NATURE | NEWS & VIEWS

Leukaemia: Vitamin C regulates stem cells and cancer

Peter G. Miller & Benjamin L. Ebert

Nature (2017) doi:10.1038/nature23548

Published online 06 September 2017

It emerges that high levels of vitamin C in blood-forming stem cells influence the number and function of the cells and affect the development of leukaemia, through binding to a tumour-suppressor protein, Tet2.

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Ascorbate regulates haematopoietic stem cell function and leukaemogenesis

Michalis Agathocleous, Corbin E. Meacham, Rebecca J. Burgess, Elena Piskounova, Zhiyu Zhao, Genevieve M. Crane, Brianna L. Cowin, Emily Bruner, Malea M. Murphy, Weina Chen, Gerald J. Spangrude, Zeping Hu, Ralph J. DeBerardinis & Sean J. Morrison

Nature (2017) doi:10.1038/nature23876

Received 28 September 2016 Accepted 14 August 2017 Published online 21 August 2017

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1038/nature23876

Abstract

Stem cell fate can be influenced by metabolite levels in culture but it is unknown whether physiological variations in metabolite levels in normal tissues regulate stem cell function in vivo. We developed a metabolomics method for analysis of rare cell populations isolated directly from tissues and used it to compare haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to restricted haematopoietic progenitors. Each haematopoietic cell type had a distinct metabolic signature. Human and mouse HSCs had unusually high levels of ascorbate, which declined with differentiation. Systemic ascorbate depletion in mice increased HSC frequency and function, partly by reducing Tet2 function, a dioxygenase tumour suppressor. Ascorbate depletion cooperated with Flt3ITD leukaemic mutations to accelerate leukaemogenesis, though cell-autonomous and possibly non-cell-autonomous mechanisms, in a manner that was reversed by dietary ascorbate. Ascorbate acted cell-autonomously to negatively regulate HSC function and myelopoiesis through Tet2-dependent and Tet2-independent mechanisms. Ascorbate thus accumulates within HSCs to promote Tet function in vivo, limiting HSC frequency and suppressing leukaemogenesis.

Subject terms: Haematopoietic stem cells Acute myeloid leukaemia

 

Whey Protein Components - Lactalbumin and Lactoferrin - Improve Energy Balance and Metabolism.

Zapata RC, Singh A, Pezeshki A, Nibber T, Chelikani PK.

Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 30;7(1):9917. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-09781-2.

PMID: 28855697 Free PMC Article

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5577213/

Abstract

Whey protein promotes weight loss and improves diabetic control, however, less is known of its bioactive components that produce such benefits. We compared the effects of normal protein (control) diet with high protein diets containing whey, or its fractions lactalbumin and lactoferrin, on energy balance and metabolism. Diet-induced obese rats were randomized to isocaloric diets: Control, Whey, Lactalbumin, Lactoferrin, or pair-fed to lactoferrin. Whey and lactalbumin produced transient hypophagia, whereas lactoferrin caused prolonged hypophagia; the hypophagia was likely due to decreased preference. Lactalbumin decreased weight and fat gain. Notably, lactoferrin produced sustained weight and fat loss, and attenuated the reduction in energy expenditure associated with calorie restriction. Lactalbumin and lactoferrin decreased plasma leptin and insulin, and lactalbumin increased peptide YY. Whey, lactalbumin and lactoferrin improved glucose clearance partly through differential upregulation of glucoregulatory transcripts in the liver and skeletal muscle. Interestingly, lactalbumin and lactoferrin decreased hepatic lipidosis partly through downregulation of lipogenic and/or upregulation of β-oxidation transcripts, and differentially modulated cecal bacterial populations. Our findings demonstrate that protein quantity and quality are important for improving energy balance. Dietary lactalbumin and lactoferrin improved energy balance and metabolism, and decreased adiposity, with the effects of lactoferrin being partly independent of caloric intake.

 

Effects of variety, year of cultivation and sulphur supply on the accumulation of free asparagine in the grain of commercial wheat varieties.

Curtis TY, Powers SJ, Wang R, Halford NG.

Food Chem. 2018 Jan 15;239:304-313. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.06.113. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

PMID: 28873573

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.06.113

Abstract

Free asparagine concentration, which is the determining factor for acrylamide-forming potential in cereals, was measured in grain from wheat grown in field trials in the United Kingdom in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. There were 25 varieties in 2012 and 59 in 2013, with eleven present in both trials. The trials were split-plot, with half of each plot supplied with sulphur and the other half not. The varietal means (mmol per kg) for free asparagine in the sulphur-fed wheat ranged from 1.521 to 2.687 in 2011-2012 and 0.708 to 11.29 in 2012-2013. Eight varieties were identified as having consistently low free asparagine concentration. There was a differential response of varieties to sulphur, and much higher levels of free asparagine in 2012-2013 versus 2011-2012. Given the short commercial lifespan of some wheat varieties, it is concluded that information on free asparagine concentration should be made available when a variety is launched.

KEYWORDS:

Acrylamide; Acrylamide (PubChem CID: 6579); Asparagine; Food safety; Free amino acids; Processing contaminants; Wheat; l-Asparagine

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Game of TOR - The Target of Rapamycin Rules Four Kingdoms.

Manning BD.

N Engl J Med. 2017 Sep 5. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcibr1709384. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

PMID: 28874074

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcibr1709384?query=TOC

http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMcibr1709384

Paragraph 1

The 2017 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award, announced September 6, recognizes Michael N. Hall of the University of Basel for his discovery of the target of rapamycin (TOR), a nutrient-sensing enzyme that regulates cell and organismal growth in nearly all eukaryotic species. Because of its ability to inhibit cell growth, the natural product rapamycin has captivated scientists and clinicians for more than 40 years.

...

 

Ketogenic Diet Makes a Comeback in the Treatment of Epilepsy

September 7, 2017055

https://www.medicalnewsbulletin.com/ketogenic-diet-treatment-epilepsy/

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An acidosis-sparing ketogenic (ASK) diet to improve efficacy and reduce adverse effects in the treatment of refractory epilepsy.

Yuen AWC, Walcutt IA, Sander JW.

Epilepsy Behav. 2017 Sep;74:15-21. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2017.05.032. Epub 2017 Jun 28. Review.

PMID: 28667864

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.yebeh.2017.05.032

Abstract

Diets that increase production of ketone bodies to provide alternative fuel for the brain are evolving from the classic ketogenic diet for epilepsy devised nearly a century ago. The classic ketogenic diet and its more recent variants all appear to have similar efficacy with approximately 50% of users showing a greater than 50% seizure reduction. They all require significant medical and dietetic support, and there are tolerability issues. A review suggests that low-grade chronic metabolic acidosis associated with ketosis is likely to be an important contributor to the short term and long term adverse effects of ketogenic diets. Recent studies, particularly with the characterization of the acid sensing ion channels, suggest that chronic metabolic acidosis may increase the propensity for seizures. It is also known that low-grade chronic metabolic acidosis has a broad range of negative health effects and an increased risk of early mortality in the general population. The modified ketogenic dietary treatment we propose is formulated to limit acidosis by measures that include monitoring protein intake and maximizing consumption of alkaline mineral-rich, low carbohydrate green vegetables. We hypothesize that this acidosis-sparing ketogenic diet is expected to be associated with less adverse effects and improved efficacy. A case history of life-long intractable epilepsy shows this diet to be a successful long-term strategy but, clearly, clinical studies are needed.

KEYWORDS:

ASIC; Inflammation; Ketones; Low-grade chronic metabolic acidosis; Mitochondria

 

Comorbidity and vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND).

Le Couteur DG, Wahl D, Naismith SL.

Age Ageing. 2017 Sep 1;46(5):705-707. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afx080. No abstract available.

PMID: 28481963

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1093/ageing/afx080

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7. Neuropsychological profiles of vascular disease and risk of dementia: implications for defining vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCI-ND).

Stephan BCM, Minett T, Muniz-Terrera G, Harrison SL, Matthews FE, Brayne C.

Age Ageing. 2017 Sep 1;46(5):755-760. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afx016.

PMID: 28203692 Free PMC Article

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5474097/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5474097/pdf/emss-71705.pdf

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCI-ND) defines a preclinical phase of cognitive decline associated with vascular disorders. The neuropsychological profile of VCI-ND may vary according to different vascular conditions.

OBJECTIVE:

to determine the neuropsychological profile of individuals with no dementia and vascular disorders, including hypertension, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes and stroke. Risk of 2-year incident dementia in individuals with disease and cognitive impairment was also tested.

METHODS:

participants were from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. At baseline, 13,004 individuals aged ≥65 years were enrolled into the study. Individuals were grouped by baseline disorder status (present, absent) for each condition. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG). Dementia was assessed at 2 years.

RESULTS:

in the cross-sectional analysis, hypertension, PVD and CHD were not associated with cognitive impairment. Stroke was associated with impaired global (MMSE) and CAMCOG sub-scale (including memory and non-memory) scores. Diabetes was associated with impairments in global cognitive function (MMSE) and abstract thinking. In the longitudinal analysis, cognitive impairments were associated with incident dementia in all groups.

CONCLUSION:

the neuropsychological profile in individuals with vascular disorders depends on the specific condition investigated. In all conditions cognitive impairment is a risk factor for dementia. A better understanding of which cognitive domains are affected in different disease groups could help improve operationalisation of the neuropsychological criteria for VCI-ND and could also aid with the development of dementia risk prediction models in persons with vascular disease.

KEYWORDS:

cognition; dementia risk; epidemiology; older people; vascular cognitive impairment no dementia; vascular disease

 

Motor function and incident dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Kueper JK, Speechley M, Lingum NR, Montero-Odasso M.

Age Ageing. 2017 Sep 1;46(5):729-738. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afx084.

PMID: 28541374

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1093/ageing/afx084

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

cognitive and mobility decline are interrelated processes, whereby mobility decline coincides or precedes the onset of cognitive decline.

OBJECTIVE:

to assess whether there is an association between performance on motor function tests and incident dementia.

METHODS:

electronic database, grey literature and hand searching identified studies testing for associations between baseline motor function and incident dementia in older adults.

RESULTS:

of 2,540 potentially relevant documents, 37 met the final inclusion criteria and were reviewed qualitatively. Three meta-analyses were conducted using data from 10 studies. Three main motor domains-upper limb motor function, parkinsonism and lower limb motor function-emerged as associated with increased risk of incident dementia. Studies including older adults without neurological overt disease found a higher risk of incident dementia associated with poorer performance on composite motor function scores, balance and gait velocity (meta-analysis pooled HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.41, 2.65). Mixed results were found across different study samples for upper limb motor function, overall parkinsonism (meta-analysis pooled OR = 3.05, 95% CI: 1.31, 7.08), bradykinesia and rigidity. Studies restricted to older adults with Parkinson's Disease found weak or no association with incident dementia even for motor domains highly associated in less restrictive samples. Tremor was not associated with an increased risk of dementia in any population (meta-analysis pooled HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.31, 2.03).

CONCLUSION:

lower limb motor function was associated with increased risk of developing dementia, while tremor and hand grip strength were not. Our results support future research investigating the inclusion of quantitative motor assessment, specifically gait velocity tests, for clinical dementia risk evaluation.

KEYWORDS:

dementia; gait; motor function; older people; systematic review

 

Lower risk of incident dementia among Chinese older adults having three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruits a day.

Lee ATC, Richards M, Chan WC, Chiu HFK, Lee RSY, Lam LCW.

Age Ageing. 2017 Sep 1;46(5):773-779. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afx018.

PMID: 28338708

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

dietary modification can potentially reduce dementia risk, but the importance of fruits and the amount of vegetables and fruits required for cognitive maintenance are uncertain. We examined whether the minimal daily requirement of vegetables and fruits recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) would independently lower dementia risk.

METHODS:

in this population-based observational study, we examined the diet of 17,700 community-living dementia-free Chinese older adults who attended the Elderly Health Centres in Hong Kong at baseline and followed their cognitive status for 6 years. In line with the WHO recommendation, we defined the cutoff for minimal intake of vegetables and fruits as at least three and two servings per day, respectively. The study outcome was incident dementia in 6 years. Dementia was defined by presence of clinical dementia in accordance with the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) or Clinical Dementia Rating of 1-3.

RESULTS:

multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the estimated odds ratios for incident dementia were 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.73-1.06; P = 0.17) for those consuming at least three servings of vegetables per day, 0.86 (0.74-0.99; P < 0.05) for those consuming at least two servings of fruits per day and 0.75 (0.60-0.95; P = 0.02) for those consuming at least these amounts of both at baseline, after adjusting for age, gender, education, major chronic diseases, physical exercise and smoking.

CONCLUSION:

having at least three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruits daily might help prevent dementia in older adults.

KEYWORDS:

dementia; fruits; healthy diet; nutrition; older people; vegetables

 

The effect of Ramadan fast on the incidence of renal colic emergency department visits.

Sagy I, Zeldetz V, Halperin D, Abu Tailakh M, Novack V.

QJM. 2017 Apr 13. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcx079. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28419353

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Renal colic (RC) is one of the most common reasons for emergency department (ED) visits. Although RC is associated with high ambient temperature and with physiological changes that occur during fast, the literature onbetween Ramadan and RC incidence is scarce.

METHODS:

We obtained health data of patients visited the emergency department (ED) of a large tertiary center during the years 2004-2015, with a primary diagnosis of RC. To estimate the association of RC and Ramadan, we utilized bi-weekly RC incidence Poisson models adjusted for ambient temperature and seasonality in two ethnic groups residing in the region: Muslims and Jews.

RESULTS:

We identified 10,435 unique patients with 18,163 ED visits with primary diagnosis of RC. Although Muslims represent 18.5% of the population in the region, approximately 25% of the ED visits with RC attributed to this group. There was a positive and significant association of temperature and ED visits within all subgroups after adjusting for seasons. Positive association with Ramadan was observed during the first two weeks of fastwithin Muslims (R.R 1.27, 95% C.I 1.03-1.50) but not within Jewish community (R.R 1.061, 95% C.I 0.855-1.238).

CONCLUSION:

Our study demonstrates a significant and positive association between RC and Ramadan, while controlling to ambient temperature. In view of these findings, different prevention strategies should be investigated.

KEYWORDS:

Ramadan fast; ambient temperature; renal colic

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Five gene variants in nonagenarians, centenarians and average individuals.

Kolovou V, Bilianou H, Giannakopoulou V, Kalogeropoulos P, Mihas C, Kouris M, Cokkinos DV, Boutsikou M, Hoursalas I, Mavrogeni S, Katsiki N, Kolovou G.

Arch Med Sci. 2017 Aug;13(5):1130-1141. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2017.68942. Epub 2017 Aug 3.

PMID: 28883855 Free PMC Article

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Genetic factors contribute to the variation of human life span which is believed to be more profound after 85 years of age. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of 5 gene polymorphisms between nonagenarians, centenarians and average individuals.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT; rs2736098), insulin-like growth factor-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP3; A-202C, rs2857744), fork-head box O3A (FOXO3A; rs13217795 and rs2764264) factor and adiponectin (ADIPOQ; rs2241766) were evaluated in 405 individuals: n = 256 nonagenarians and centenarians (study group) and n = 149 average lifespan individuals (control group aged 18 - < 80 years).

RESULTS:

The frequency of women was significantly higher in the study group than the control group (64.5 vs. 49.7%, p = 0.004). Genotypic and allele frequencies did not differ between groups according to gender. However, in men, the frequency of TT genotype of FOXO3A; rs2764264 was higher in the study group than the control group (45.6 vs. 28.0%, p = 0.05). Overall, the frequency of the C allele of FOXO3A; rs2764264 was significantly lower in the study group than the control group (3.9 vs. 9.5%, respectively, p = 0.023). Furthermore, in the study group, the T allele was significantly more frequent in the nonagenarians (n = 239) than the centenarians (n = 17) in both FOXO3A; rs13217795 and rs2764264 (64.4 vs. 44.1%, p = 0.018 and 69.7 vs. 50.0%, p = 0.017, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:

According to survival status, there is differentiation in the prevalence of both studied FOXO3A gene polymorphisms. The study group had half of the C alleles compared with the control group and centenarians less frequently had the T allele of both FOXO3A gene polymorphisms compared with nonagenarians. No difference was found between groups according to TERT, IGFBP3 and ADIPOQ gene polymorphisms. It seems that some polymorphisms may be significant in prolonging our lifespan. Nevertheless, confirmation in additional study populations is needed.

KEYWORDS:

ADIPOQ; FOXO3A; IGFBP3; TERT; centenarians; nonagenarians; single nucleotide polymorphisms

 

A Genetic Variant of ASCT2 Hampers In Vitro RNA Splicing and Correlates with Human Longevity.

D'Aquila P, Crocco P, De Rango F, Indiveri C, Bellizzi D, Rose G, Passarino G.

Rejuvenation Res. 2017 Sep 8. doi: 10.1089/rej.2017.1948. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28885889

Abstract

Given the role of amino acid regulation for physiological and pathological cell proliferation, we investigated whether the variability of solute carrier family 1, member 5 (SLC1A5, namely ASCT2), encoding for ASCT2 protein, a major glutamine transporter, is related to longevity. A total of 607 differently aged unrelated individuals, 351 very old subjects (≥85 years, range 85-106 years, mean age 93.82 ± 4.44 years) and 256 younger controls (<85 years, range 64-84 years, mean age 73.60 ± 5.70 years) were analyzed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by a tagging SNP approach prioritizing those most likely to be of functional relevance. Genotyping was carried out using iPLEX Gold Genotyping Assay (Sequenom MassARRAY), and a logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between genotypes and the longevity phenotype. Age-associated variants were predicted to be involved in the alteration of an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) site by Human Splicing Finder (HSF) v.3. Minigene constructs containing the alleles associated with longevity allowed the assessment of the functional effects of the polymorphisms. Two polymorphisms were found associated with human longevity (rs3027958 and rs1644343). Indeed, the major alleles of both SNPs positively influence the probability to become long-lived. In vitro assays suggested that the minor allele of rs3027958 alters an ESE site, thus inducing intron retention. We provide evidence about the functional role of intronic variants of the ASCT2 gene in hampering the splicing process, and the effect of these variants on survival, confirming the crucial role played by this amino acid transporter in modulating longevity.

KEYWORDS:

aging; amino acid transporter; exonic splicing enhancer; intronic variants; minigene

 

Cognitive function in very old men does not correlate to biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

Velickaite V, Giedraitis V, Ström K, Alafuzoff I, Zetterberg H, Lannfelt L, Kilander L, Larsson EM, Ingelsson M.

BMC Geriatr. 2017 Sep 8;17(1):208. doi: 10.1186/s12877-017-0601-6.

PMID: 28886705 Free Article

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain displays atrophy with amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau deposition, whereas decreased Aβ42 and increased tau are measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The aim of this study was to relate cognitive performance to the degree of brain atrophy, CSF biomarker levels and neuropathology in a cohort of aged men.

METHODS:

Fifty-eight 86-92-year-old men from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) cohort underwent cognitive testing, brain computed tomography and lumbar puncture. Atrophy was graded with established scales. Concentrations of CSF Aβ42, t-tau and p-tau were measured by ELISA. Thirteen brains were examined post mortem.

RESULTS:

Forty-six of the individuals were considered non-demented, whereas twelve were diagnosed with dementia, either at baseline (n = 4) or during follow-up (n = 8). When comparing subjects with and without dementia, there were no differences in the degree of atrophy, although the mini mental state examination (MMSE) scoring correlated weakly with the degree of medial temporal atrophy (MTA) (p = 0.04). Moreover, the CSF biomarker levels did not differ significantly between healthy (n = 27) and demented (n = 8) subjects (median values 715 vs 472 pg/ml for Aβ42, 414 vs 427 pg/ml for t-tau and 63 vs 60 pg/ml for p-tau). Similarly, there were no differences in the biomarker levels between individuals with mild (n = 24) and severe (n = 11) MTA (median values 643 vs 715 pg/ml for Aβ42, 441 vs 401 pg/ml for t-tau and 64 vs 53 pg/ml for p-tau). Finally, the neuropathological changes did not correlate with any of the other measures.

CONCLUSION:

In this cohort of aged men only a weak correlation could be seen between cognitive performance and MTA, whereas the various neuroradiological, biochemical and neuropathological measures did not correlate with each other. Thus, AD biomarkers seem to be less informative in subjects of an advanced age.

KEYWORDS:

AD biomarkers; Advanced age; Brain atrophy; CSF biomarkers; Cognitive performance; Neuropathology

 

Physiological adaptations to resistance exercise as a function of age.

Phillips BE, Williams JP, Greenhaff PL, Smith K, Atherton PJ.

JCI Insight. 2017 Sep 7;2(17). pii: 95581. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.95581. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28878131 Free Article

https://insight.jci.org/articles/view/95581

https://insight.jci.org/articles/view/95581/pdf

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The impact of resistance exercise training (RE-T) across the life span is poorly defined.

METHODS:

To resolve this, we recruited three distinct age cohorts of young (18-28 years; n = 11), middle-aged (45-55 years; n = 20), and older (nonsarcopenic; 65-75 years; n = 17) individuals to a cross-sectional intervention study. All subjects participated in 20 weeks of fully supervised whole-body progressive RE-T, undergoing assessment of body composition, muscle and vascular function, and metabolic health biomarkers before and after RE-T. Individuals also received stable isotope tracer infusions to ascertain muscle protein synthesis (MPS).

RESULTS:

There was an age-related increase in adiposity, but only young and middle-age groups demonstrated reductions following RE-T. Increases in blood pressure with age were attenuated by RE-T in middle-aged, but not older, individuals, while age-related increases in leg vascular conductance were unaffected by RE-T. The index of insulin sensitivity was reduced by RE-T in older age. Despite being matched at baseline, only younger individuals increased muscle mass in response to RE-T, and there existed a negative correlation between age and muscle growth; in contrast, increases in mechanical quality were preserved across ages. Acute increases in MPS (upon feeding plus acute RE-T) were enhanced only in younger individuals, perhaps explaining greater hypertrophy.

CONCLUSION:

Our data indicate that RE-T offsets some, but not all, negative characteristics of ageing - some of which are apparent in midlife.

 

Disrupting IGF Signaling in Adult Mice Conditions Leanness, Resilient Energy Metabolism, and High Growth Hormone Pulses.

François JC, Aïd S, Chaker Z, Lacube P, Xu J, Fayad R, Côté F, Even P, Holzenberger M.

Endocrinology. 2017 Jul 1;158(7):2269-2283. doi: 10.1210/en.2017-00261.

PMID: 28881863

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1210/en.2017-00261

Abstract

Growth hormone (GH) and insulinlike growth factor (IGF) promote aging and age-related pathologies. Inhibiting this pathway by targeting IGF receptor (IGF-1R) is a promising strategy to extend life span, alleviate age-related diseases, and reduce tumor growth. Although anti-IGF-1R agents are being developed, long-term effects of IGF-1R blockade remain unknown. In this study, we used ubiquitous inducible IGF-1R knockout (UBIKOR) to suppress signaling in all adult tissues and screened health extensively. Surprisingly, UBIKOR mice showed no overt defects and presented with rather inconspicuous health, including normal cognition. Endocrine GH and IGF-1 were strongly upregulated without causing acromegaly. UBIKOR mice were strikingly lean with coordinate changes in body composition and organ size. They were insulin resistant but preserved physiological energy expenditure and displayed enhanced fasting metabolic flexibility. Thus, long-term IGF-1R blockade generated beneficial effects on aging-relevant metabolism, but exposed to high GH. This needs to be considered when targeting IGF-1R to protect from neurodegeneration, retard aging, or fight cancer.

 

PGAM5 promotes lasting FoxO activation after developmental mitochondrial stress and extends lifespan in <i>Drosophila</i>.

Borch Jensen M, Qi Y, Riley R, Rabkina L, Jasper H.

Elife. 2017 Sep 11;6. pii: e26952. doi: 10.7554/eLife.26952. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28891792 Free Article

Abstract

The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) has been associated with long lifespan across metazoans. In C. elegans, mild developmental mitochondrial stress activates UPRmt reporters and extends lifespan. We show that similar developmental stress is necessary and sufficient to extend Drosophila lifespan, and identify Phosphoglycerate Mutase 5 (PGAM5) as a mediator of this response. Developmental mitochondrial stress leads to activation of FoxO, via Apoptosis Signal-regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1) and Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK). This activation persists into adulthood and induces a select set of chaperones, many of which have been implicated in lifespan extension in flies. Persistent FoxO activation can be reversed by a high protein diet in adulthood, through mTORC1 and GCN-2 activity. Accordingly, the observed lifespan extension is prevented on a high protein diet and in FoxO-null flies. The diet-sensitivity of this pathway has important implications for interventions that seek to engage the UPRmt to improve metabolic health and longevity.

KEYWORDS:

D. melanogaster; cell biology; chromosomes; genes

 

Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption and melanoma risk: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Micek A, Godos J, Lafranconi A, Marranzano M, Pajak A.

Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Sep 11:1-10. doi: 10.1080/09637486.2017.1373752. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28891369

Abstract

To determine the association between total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption and melanoma risk a dose-response meta-analysis on prospective cohort studies were performed. Eligible studies were identified searching PubMed and EMBASE databases from the earliest available online indexing year to March 2017. The dose-response relationship was assessed by random-effects meta-analysis and the shape of the exposure-outcome curve was modelled linearly and using restricted cubic splines. A total of seven studies eligible for meta-analysis were identified that comprised 1,418,779 participants and 9211 melanoma cases. A linear dose-response meta-analysis showed a significant association between total coffee consumption and melanoma risk. An increase in coffee consumption of one cup per day was associated with a 3% reduction in melanoma risk (RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.95-0.99). Our findings suggest that coffee intake may be inversely associated with incidence of melanoma. Nevertheless, further studies exploring also the role of confounding factors are needed to explain the heterogeneity among studies.

KEYWORDS:

Coffee; caffeine; dose-response; melanoma; meta-analysis; skin cancer

 

Methionine-supplemented diet affects the expression of cardiovascular disease-related genes and increases inflammatory cytokines in mice heart and liver.

Aissa AF, Amaral CLD, Venancio VP, Machado CDS, Hernandes LC, Santos PWDS, Curi R, Bianchi MLP, Antunes LMG.

J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2017 Sep 7:1-13. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2017.1357366. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28880739

Abstract

Some important environmental factors that influence the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) include tobacco, excess alcohol, and unhealthy diet. Methionine obtained from the diet participates in the synthesis of DNA, proteins, lipids and affects homocysteine levels, which is associated with the elevated risk for CVD development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the manner in which dietary methionine might affect cellular mechanisms underlying CVD occurrence. Swiss albino mice were fed either control (0.3% DL-methionine), methionine-supplemented (2% DL-methionine), or a methionine-deprived diet (0% DL-methionine) over a 10-week period. The parameters measured included plasma homocysteine concentrations, oxidative stress by reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6, as well as expression of genes associated with CVD. The levels of apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5), a regulator of plasma triglycerides, were measured. The methionine-supplemented diet increased oxidative stress by lowering the GSH/GSSG ratio in heart tissues and decreased expression of the genes Apob, Ctgf, Serpinb2, Spp1, Il1b, and Sell, but elevated expression of Thbs4, Tgfb2, Ccr1, and Vegfa. Methionine-deprived diet reduced expression of Col3a1, Cdh5, Fabp3, Bax, and Hbegf and increased expression of Sell, Ccl5, Itga2, Birc3, Msr1, Bcl2a1a, Il1r2, and Selp. Methionine-deprived diet exerted pro-inflammatory consequences as evidenced by elevated levels of cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 noted in liver. Methionine-supplemented diet increased hepatic IL-6 and cardiac TNF-α. Both methionine supplementation and deprivation lowered hepatic levels of APOA5. In conclusion, data demonstrated that a methionine-supplemented diet modulated important biological processes associated with high risk of CVD development.

 

Enhanced neural activation with blueberry supplementation in mild cognitive impairment.

Boespflug EL, Eliassen JC, Dudley JA, Shidler MD, Kalt W, Summer SS, Stein AL, Stover AN, Krikorian R.

Nutr Neurosci. 2017 Feb 21:1-9. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2017.1287833. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28221821

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1080/1028415X.2017.1287833

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Preclinical studies have shown that blueberry supplementation can improve cognitive performance and neural function in aged animals and have identified associations between anthocyanins and such benefits. Preliminary human trials also suggest cognitive improvement in older adults, although direct evidence of enhancement of brain function has not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the effect of blueberry supplementation on regional brain activation in older adults at risk for dementia.

METHODS:

In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we performed pre- and post-intervention functional magnetic resonance imaging during a working memory (WM) task to assess the effect of blueberry supplementation on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in older adults with mild cognitive impairment, a risk condition for dementia.

RESULTS:

Following daily supplementation for 16 weeks, blueberry-treated participants exhibited increased BOLD activation in the left pre-central gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and left inferior parietal lobe during WM load conditions (corrected P < 0.01). There was no clear indication of WM enhancement associated with blueberry supplementation. Diet records indicated no between-group difference in anthocyanin consumption external to the intervention.

DISCUSSION:

These data demonstrate, for the first time, enhanced neural response during WM challenge in blueberry-treated older adults with cognitive decline and are consistent with prior trials showing neurocognitive benefit with blueberry supplementation in this at-risk population.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Blueberries; Brain activation; Dementia; MCI; fMRI

 

Role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in human brain structure and function across the lifespan: An update on neuroimaging findings.

McNamara RK, Asch RH, Lindquist DM, Krikorian R.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2017 May 9. pii: S0952-3278(16)30219-8. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2017.05.001. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 28529008

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.plefa.2017.05.001

Abstract

There is a substantial body of evidence from animal studies implicating polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in neuroinflammatory, neurotrophic, and neuroprotective processes in brain. However, direct evidence for a role of PUFA in human brain structure and function has been lacking. Over the last decade there has been a notable increase in neuroimaging studies that have investigated the impact of PUFA intake and/or blood levels (i.e., biostatus) on brain structure, function, and pathology in human subjects. The majority of these studies specifically evaluated associations between omega-3 PUFA intake and/or biostatus and neuroimaging outcomes using a variety of experimental designs and imaging techniques. This review provides an updated overview of these studies in an effort to identify patterns to guide and inform future research. While the weight of evidence provides general support for a beneficial effect of a habitual diet consisting of higher omega-3 PUFA intake on cortical structure and function in healthy human subjects, additional research is needed to replicate and extend these findings as well as identify response mediators and clarify mechanistic pathways. Controlled intervention trials are also needed to determine whether increasing n-3 PUFA biostatus can prevent or attenuate neuropathological brain changes observed in patients with or at risk for psychiatric disorders and dementia.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Arachidonic acid; Brain development; Docosahexaenoic acid; Neurodegeneration; Omega-3 fatty acids; White matter

 

Follow-up of Positive Fecal Test Results: Sooner Is Better, but How Much Better?

Rutter CM, Inadomi JM.

JAMA. 2017 Apr 25;317(16):1627-1628. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.3629. No abstract available.

PMID: 28444260

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1001/jama.2017.3629

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Association Between Time to Colonoscopy After a Positive Fecal Test Result and Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Cancer Stage at Diagnosis.

Corley DA, Jensen CD, Quinn VP, Doubeni CA, Zauber AG, Lee JK, Schottinger JE, Marks AR, Zhao WK, Ghai NR, Lee AT, Contreras R, Quesenberry CP, Fireman BH, Levin TR.

JAMA. 2017 Apr 25;317(16):1631-1641. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.3634.

PMID: 28444278

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is commonly used for colorectal cancer screening and positive test results require follow-up colonoscopy. However, follow-up intervals vary, which may result in neoplastic progression.

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate time to colonoscopy after a positive FIT result and its association with risk of colorectal cancer and advanced-stage disease at diagnosis.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

Retrospective cohort study (January 1, 2010-December 31, 2014) within Kaiser Permanente Northern and Southern California. Participants were 70 124 patients aged 50 through 70 years eligible for colorectal cancer screening with a positive FIT result who had a follow-up colonoscopy.

EXPOSURES:

Time (days) to colonoscopy after a positive FIT result.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Risk of any colorectal cancer and advanced-stage disease (defined as stage III and IV cancer). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were adjusted for patient demographics and baseline risk factors.

RESULTS:

Of the 70 124 patients with positive FIT results (median age, 61 years [iQR, 55-67 years]; men, 52.7%), there were 2191 cases of any colorectal cancer and 601 cases of advanced-stage disease diagnosed. Compared with colonoscopy follow-up within 8 to 30 days (n = 27 176), there were no significant differences between follow-up at 2 months (n = 24 644), 3 months (n = 8666), 4 to 6 months (n = 5251), or 7 to 9 months (n = 1335) for risk of any colorectal cancer (cases per 1000 patients: 8-30 days, 30; 2 months, 28; 3 months, 31; 4-6 months, 31; and 7-9 months, 43) or advanced-stage disease (cases per 1000 patients: 8-30 days, 8; 2 months, 7; 3 months, 7; 4-6 months, 9; and 7-9 months, 13). Risks were significantly higher for examinations at 10 to 12 months (n = 748) for any colorectal cancer (OR, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.05-2.08]; 49 cases per 1000 patients) and advanced-stage disease (OR, 1.97 [95% CI, 1.14-3.42]; 19 cases per 1000 patients) and more than 12 months (n = 747) for any colorectal cancer (OR, 2.25 [95% CI, 1.89-2.68]; 76 cases per 1000 patients) and advanced-stage disease (OR, 3.22 [95% CI, 2.44-4.25]; 31 cases per 1000 patients).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Among patients with a positive fecal immunochemical test result, compared with follow-up colonoscopy at 8 to 30 days, follow-up after 10 months was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer and more advanced-stage disease at the time of diagnosis. Further research is needed to assess whether this relationship is causal.

 

Menopausal Hormone Therapy

Understanding Long-term Risks and Benefits

Melissa McNeil, MD, MPH1

Author Affiliations

JAMA. 2017;318(10):911-913. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.1146

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1001/jama.2017.11462

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Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Long-term All-Cause and Cause-Specific MortalityThe Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trials

JoAnn E. Manson, MD, DrPH; Aaron K. Aragaki, MS; Jacques E. Rossouw, MD; et al.

JAMA. 2017;318(10):927-938. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.11217

This observational follow-up (cumulative 18 years) of postmenopausal women enrolled in 2 RCTs compared rates of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality between groups receiving hormone therapy (conjugated equine estrogens [CEE] plus medroxyprogesterone acetate) or CEE alone vs placebo.

Key Points

Question What is the relationship between use of menopausal hormone therapy vs placebo for 5 to 7 years and mortality over 18 years of follow-up?

Findings Among postmenopausal women who participated in 2 parallel randomized trials of estrogen plus progestin and estrogen alone, all-cause mortality rates for the overall cohort in the pooled trials were not significantly different for the hormone therapy groups vs the placebo groups (27.1% vs 27.6%; hazard ratio, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.94-1.03]).

Meaning Menopausal hormone therapy for 5 to 7 years was not associated with risk of long-term all-cause mortality.

Abstract

Importance Health outcomes from the Women’s Health Initiative Estrogen Plus Progestin and Estrogen-Alone Trials have been reported, but previous publications have generally not focused on all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

Objective To examine total and cause-specific cumulative mortality, including during the intervention and extended postintervention follow-up, of the 2 Women’s Health Initiative hormone therapy trials.

Design, Setting, and Participants Observational follow-up of US multiethnic postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years enrolled in 2 randomized clinical trials between 1993 and 1998 and followed up through December 31, 2014.

Interventions Conjugated equine estrogens (CEE, 0.625 mg/d) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 2.5 mg/d) (n = 8506) vs placebo (n = 8102) for 5.6 years (median) or CEE alone (n = 5310) vs placebo (n = 5429) for 7.2 years (median).

Main Outcomes and Measures All-cause mortality (primary outcome) and cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular disease mortality, cancer mortality, and other major causes of mortality) in the 2 trials pooled and in each trial individually, with prespecified analyses by 10-year age group based on age at time of randomization.

Results Among 27 347 women who were randomized (baseline mean [sD] age, 63.4 [7.2] years; 80.6% white), mortality follow-up was available for more than 98%. During the cumulative 18-year follow-up, 7489 deaths occurred (1088 deaths during the intervention phase and 6401 deaths during postintervention follow-up). All-cause mortality was 27.1% in the hormone therapy group vs 27.6% in the placebo group (hazard ratio {HR}, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.94-1.03]) in the overall pooled cohort; with CEE plus MPA, the HR was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.96-1.08); and with CEE alone, the HR was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.88-1.01). In the pooled cohort for cardiovascular mortality, the HR was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.92-1.08 [8.9 % with hormone therapy vs 9.0% with placebo]); for total cancer mortality, the HR was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.95-1.12 [8.2 % with hormone therapy vs 8.0% with placebo]); and for other causes, the HR was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.88-1.02 [10.0% with hormone therapy vs 10.7% with placebo]), and results did not differ significantly between trials. When examined by 10-year age groups comparing younger women (aged 50-59 years) to older women (aged 70-79 years) in the pooled cohort, the ratio of nominal HRs for all-cause mortality was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.43-0.87) during the intervention phase and the ratio was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.76-1.00) during cumulative 18-year follow-up, without significant heterogeneity between trials.

Conclusions and Relevance Among postmenopausal women, hormone therapy with CEE plus MPA for a median of 5.6 years or with CEE alone for a median of 7.2 years was not associated with risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, or cancer mortality during a cumulative follow-up of 18 years.

Edited by AlPater

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Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of Centenarians in Mexico City.

Pedro VC, Arturo RH, Alejandro PM, Oscar RC.

Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:7195801. doi: 10.1155/2017/7195801. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

PMID: 28904969

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/7195801/

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There is little evidence about the demography and health status of adults aged 100 years and over in Latin America and there are no studies in Mexico.

OBJECTIVES:

To describe the demographic characteristics and health status of centenarians residing in Mexico City.

METHODS:

This is a cross-sectional study using a population base of 393 community-dwelling centenarians in Mexico City. A comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed, including demographic information and health status.

RESULTS:

The mean age of centenarians was 101.82 ± 2.02 years, of whom 44 (9.1%) were semisupercentenarians (105-109 years old) and 5 (0.2%) were supercentenarians (≥110 years old). The female/male ratio was 3.2 : 1. Twelve (4.5%) reside in nursing homes. Women versus men have unfavorable conditions given their criteria: being without a partner, dependence in 1 or more basic activities, dependence in 1 or more instrumental activities, hypertension, cancer, and Parkinson's disease. Nevertheless, as compared to other populations, Mexican centenarians report having good self-perception of health (78.9%), polypharmacy (17.8%), low rate of pain (11.4%), diabetes (4.8%), and dyslipidemia (1.8%).

CONCLUSIONS:

This is the first study in Latin America that describes the social and clinical characteristics of centenarians in Mexico City. This population has a high percentage of malnutrition and osteoarthrosis, a high self-perception of health, low frequency of diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and a high frequency of "escapers" (24%).

 

Short-term dietary methionine supplementation affects one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation in the mouse gut and leads to altered microbiome profiles, barrier function, gene expression and histomorphology.

Miousse IR, Pathak R, Garg S, Skinner CM, Melnyk S, Pavliv O, Hendrickson H, Landes RD, Lumen A, Tackett AJ, Deutz NEP, Hauer-Jensen M, Koturbash I.

Genes Nutr. 2017 Sep 6;12:22. doi: 10.1186/s12263-017-0576-0. eCollection 2017.

PMID: 28904640

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Methionine, a central molecule in one-carbon metabolism, is an essential amino acid required for normal growth and development. Despite its importance to biological systems, methionine is toxic when administered at supra-physiological levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term methionine dietary modulation on the proximal jejunum, the section of the gut specifically responsible for amino acid absorption, in a mouse model. Eight-week-old CBA/J male mice were fed methionine-adequate (MAD; 6.5 g/kg) or methionine-supplemented (MSD; 19.5 g/kg) diets for 3.5 or 6 days (average food intake 100 g/kg body weight). The study design was developed in order to address the short-term effects of the methionine supplementation that corresponds to methionine dietary intake in Western populations. Biochemical indices in the blood as well as metabolic, epigenetic, transcriptomic, metagenomic, and histomorphological parameters in the gut were evaluated.

RESULTS:

By day 6, feeding mice with MSD (protein intake <10% different from MAD) resulted in increased plasma (2.3-fold; p < 0.054), but decreased proximal jejunum methionine concentrations (2.2-fold; p < 0.05) independently of the expression of neutral amino acid transporters. MSD has also caused small bowel bacteria colonization, increased the abundance of pathogenic bacterial species Burkholderiales and decreased the gene expression of the intestinal transmembrane proteins-Cldn8 (0.18-fold, p < 0.05), Cldn9 (0.24-fold, p < 0.01) and Cldn10 (0.05-fold, p < 0.05). Feeding MSD led to substantial histomorphological alterations in the proximal jejunum exhibited as a trend towards decreased plasma citrulline concentrations (1.8-fold, p < 0.07), as well as loss of crypt depth (by 28%, p < 0.05) and mucosal surface (by 20%, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Together, these changes indicate that short-term feeding of MSD substantially alters the normal gut physiology. These effects may contribute to the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammatory diseases and/or sensitize the gut to exposure to other stressors.

KEYWORDS:

Burkholderiales; Essential amino acid; Gut microbiome; LINE-1; Methionine toxicity; Tight junction-related proteins

 

Interrelations between body mass index, frailty, and clinical adverse events in older community-dwelling women: The EPIDOS cohort study.

Boutin E, Natella PA, Schott AM, Bastuji-Garin S, David JP, Paillaud E, Rolland Y, Canouï-Poitrine F.

Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug 5. pii: S0261-5614(17)30264-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.07.023. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28844302

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The hypothesis of reverse epidemiology holds that, obesity may reduce the risk of clinical adverse events in older subjects. However, this association is controversial and rarely explored according to the underlying health status. We tested this phenomenon by assessing the association between body mass index (BMI) and clinical adverse events in community dwelling older women according to their frailty status.

METHODS:

EPIDOS is a multicenter prospective cohort of community-dwelling women aged 75 and older recruited between 1992 and 1994. At baseline, we collected demographics, BMI (<21 kg/m2: underweight; 21-24.9: normal weight; 25-29.9: overweight and ≥30: obesity), frailty through Fried model, and clinical characteristics. All-cause mortality, falls, hip fractures, and hospital admission were collected within 5 years of follow-up and were analyzed using univariate and multivariate survival analysis by using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox Hazard Proportional models.

RESULTS:

Of 6662 women (mean age, 80.4 years), 11.6%; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) CI [10.8%-12.3%] were frail. By multivariate analysis, the risk of death in frail women (compared to not-frail normal weight women) decreases with increase of BMI: adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR)frail-underweight = 2.04 [1.23-3.39]; aHRfrail-normal weight = 3.07 [2.21-4.26]; aHRfrail-overweight = 1.83 [1.31-2.56]; aHRfrail-obese = 1.76 [1.15-2.70]; p < 0.001. Frail overweight and obese women had a significant lower risk of death than frail normal-weight women (p = 0.004). Similar features were found for fall risk and hip fracture and for not-frail women. The relative risks of hospital admission for normal weight, overweight and obese frail women were similar (aHRfrail-normal weight = 1.50 [1.22-1.84], aHR frail-overweight =1.48 [1.26-1.74] and aHR frail-obese =1.53 [1.24-1.89], respectively).

CONCLUSION:

Our results suggest that overweight and obesity reduce the risks of clinical adverse events in frail community-dwelling older women and that frailty definition through Fried model had to be re-calibrated for overweight and obese individuals.

KEYWORDS:

Body mass index; Death; Fall; Frailty; Hospital admission; Older

 

Effects of blood-pressure-lowering treatment on outcome incidence in hypertension. 11. Effects of total cardiovascular risk and achieved blood pressure: overview and meta-analyses of randomized trials.

Thomopoulos C, Parati G, Zanchetti A.

J Hypertens. 2017 Aug 30. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001548. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28858983

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1097/HJH.0000000000001548

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In recent meta-analyses of blood pressure (BP)-lowering randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we have shown that in hypertensive patients with diabetes, but not in those without, relative risk reduction of cardiovascular outcomes for a standardized BP reduction is significantly smaller at progressively lower SBP values achieved by treatment.

OBJECTIVES:

Whether this feature is typical of diabetes or is common to all hypertensive patients at high-very high cardiovascular risk is unknown. To clarify these points, we report a new set of meta-analyses, in which BP-lowering RCTs have been stratified in a double way, according to two levels of cardiovascular risk (below and above 5% cardiovascular death in 10 years) and three SBP levels attained by treatment (≥140, 130-139, and <130 mmHg).

METHODS:

The database consisted of 72 BP-lowering RCTs including 260 210 patients, stratified in two ways (cardiovascular risk and achieved SBP) as indicated above. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals of six fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause death were calculated (random effects model) for all patients and, separately, for those with and those without diabetes mellitus. Differences between treatment effects at different achieved SBP levels were evaluated by test of homogeneity or trend analysis.

RESULTS:

When all patients at higher cardiovascular risk were analyzed (46 RCTs, 182 248 patients), no significant difference could be found in the relative risk reduction of any outcome in response to a standard BP reduction at any level of achieved SBP. On the other hand, in patients at a high level of cardiovascular risk, the presence of diabetes (29 RCTs, 52 350 patients) was associated with a significantly smaller outcome benefit of a standardized BP lowering to SBP less than 130 mmHg, and the opposite was found in absence of diabetes (22 RCTs, 102 792 patients). Similar findings were obtained in lower cardiovascular risk patients, but the smaller number of trials and, particularly, events weakens the evidence they provide, particularly on lower risk patients with diabetes.

CONCLUSION:

A high level of cardiovascular risk is not in itself a restraint to target at SBP values less than 130 mmHg, if treatment is well tolerated. Though a high cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes is not an indication for aiming at SBP less than 130 mmHg, current evidence is that SBP values slightly below 130 mmHg are not associated with harm.

 

Effects of Intensive Systolic Blood Pressure Control on Kidney and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Persons Without Kidney Disease: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Trial.

Beddhu S, Rocco MV, Toto R, Craven TE, Greene T, Bhatt U, Cheung AK, Cohen D, Freedman BI, Hawfield AT, Killeen AA, Kimmel PL, Lash J, Papademetriou V, Rahman M, Rastogi A, Servilla K, Townsend RR, Wall B, Whelton PK; SPRINT Research Group.

Ann Intern Med. 2017 Sep 5. doi: 10.7326/M16-2966. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28869987

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The public health significance of the reported higher incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering is unclear.

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the effects of intensive SBP lowering on kidney and cardiovascular outcomes and contrast its apparent beneficial and adverse effects.

DESIGN:

Subgroup analyses of SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial). (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01206062).

SETTING:

Adults with high blood pressure and elevated cardiovascular risk.

PARTICIPANTS:

6662 participants with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of at least 60 mL/min/1.73 m2.

INTERVENTION:

Random assignment to an intensive or standard SBP goal (120 or 140 mm Hg, respectively).

MEASUREMENTS:

Differences in mean eGFR during follow-up (estimated with a linear mixed-effects model), prespecified incident CKD (defined as a >30% decrease in eGFR to a value <60 mL/min/1.73 m2), and a composite of all-cause death or cardiovascular event, with surveillance every 3 months.

RESULTS:

The difference in adjusted mean eGFR between the intensive and standard groups was -3.32 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI, -3.90 to -2.74 mL/min/1.73 m2) at 6 months, was -4.50 mL/min/1.73 m2 (CI, -5.16 to -3.85 mL/min/1.73 m2) at 18 months, and remained relatively stable thereafter. An incident CKD event occurred in 3.7% of participants in the intensive group and 1.0% in the standard group at 3-year follow-up, with a hazard ratio of 3.54 (CI, 2.50 to 5.02). The corresponding percentages for the composite of death or cardiovascular event were 4.9% and 7.1% at 3-year follow-up, with a hazard ratio of 0.71 (CI, 0.59 to 0.86).

LIMITATION:

Long-term data were lacking.

CONCLUSION:

Intensive SBP lowering increased risk for incident CKD events, but this was outweighed by cardiovascular and all-cause mortality benefits.

 

Relationship of Sleep Duration With All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Events: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

Yin J, Jin X, Shan Z, Li S, Huang H, Li P, Peng X, Peng Z, Yu K, Bao W, Yang W, Chen X, Liu L.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Sep 9;6(9). pii: e005947. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.005947. Review.

PMID: 28889101 Free Article

http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/6/9/e005947.long

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Effects of extreme sleep duration on risk of mortality and cardiovascular outcomes remain controversial. We aimed to quantify the dose-response relationships of sleep duration with risk of all-cause mortality, total cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

PubMed and Embase were systematically searched for prospective cohort studies published before December 1, 2016, that examined the associations between sleep duration and at least 1 of the 4 outcomes in generally healthy populations. U-shaped associations were indicated between sleep duration and risk of all outcomes, with the lowest risk observed for ≈7-hour sleep duration per day, which was varied little by sex. For all-cause mortality, when sleep duration was <7 hours per day, the pooled relative risk (RR) was 1.06 (95% CI, 1.04-1.07) per 1-hour reduction; when sleep duration was >7 hours per day, the pooled RR was 1.13 (95% CI, 1.11-1.15) per 1-hour increment. For total cardiovascular disease, the pooled RR was 1.06 (95% CI, 1.03-1.08) per 1-hour reduction and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.08-1.16) per 1-hour increment of sleep duration. For coronary heart disease, the pooled RR was 1.07 (95% CI, 1.03-1.12) per 1-hour reduction and 1.05 (95% CI, 1.00-1.10) per 1-hour increment of sleep duration. For stroke, the pooled RR was 1.05 (95% CI, 1.01-1.09) per 1-hour reduction and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.14-1.21) per 1-hour increment of sleep duration.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings indicate that both short and long sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events.

KEYWORDS:

all‐cause death; cardiovascular disease; coronary heart disease; meta‐analysis; sleep; stroke

 

Serum magnesium concentrations and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality among U.S. adults: Results from the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study.

Zhang X, Xia J, Del Gobbo LC, Hruby A, Dai Q, Song Y.

Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug 30. pii: S0261-5614(17)30304-7. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.08.021. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28890274

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Few studies have examined the associations of serum magnesium (Mg) concentrations with total and cause-specific mortality in a nationally representative sample of US adults. We investigate the dose-response relationships of baseline serum Mg concentrations with risk of mortalities in a large, nationally representative sample of US adults.

METHODS:

We analyzed prospective data of 14,353 participants aged 25-74 years with measures of serum Mg concentrations at baseline (1971-1975) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS). Mortality data was linked through December 31, 2011. We estimated the mortality hazard ratios (HRs), for participants within serum Mg categories of <0.7, 0.7-0.74, 0.75-0.79, 0.8-0.89 (referent), 0.9-0.94, 0.95-0.99, and ≥1.0 mmol/L using weighted multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS:

During a median follow-up of 28.6 years, 9012 deaths occurred, including 3959 CVD deaths, 1923 cancer deaths, and 708 stroke deaths. The multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality across increasing categories of Mg were 1.34 (1.02, 1.77), 0.94 (0.75, 1.18), 1.08 (0.97, 1.19), 1.00 (referent), 1.05 (0.95, 1.16), 0.96 (0.79, 1.15), and 0.98 (0.76, 1.26). Similar trends were observed for cancer (HRs for serum Mg < 0.7: 1.39, 95% CI: 0.83, 2.32) and CVD mortality (HRs for serum Mg < 0.7: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.81, 2.02) but were not statistically significant. An elevated risk for stroke mortality was observed among participants with serum Mg < 0.70 mmol/L (HR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.18, 5.48).

CONCLUSIONS:

Very low serum Mg concentrations were significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in US adults.

KEYWORDS:

All-cause mortality; CVD mortality; Cancer mortality; Mg deficiency; Serum Mg; Stroke mortality

 

Sleep disturbances increase the risk of dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Shi L, Chen SJ, Ma MY, Bao YP, Han Y, Wang YM, Shi J, Vitiello MV, Lu L.

Sleep Med Rev. 2017 Jul 6. pii: S1087-0792(17)30011-4. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2017.06.010. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 28890168

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.smrv.2017.06.010

Abstract

Sleep disturbances and dementia are two common and significant health problems in older adults. Investigations suggest that sleep disturbances might increase the risk of dementia. The aim of the present study was to systematically review and meta-analyze the predictive roles of overall sleep disturbances, their subtypes (e.g., insomnia, sleep disordered breathing [sDB]), and other sleep problems (e.g., excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep-related movement disorder, circadian rhythm sleep disorder, and nonspecific sleep problems) in incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia subtypes. We performed a systematic search of the PubMed, EMBase, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases for longitudinal studies that were published up to October 28, 2016. A total of 12,926 papers were retrieved. Eighteen longitudinal studies that included 246,786 subjects at baseline and 25,847 dementia cases after an average 9.49 y of follow-up were eligible for inclusion. Compared with individuals without sleep disturbances, subjects who reported sleep disturbances had a higher risk of incident all-cause dementia, AD, and vascular dementia. The subgroup analysis showed that insomnia increased the risk of AD but not vascular or all-cause dementia. In contrast, SDB was associated with a higher incidence of all-cause dementia, AD, and vascular dementia. This meta-analysis suggests that sleep disturbances may predict the risk of incident dementia. Moreover, insomnia was associated only with incident AD, and SDB was a risk factor of all-cause dementia, AD, and vascular dementia. However, sleep disturbances were evaluated mainly based on self-reports, and some confounders may mediate the relationship between sleep disturbances and dementia. Therefore, the results should be further validated. In summary, these findings may help identify individuals who are at risk for dementia and optimize early prevention strategies.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer's disease; Dementia; Insomnia; Risk; Sleep disordered breathing; Sleep disturbance; Vascular dementia

 

Weight change in older adults and mortality: the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

Park SY, Wilkens LR, Maskarinec G, Haiman CA, Kolonel LN, Marchand LL.

Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 Aug 14. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2017.188. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28885999

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1038/ijo.2017.188

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the association between weight change in older adults and mortality in a multiethnic population.

METHODS:

We performed a prospective analysis using data on weight change between the baseline (1993-1996) and the 10-year follow-up (2003-2007) surveys in relation to subsequent mortality among 63 040 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and California. The participants were African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, Latino and white, aged 45-75 years at baseline, and did not report heart disease or cancer at either survey.

RESULTS:

During an average of 7.3 years of follow-up after the 10-year survey, 6623 deaths were identified. Compared with individuals whose weight remained stable (±2.5 kg), those who lost weight and those with the highest weight gain (>10 kg) were at increased risk of all-cause mortality, with the risks greater for the weight loss (hazard ratios (HR): 2.86; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.62-3.11 for >10 kg) than the weight-gain group (HR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.11-1.41 for >10 kg), thus resulting in a reverse J-shaped curve. Japanese Americans and Latinos had stronger associations of weight loss >10 kg with mortality than did African Americans, Native Hawaiians and whites. The increase in risk with weight gain >10 kg was greater for older (⩾55 years at baseline) than younger individuals, whereas the increase in mortality associated with weight loss was greater for the normal weight (<25 kg m-2 at baseline) participants and never smokers, compared with overweight/obese persons and current smokers, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings confirm the association between weight change and a higher mortality in a healthy, multiethnic population, with higher risks for weight loss than weight gain. On the basis of these observations, public health recommendation should focus on the prevention of weight loss, as well as weight stability within the non-obese range, for middle-aged and older adults.

 

Nut consumption in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a meta-analysis 18 prospective studies.

Chen GC, Zhang R, Martínez-González MA, Zhang ZL, Bonaccio M, van Dam RM, Qin LQ.

Food Funct. 2017 Sep 6. doi: 10.1039/c7fo00915a. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28875220

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1039/c7fo00915a

Abstract

Several previous meta-analyses show a consistent inverse association between nut consumption and all-cause mortality, but the associations with cause-specific mortality remain uncertain. A recent meta-analysis on nut consumption and multiple health outcomes combined incidence and mortality outcomes across most of the analyses, which may have introduced heterogeneity across studies. We conducted an updated meta-analysis to evaluate the nut-mortality association. We searched PubMed and EMBASE and we contacted authors for additional data. The final analyses included 18 prospective studies. The random-effects summary RRs for high compared with low nut consumption were 0.81 (95% CI: 0.78-0.84) for all-cause mortality (18 studies with 81 034 deaths), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.71-0.79) for CVD mortality (17 studies with 20 381 deaths), 0.73 (95% CI: 0.67-0.80) for CHD mortality (14 studies with 10 438 deaths), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73-0.91) for stroke mortality (13 studies with 4850 deaths) and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80-0.93) for cancer mortality (11 studies 21 353 deaths). These results were broadly consistent within subgroups according to various study and population characteristics and within sensitivity analyses that took into account potential confounders. Peanut (5 studies) and tree nut (3 studies) consumption were similarly associated with mortality risks. Dose-response analyses suggested evidence for nonlinear associations between nut consumption and mortality (P-nonlinearity <0.001 for all outcomes except cancer mortality), with mortality risk levelling off at the consumption of about 3 servings per week (12 g d-1). Our findings suggest that nut consumption is associated with reduced all-cause and cause-specific mortality, with the strongest reduction for CHD mortality. Both tree nuts and peanuts may lower mortality and most of the survival benefits may be achieved at a relative low level of nut consumption.

 

Aspirin increases metabolism through germline signalling to extend the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans.

Huang XB, Mu XH, Wan QL, He XM, Wu GS, Luo HR.

PLoS One. 2017 Sep 14;12(9):e0184027. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184027. eCollection 2017.

PMID: 28910305

Abstract

Aspirin is a prototypic cyclooxygenase inhibitor with a variety of beneficial effects on human health. It prevents age-related diseases and delays the aging process. Previous research has shown that aspirin might act through a dietary restriction-like mechanism to extend lifespan. To explore the mechanism of action of aspirin on aging, we determined the whole-genome expression profile of Caenorhabditis elegans treated with aspirin. Transcriptome analysis revealed the RNA levels of genes involved in metabolism were primarily increased. Reproduction has been reported to be associated with metabolism. We found that aspirin did not extend the lifespan or improve the heat stress resistance of germline mutants of glp-1. Furthermore, Oil Red O staining showed that aspirin treatment decreased lipid deposition and increased expression of lipid hydrolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation-related genes. The effect of germline ablation on lifespan was mainly mediated by DAF-12 and DAF-16. Next, we performed genetic analysis with a series of worm mutants and found that aspirin did not further extend the lifespans of daf-12 and daf-16 single mutants, glp-1;daf-12 and glp-1;daf-16 double mutants, or glp-1;daf-12;daf-16 triple mutants. The results suggest that aspirin increase metabolism and regulate germline signalling to activate downstream DAF-12 and DAF-16 to extend lifespan.

 

Six meals a day may be better than three for those who weigh too much

Laura Donnelly, health editor

14 SEPTEMBER 2017

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/09/14/six-meals-day-may-better-three-weigh-much/

 

Patterns of Sedentary Behavior and Mortality in U.S. Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A National Cohort Study.

Diaz KM, Howard VJ, Hutto B, Colabianchi N, Vena JE, Safford MM, Blair SN, Hooker SP.

Ann Intern Med. 2017 Sep 12. doi: 10.7326/M17-0212. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28892811

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Excessive sedentary time is ubiquitous in Western societies. Previous studies have relied on self-reporting to evaluate the total volume of sedentary time as a prognostic risk factor for mortality and have not examined whether the manner in which sedentary time is accrued (in short or long bouts) carries prognostic relevance.

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the association between objectively measured sedentary behavior (its total volume and accrual in prolonged, uninterrupted bouts) and all-cause mortality.

DESIGN:

Prospective cohort study.

SETTING:

Contiguous United States.

PARTICIPANTS:

7985 black and white adults aged 45 years or older.

MEASUREMENTS:

Sedentary time was measured using a hip-mounted accelerometer. Prolonged, uninterrupted sedentariness was expressed as mean sedentary bout length. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated comparing quartiles 2 through 4 to quartile 1 for each exposure (quartile cut points: 689.7, 746.5, and 799.4 min/d for total sedentary time; 7.7, 9.6, and 12.4 min/bout for sedentary bout duration) in models that included moderate to vigorous physical activity.

RESULTS:

Over a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 340 participants died. In multivariable-adjusted models, greater total sedentary time (HR, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.74 to 2.02]; HR, 1.61 [CI, 0.99 to 2.63]; and HR, 2.63 [CI, 1.60 to 4.30]; P for trend < 0.001) and longer sedentary bout duration (HR, 1.03 [CI, 0.67 to 1.60]; HR, 1.22 [CI, 0.80 to 1.85]; and HR, 1.96 [CI, 1.31 to 2.93]; P for trend < 0.001) were both associated with a higher risk for all-cause mortality. Evaluation of their joint association showed that participants classified as high for both sedentary characteristics (high sedentary time [≥12.5 h/d] and high bout duration [≥10 min/bout]) had the greatest risk for death.

LIMITATION:

Participants may not be representative of the general U.S. population.

CONCLUSION:

Both the total volume of sedentary time and its accrual in prolonged, uninterrupted bouts are associated with all-cause mortality, suggestive that physical activity guidelines should target reducing and interrupting sedentary time to reduce risk for death.

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Fruit, vegetable, and legume intake, and cardiovascular disease and deaths in 18 countries (PURE): a prospective cohort study.

Miller V, Mente A, Dehghan M, Rangarajan S, Zhang X, Swaminathan S, Dagenais G, Gupta R, Mohan V, Lear S, Bangdiwala SI, Schutte AE, Wentzel-Viljoen E, Avezum A, Altuntas Y, Yusoff K, Ismail N, Peer N, Chifamba J, Diaz R, Rahman O, Mohammadifard N, Lana F, Zatonska K, Wielgosz A, Yusufali A, Iqbal R, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Khatib R, Rosengren A, Kutty VR, Li W, Liu J, Liu X, Yin L, Teo K, Anand S, Yusuf S; Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study investigators.

Lancet. 2017 Aug 28. pii: S0140-6736(17)32253-5. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32253-5. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28864331

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The association between intake of fruits, vegetables, and legumes with cardiovascular disease and deaths has been investigated extensively in Europe, the USA, Japan, and China, but little or no data are available from the Middle East, South America, Africa, or south Asia.

METHODS:

We did a prospective cohort study (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology [PURE] in 135 335 individuals aged 35 to 70 years without cardiovascular disease from 613 communities in 18 low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries in seven geographical regions: North America and Europe, South America, the Middle East, south Asia, China, southeast Asia, and Africa. We documented their diet using country-specific food frequency questionnaires at baseline. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect information about demographic factors, socioeconomic status (education, income, and employment), lifestyle (smoking, physical activity, and alcohol intake), health history and medication use, and family history of cardiovascular disease. The follow-up period varied based on the date when recruitment began at each site or country. The main clinical outcomes were major cardiovascular disease (defined as death from cardiovascular causes and non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure), fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal and non-fatal strokes, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality. Cox frailty models with random effects were used to assess associations between fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption with risk of cardiovascular disease events and mortality.

FINDINGS:

Participants were enrolled into the study between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013. For the current analysis, we included all unrefuted outcome events in the PURE study database through March 31, 2017. Overall, combined mean fruit, vegetable and legume intake was 3·91 (SD 2·77) servings per day. During a median 7·4 years (5·5-9·3) of follow-up, 4784 major cardiovascular disease events, 1649 cardiovascular deaths, and 5796 total deaths were documented. Higher total fruit, vegetable, and legume intake was inversely associated with major cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality in the models adjusted for age, sex, and centre (random effect). The estimates were substantially attenuated in the multivariable adjusted models for major cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio {HR} 0·90, 95% CI 0·74-1·10, ptrend=0·1301), myocardial infarction (0·99, 0·74-1·31; ptrend=0·2033), stroke (0·92, 0·67-1·25; ptrend=0·7092), cardiovascular mortality (0·73, 0·53-1·02; ptrend=0·0568), non-cardiovascular mortality (0·84, 0·68-1·04; ptrend =0·0038), and total mortality (0·81, 0·68-0·96; ptrend<0·0001). The HR for total mortality was lowest for three to four servings per day (0·78, 95% CI 0·69-0·88) compared with the reference group, with no further apparent decrease in HR with higher consumption. When examined separately, fruit intake was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular, and total mortality, while legume intake was inversely associated with non-cardiovascular death and total mortality (in fully adjusted models). For vegetables, raw vegetable intake was strongly associated with a lower risk of total mortality, whereas cooked vegetable intake showed a modest benefit against mortality.

INTERPRETATION:

Higher fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption was associated with a lower risk of non-cardiovascular, and total mortality. Benefits appear to be maximum for both non-cardiovascular mortality and total mortality at three to four servings per day (equivalent to 375-500 g/day).

 

Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study.

Dehghan M, Mente A, Zhang X, Swaminathan S, Li W, Mohan V, Iqbal R, Kumar R, Wentzel-Viljoen E, Rosengren A, Amma LI, Avezum A, Chifamba J, Diaz R, Khatib R, Lear S, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Liu X, Gupta R, Mohammadifard N, Gao N, Oguz A, Ramli AS, Seron P, Sun Y, Szuba A, Tsolekile L, Wielgosz A, Yusuf R, Hussein Yusufali A, Teo KK, Rangarajan S, Dagenais G, Bangdiwala SI, Islam S, Anand SS, Yusuf S; Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study investigators.

Lancet. 2017 Aug 28. pii: S0140-6736(17)32252-3. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32252-3. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28864332

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32252-3

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The relationship between macronutrients and cardiovascular disease and mortality is controversial. Most available data are from European and North American populations where nutrition excess is more likely, so their applicability to other populations is unclear.

METHODS:

The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large, epidemiological cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years (enrolled between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013) in 18 countries with a median follow-up of 7·4 years (IQR 5·3-9·3). Dietary intake of 135 335 individuals was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. The primary outcomes were total mortality and major cardiovascular events (fatal cardiovascular disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure). Secondary outcomes were all myocardial infarctions, stroke, cardiovascular disease mortality, and non-cardiovascular disease mortality. Participants were categorised into quintiles of nutrient intake (carbohydrate, fats, and protein) based on percentage of energy provided by nutrients. We assessed the associations between consumption of carbohydrate, total fat, and each type of fat with cardiovascular disease and total mortality. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using a multivariable Cox frailty model with random intercepts to account for centre clustering.

FINDINGS:

During follow-up, we documented 5796 deaths and 4784 major cardiovascular disease events. Higher carbohydrate intake was associated with an increased risk of total mortality (highest [quintile 5] vs lowest quintile [quintile 1] category, HR 1·28 [95% CI 1·12-1·46], ptrend=0·0001) but not with the risk of cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular disease mortality. Intake of total fat and each type of fat was associated with lower risk of total mortality (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, total fat: HR 0·77 [95% CI 0·67-0·87], ptrend<0·0001; saturated fat, HR 0·86 [0·76-0·99], ptrend=0·0088; monounsaturated fat: HR 0·81 [0·71-0·92], ptrend<0·0001; and polyunsaturated fat: HR 0·80 [0·71-0·89], ptrend<0·0001). Higher saturated fat intake was associated with lower risk of stroke (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, HR 0·79 [95% CI 0·64-0·98], ptrend=0·0498). Total fat and saturated and unsaturated fats were not significantly associated with risk of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular disease mortality.

INTERPRETATION:

High carbohydrate intake was associated with higher risk of total mortality, whereas total fat and individual types of fat were related to lower total mortality. Total fat and types of fat were not associated with cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular disease mortality, whereas saturated fat had an inverse association with stroke. Global dietary guidelines should be reconsidered in light of these findings.

 

Alcohol and incident atrial fibrillation - A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Gallagher C, Hendriks JML, Elliott AD, Wong CX, Rangnekar G, Middeldorp ME, Mahajan R, Lau DH, Sanders P.

Int J Cardiol. 2017 Nov 1;246:46-52. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.05.133.

PMID: 28867013

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Whilst high levels of alcohol consumption are known to be associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), it is unclear if any level of alcohol consumption can be recommended to prevent the onset of the condition. The aim of this review is to characterise the association between chronic alcohol intake and incident AF.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Electronic literature searches were undertaken using PubMed and Embase databases up to 1 February 2016 to identify studies examining the impact of alcohol on the risk of incident AF. Prospective studies reporting on at least three levels of alcohol intake and published in English were eligible for inclusion. Studies of a retrospective or case control design were excluded. The primary study outcome was development of incident AF. Consistent with previous studies, high levels of alcohol intake were associated with an increased incident AF risk (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.20-1.49, p<0.001). Moderate levels of alcohol intake were associated with a heightened AF risk in males (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04-1.54, p=0.02) but not females (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.86-1.25, p=0.74). Low alcohol intake, of up to 1 standard drink (SD) per day, was not associated with AF development (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.85-1.06, p=0.37).

CONCLUSIONS:

Low levels of alcohol intake are not associated with the development of AF. Gender differences exist in the association between moderate alcohol intake and AF with males demonstrating greater increases in risk, whilst high alcohol intake is associated with a heightened AF risk across both genders.

KEYWORDS:

Alcohol; Gender differences; Incident atrial fibrillation; Meta-analysis; Patient outcomes; Systematic review

 

Impact of Dietary Protein and Gender on Food Reinforcement.

Casperson SL, Roemmich JN.

Nutrients. 2017 Aug 30;9(9). pii: E957. doi: 10.3390/nu9090957.

PMID: 28867766 Free Article

Abstract

Recent evidence suggests that increasing dietary protein may alter reward-driven eating behavior. However, the link between protein and food reinforcement is not known. We sought to determine the extent to which increasing dietary protein alters food reinforcement in healthy adults. In a randomized crossover study, 11 women (age = 25 ± 7 years; Body Mass Index (BMI) = 21 ± 2 kg/m²) and 10 men (age = 22 ± 2 years; BMI = 24 ± 2 kg/m²) consumed normal (15%) and high (30%) protein meals. Food reinforcement was assessed using a computer-based choice task (operant responding with concurrent log₂(x) reinforcement schedules) 4 h after lunch. We found that food reinforcement was greater in men than women (p < 0.05) and greater for sweet than savory snack foods (p < 0.02). Gender interacted with dietary protein level (p = 0.03) and snack food type (p < 0.0001). Specifically, we found that increasing dietary protein decreased the reinforcing value of savory foods in women. The reinforcing value for sweet foods did not interact with dietary protein or gender. These results demonstrate the differential effects of dietary protein on the reinforcing value for energy-dense, highly palatable snack foods.

KEYWORDS:

eating behavior; energy-dense foods; food reinforcement; motivated behavior; protein; snack foods

 

[The below paper is not pdf-availed.]

Atherogenic index of plasma is positively associated with the risk of all-cause death in elderly women : A 10-year follow-up.

Bendzala M, Sabaka P, Caprnda M, Komornikova A, Bisahova M, Baneszova R, Petrovic D, Prosecky R, Rodrigo L, Kruzliak P, Dukat A.

Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2017 Sep 14. doi: 10.1007/s00508-017-1264-1. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28913629

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The blood concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) do not predict survival in patients older than 60 years. The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) is a logarithm of the triacylglycerol to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and a surrogate for the concentration of small dense LDL. It might be a better reflection of the risk of all-cause death in elderly patients.

METHODS:

We conducted a prospective observational study of patients with arterial hypertension older than 60 years. The concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triacylglycerol were measured at the time of the recruitment and the patients were observed for 10 years. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the effects of lipoproteins and AIP on survival.

RESULTS:

A total of 500 patients were recruited and 473 of them (226 men, 247 women) either died or successfully completed the 10-year follow-up and were included in the analysis. The AIP was positively associated, while HDL concentration was negatively associated with the risk of all-cause death adjusted for age, smoking habits, statin use, history of diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) in elderly women but not in men. The LDL, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol and non-HDL concentrations were not associated with the risk of death in both sexes.

CONCLUSIONS:

The AIP is positively associated with the risk of all-cause death in elderly women with arterial hypertension independent of age, smoking habits, statin therapy and comorbidities.

KEYWORDS:

Atherogenic index; Elderly population; HDL; LDL; Risk of mortality

Edited by AlPater

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Dietary Protein and Amino Acid Profiles in Relation to Risk of Dysglycemia: Findings from a Prospective Population-Based Study.

Mirmiran P, Bahadoran Z, Esfandyari S, Azizi F.

Nutrients. 2017 Sep 4;9(9). pii: E971. doi: 10.3390/nu9090971.

PMID: 28869547 Free Article

Abstract

Considering the limited knowledge on the effects of dietary amino acid intake on dysglycemia, we assessed the possible association of dietary protein and amino acid patterns with the risk of pre-diabetes in a prospective population-based study. Participants without diabetes and pre-diabetes (n = 1878) were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed for a mean of 5.8 years. Their dietary protein and amino acid intakes were assessed at baseline (2006-2008); demographic, lifestyle, and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and in follow-up examinations. Pre-diabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the risk of pre-diabetes across tertiles of dietary protein and amino acid pattern scores. The mean age of the participants (44.9% men) was 38.3 ± 12.7 years at baseline. Three major amino acid patterns were characterized: (1) higher loads of lysine, methionine, valine, aspartic acids, tyrosine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, alanine, histidine, and serine; (2) higher loads of glycine, cysteine, arginine, and tryptophan; and (3) higher loads of proline and glutamic acid. Dietary total protein intake Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.13, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.92-1.38 and HR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.81-1.23, in the second and third tertile, respectively) was not related to the development of pre-diabetes. The highest score of second dietary amino acid pattern tended to be associated with a decreased risk of pre-diabetes (HR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.65-1.01), whereas the third pattern was related to an increased risk in the fully adjusted model (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.02-1.52; p for trend = 0.05). These novel data suggest that the amino acid composition of an individual's diet may modify their risk of pre-diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

amino acids; dietary protein; dysglycemia; pre-diabetes

 

Branched-chain amino acid supplementation and exercise-induced muscle damage in exercise recovery: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

Rahimi MH, Shab-Bidar S, Mollahosseini M, Djafarian K.

Nutrition. 2017 Oct;42:30-36. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2017.05.005. Epub 2017 May 18. Review.

PMID: 28870476

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Accumulating evidence suggests positive effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) on moderate muscle damage. However, findings vary substantially across studies. The aim of this review was to examine the effect of BCAAs on recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage.

METHODS:

Controlled trials were identified through a computerized literature search and tracking of citations performed up to November 2015. To pool data, either a fixed-effects or a random-effects model was used; for assessing heterogeneity, Cochran's Q and I2 tests were used.

RESULTS:

Eight trials met the inclusion criteria. Pooled data from the eight studies showed that BCAAs significantly reduced creatine kinase at two follow-up times (<24 and 24 h) in comparison with placebo recovery (<24 h: mean difference, -71.55 U/L, 95% confidence interval, -93.49 to -49.60, P < 0.000, n = 5 trials; 24 h: mean difference, -145.04 U/L, 95% confidence interval, -253.66 to -36.43, P = 0.009, n = 8 trials). In contrast, effects were not significant in any of the follow-up times for muscle soreness or lactate dehydrogenase.

CONCLUSION:

The current evidence-based information indicates that use of BCAAs is better than passive recovery or rest after various forms of exhaustive and damaging exercise. The advantages relate to a reduction in muscle soreness and ameliorated muscle function because of an attenuation of muscle strength and muscle power loss after exercise.

KEYWORDS:

Branch-chain amino acids; Exercise; Meta-analysis; Muscle damage; Muscle soreness

 

Dietary antioxidants and risk of Parkinson's disease in two population-based cohorts.

Yang F, Wolk A, Håkansson N, Pedersen NL, Wirdefeldt K.

Mov Disord. 2017 Sep 7. doi: 10.1002/mds.27120. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28881039

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A neuroprotective effect of dietary antioxidants on Parkinson's disease (PD) risk has been suggested, but epidemiological evidence is limited.

OBJECTIVES:

To examine the associations between intake of dietary antioxidant vitamins and total antioxidant capacity and risk of PD.

METHODS:

We prospectively assessed the relationships of dietary antioxidant vitamins C and E, ß-carotene, and total antioxidant capacity with PD risk in two population-based cohorts (38,937 women and 45,837 men).

RESULTS:

During a mean 14.9-year follow-up period, 1,329 PD cases were identified. Dietary intake of ß-carotene was associated with a lower risk of PD (hazard ratio: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.78-0.95; Ptrend  < 0.01 for women and hazard ratio: 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.84-0.99; Ptrend  = 0.05 for men). An inverse association between dietary vitamin E and PD risk was found in women (hazard ratio: 0.87; 95% confidence interval: 0.79-0.96; Ptrend  = 0.02). Dietary intake of vitamin C was inversely associated with PD risk in women at borderline significance (hazard ratio: 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.83-1.00; Ptrend  = 0.04). There was no association between dietary total antioxidant capacity and PD risk in either women (hazard ratio: 0.93; 95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.02; Ptrend  = 0.35) or men (hazard ratio: 1.00; 95% confidence interval: 0.93-1.07; Ptrend  = 0.97).

CONCLUSION:

Intake of dietary vitamin E and ß-carotene was associated with a lower risk of PD.

KEYWORDS:

Parkinson's disease; antioxidants; diet; risk factors

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Intake of antioxidant vitamins and risk of Parkinson's disease.

Hughes KC, Gao X, Kim IY, Rimm EB, Wang M, Weisskopf MG, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A.

Mov Disord. 2016 Dec;31(12):1909-1914. doi: 10.1002/mds.26819. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

PMID: 27787934

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Oxidative stress is proposed to be one of the potential mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. However, previous epidemiologic studies investigating associations between antioxidant vitamins, such as vitamins E and C and carotenoids, and PD risk have produced inconsistent results.

OBJECTIVE:

The objective of this work was to prospectively examine associations between intakes of antioxidant vitamins, including vitamins E and C and carotenoids, and PD risk.

METHODS:

Cases were identified in two large cohorts: the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Cohort members completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires every 4 years.

RESULTS:

A total of 1036 PD cases were identified. Dietary intakes of vitamin E and carotenoids were not associated with PD risk; the multivariable-adjusted relative risk comparing extreme intake quintiles were 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.75-1.14) and 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.69-1.37), respectively. Dietary vitamin C intake was significantly associated with reduced PD risk (relative risk: 0.81; 95% confidence interval: 0.65-1.01; ptrend , 0.01); however, this result was not significant in a 4-year lag analysis. For vitamins E and C, intake from foods and supplements combined were also unrelated to PD risk.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results do not support the hypothesis that intake of antioxidant vitamins reduces the risk of PD.

KEYWORDS:

Parkinson's disease; carotenoids; oxidative stress; vitamin C; vitamin E

 

Dietary Polyphenols, Mediterranean Diet, Prediabetes, and Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review of the Evidence.

Guasch-Ferré M, Merino J, Sun Q, Fitó M, Salas-Salvadó J.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:6723931. doi: 10.1155/2017/6723931. Epub 2017 Aug 13. Review.

PMID: 28883903 Free PMC Article

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5572601/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5572601/pdf/OMCL2017-6723931.pdf

Abstract

Dietary polyphenols come mainly from plant-based foods including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, coffee, tea, and nuts. Polyphenols may influence glycemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D) through different mechanisms, such as promoting the uptake of glucose in tissues, and therefore improving insulin sensitivity. This review aims to summarize the evidence from clinical trials and observational prospective studies linking dietary polyphenols to prediabetes and T2D, with a focus on polyphenol-rich foods characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. We aimed to describe the metabolic biomarkers related to polyphenol intake and genotype-polyphenol interactions modulating the effects on T2D. Intakes of polyphenols, especially flavan-3-ols, and their food sources have demonstrated beneficial effects on insulin resistance and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Several prospective studies have shown inverse associations between polyphenol intake and T2D. The Mediterranean diet and its key components, olive oil, nuts, and red wine, have been inversely associated with insulin resistance and T2D. To some extent, these associations may be attributed to the high amount of polyphenols and bioactive compounds in typical foods conforming this traditional dietary pattern. Few studies have suggested that genetic predisposition can modulate the relationship between polyphenols and T2D risk. In conclusion, the intake of polyphenols may be beneficial for both insulin resistance and T2D risk.

 

A proteomic atlas of insulin signalling reveals tissue-specific mechanisms of longevity assurance.

Tain LS, Sehlke R, Jain C, Chokkalingam M, Nagaraj N, Essers P, Rassner M, Grönke S, Froelich J, Dieterich C, Mann M, Alic N, Beyer A, Partridge L.

Mol Syst Biol. 2017 Sep 15;13(9):939. doi: 10.15252/msb.20177663.

PMID: 28916541

Abstract

Lowered activity of the insulin/IGF signalling (IIS) network can ameliorate the effects of ageing in laboratory animals and, possibly, humans. Although transcriptome remodelling in long-lived IIS mutants has been extensively documented, the causal mechanisms contributing to extended lifespan, particularly in specific tissues, remain unclear. We have characterized the proteomes of four key insulin-sensitive tissues in a long-lived Drosophila IIS mutant and control, and detected 44% of the predicted proteome (6,085 proteins). Expression of ribosome-associated proteins in the fat body was reduced in the mutant, with a corresponding, tissue-specific reduction in translation. Expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins in fat body was increased, leading to increased respiration, which was necessary for IIS-mediated lifespan extension, and alone sufficient to mediate it. Proteasomal subunits showed altered expression in IIS mutant gut, and gut-specific over-expression of the RPN6 proteasomal subunit, was sufficient to increase proteasomal activity and extend lifespan, whilst inhibition of proteasome activity abolished IIS-mediated longevity. Our study thus uncovered strikingly tissue-specific responses of cellular processes to lowered IIS acting in concert to ameliorate ageing.

KEYWORDS:

ageing; insulin/IGF; mitochondria; proteasome; proteome

 

The obesity-associated risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality is not lower in Inuit compared to Europeans: A cohort study of Greenlandic Inuit, Nunavik Inuit and Danes.

Rønn PF, Lucas M, Laouan Sidi EA, Tvermosegaard M, Andersen GS, Lauritzen T, Toft U, Carstensen B, Christensen DL, Jørgensen ME.

Atherosclerosis. 2017 Aug 18;265:207-214. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.08.011. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28917159

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.08.011

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Inuit populations have lower levels of cardiometabolic risk factors for the same level of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) compared to Europeans in cross-sectional studies. We aimed to compare the longitudinal associations of anthropometric measures with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in Inuit and Europeans.

METHODS:

Using pooled data from three population-based studies in Canada, Greenland and Denmark, we conducted a cohort study of 10,033 adult participants (765 Nunavik Inuit, 2960 Greenlandic Inuit and 6308 Europeans). Anthropometric measures collected at baseline included: BMI, WC, waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR), waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) and a body shape index (ABSI). Information on CVD and death was retrieved from national registers or medical files. Poisson regression analyses were used to calculate incidence rates for CVD and all-cause mortality.

RESULTS:

During a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there were 642 CVD events and 594 deaths. Slightly higher absolute incidence rates of CVD for a given anthropometric measure were found in Nunavik Inuit compared with Greenlandic Inuit and the Europeans; however, no cohort interactions were observed. For all-cause mortality, all anthropometric measures were positively associated in the Europeans, but only ABSI in the two Inuit populations. In contrast, BMI and WC were inversely associated with mortality in the two Inuit populations.

CONCLUSIONS:

Inuit and Europeans have different absolute incidences of CVD and all-cause mortality, but the trends in the associations with the anthropometric measures only differ for all-cause mortality. Previous findings of a lower obesity-associated cardiometabolic risk among Inuit were not confirmed.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular disease; Epidemiology; Ethnicity; Inuit; Mortality; Obesity

 

Consumption of whole grains, fruit and vegetables is not associated with indices of renal function in the population-based longitudinal Doetinchem study.

Herber-Gast GM, Boersma M, Verschuren WMM, Stehouwer CDA, Gansevoort RT, Bakker SJL, Spijkerman AMW.

Br J Nutr. 2017 Sep;118(5):375-382. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517001726.

PMID: 28901886

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/consumption-of-whole-grains-fruit-and-vegetables-is-not-associated-with-indices-of-renal-function-in-the-populationbased-longitudinal-doetinchem-study/915E5B0D11168C8A250C0FF7EE3FC2BB/core-reader

https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/915E5B0D11168C8A250C0FF7EE3FC2BB/S0007114517001726a.pdf/consumption_of_whole_grains_fruit_and_vegetables_is_not_associated_with_indices_of_renal_function_in_the_populationbased_longitudinal_doetinchem_study.pdf

Abstract

Emerging evidence suggests that diet and renal function are related. Little is known, however, about the association of consumption of whole grains, fruit and vegetables with urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) and changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We investigated this in a population-based cohort aged 26-65 years. Data were from 3787 participants from the Doetinchem cohort study, who were examined ≥3 times, 5 years apart. Consumption of food groups was assessed at each round with a validated FFQ. GFR was estimated at each round from routinely measured cystatin C and creatinine using the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) equation. ACR was measured at the last round. Generalised estimated equation models were performed to examine associations with changes in eGFR. Linear regression was used to examine associations with ACR. Adjustments were made for covariates related to lifestyle, biological factors and diet. Mean baseline eGFR was 104·5 (sd 13·7) and mean annual decline was -0·95 (sd 0·67) ml/min per 1·73 m2 over a 15-year follow-up. A trend was observed towards slightly less annual decline in eGFR among those with higher consumption of whole grains (P=0·06). This association, however, was attenuated and no longer significant in multivariate models (P=0·29). Consumption of fruit and vegetables was not associated with changes in eGFR and urinary ACR. In conclusion, consumption of whole grains, fruit and vegetables is not associated with changes in eGFR and mean ACR. As this was the first longitudinal study into this association in the general population, and as results are only partially in line with related studies, further research is recommended.

KEYWORDS:

ACR albumin:creatinine ratio; CKD chronic kidney disease; MESA Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; NOMAS Northern Manhattan Study; eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate; Epidemiology; Food groups; Longitudinal studies; Population-based cohorts; Renal function

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