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The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010-19: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.
GBD 2019 Cancer Risk Factors Collaborators.
Lancet. 2022 Aug 20;400(10352):563-591. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(22)01438-6.
PMID: 35988567 Free PMC article.
Background: Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally.
Methods: The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk-outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented.
Findings: Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4·45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4·01-4·94) deaths and 105 million (95·0-116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44·4% (41·3-48·4) of all cancer deaths and 42·0% (39·1-45·6) of all DALYs. There were 2·88 million (2·60-3·18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50·6% [47·8-54·1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1·58 million (1·36-1·84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36·3% [32·5-41·3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20·4% (12·6-28·4) and DALYs by 16·8% (8·8-25·0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34·7% [27·9-42·8] and 33·3% [25·8-42·0]).
Interpretation: The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden.

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Here’s What Taking a Cold Shower Does to Your Body, According to Experts
You already know the purported benefits of ice baths.
    Ashley Mateo

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Leprosy: Ancient disease able to regenerate organs




Artificial sweeteners and cancer risk: Results from the NutriNet-Santé population-based cohort study.
Debras C, Chazelas E, Srour B, Druesne-Pecollo N, Esseddik Y, Szabo de Edelenyi F, Agaësse C, De Sa A, Lutchia R, Gigandet S, Huybrechts I, Julia C, Kesse-Guyot E, Allès B, Andreeva VA, Galan P, Hercberg S, Deschasaux-Tanguy M, Touvier M.
PLoS Med. 2022 Mar 24;19(3):e1003950. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003950. eCollection 2022 Mar.
PMID: 35324894 Free PMC article.
Background: The food industry uses artificial sweeteners in a wide range of foods and beverages as alternatives to added sugars, for which deleterious effects on several chronic diseases are now well established. The safety of these food additives is debated, with conflicting findings regarding their role in the aetiology of various diseases. In particular, their carcinogenicity has been suggested by several experimental studies, but robust epidemiological evidence is lacking. Thus, our objective was to investigate the associations between artificial sweetener intakes (total from all dietary sources, and most frequently consumed ones: aspartame [E951], acesulfame-K [E950], and sucralose [E955]) and cancer risk (overall and by site).
Methods and findings: Overall, 102,865 adults from the French population-based cohort NutriNet-Santé (2009-2021) were included (median follow-up time = 7.8 years). Dietary intakes and consumption of sweeteners were obtained by repeated 24-hour dietary records including brand names of industrial products. Associations between sweeteners and cancer incidence were assessed by Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age, sex, education, physical activity, smoking, body mass index, height, weight gain during follow-up, diabetes, family history of cancer, number of 24-hour dietary records, and baseline intakes of energy, alcohol, sodium, saturated fatty acids, fibre, sugar, fruit and vegetables, whole-grain foods, and dairy products. Compared to non-consumers, higher consumers of total artificial sweeteners (i.e., above the median exposure in consumers) had higher risk of overall cancer (n = 3,358 cases, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.13 [95% CI 1.03 to 1.25], P-trend = 0.002). In particular, aspartame (HR = 1.15 [95% CI 1.03 to 1.28], P = 0.002) and acesulfame-K (HR = 1.13 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.26], P = 0.007) were associated with increased cancer risk. Higher risks were also observed for breast cancer (n = 979 cases, HR = 1.22 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.48], P = 0.036, for aspartame) and obesity-related cancers (n = 2,023 cases, HR = 1.13 [95% CI 1.00 to 1.28], P = 0.036, for total artificial sweeteners, and HR = 1.15 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.32], P = 0.026, for aspartame). Limitations of this study include potential selection bias, residual confounding, and reverse causality, though sensitivity analyses were performed to address these concerns.
Conclusions: In this large cohort study, artificial sweeteners (especially aspartame and acesulfame-K), which are used in many food and beverage brands worldwide, were associated with increased cancer risk. These findings provide important and novel insights for the ongoing re-evaluation of food additive sweeteners by the European Food Safety Authority and other health agencies globally.

Artificial sweeteners and risk of cardiovascular diseases: results from the prospective NutriNet-Santé cohort
BMJ 2022; 378 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj-2022-071204 (Published 07 September 2022) Cite this as: BMJ 2022;378:e071204\
Charlotte Debras, doctoral student12,  Eloi Chazelas, doctoral student12,  Laury Sellem, post-doctoral researcher in epidemiology12,  Raphaël Porcher, professor of biostatistics34,  Nathalie Druesne-Pecollo, doctor and operational coordinator12,  Younes Esseddik, senior IT manager1,  Fabien Szabo de Edelenyi, data manager1,  Cédric Agaësse, dietitian (manager)1,  Alexandre De Sa, dietitian1,  Rebecca Lutchia, dietitian1,  Léopold K Fezeu, doctor and senior researcher in nutritional epidemiology12,  Chantal Julia, doctor and professor in nutrition15,  Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, doctor and senior researcher in nutritional epidemiology12,  Benjamin Allès, researcher in nutritional epidemiology1,  Pilar Galan, doctor and senior researcher in nutritional epidemiology12,  Serge Hercberg, professor of nutrition and hospital practitioner in public health125,  Mélanie Deschasaux-Tanguy, doctor and researcher in nutritional epidemiology12,  Inge Huybrechts, doctor, senior researcher in nutritional epidemiology26,  Bernard Srour, doctor and post-doctoral researcher in epidemiology12,  Mathilde Touvier, doctor and senior researcher in nutritional epidemiology12
Accepted 1 July 2022
Objectives To study the associations between artificial sweeteners from all dietary sources (beverages, but also table top sweeteners, dairy products, etc), overall and by molecule (aspartame, acesulfame potassium, and sucralose), and risk of cardiovascular diseases (overall, coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease).
Design Population based prospective cohort study (2009-21).
Setting France, primary prevention research.
Participants 103 388 participants of the web based NutriNet-Santé cohort (mean age 42.2±14.4, 79.8% female, 904 206 person years). Dietary intakes and consumption of artificial sweeteners were assessed by repeated 24 h dietary records, including brand names of industrial products.
Main outcomes measures Associations between sweeteners (coded as a continuous variable, log10 transformed) and cardiovascular disease risk, assessed by multivariable adjusted Cox hazard models.
Results Total artificial sweetener intake was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (1502 events, hazard ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.18, P=0.03); absolute incidence rate in higher consumers (above the sex specific median) and non-consumers was 346 and 314 per 100 000 person years, respectively. Artificial sweeteners were more particularly associated with cerebrovascular disease risk (777 events, 1.18, 1.06 to 1.31, P=0.002; incidence rates 195 and 150 per 100 000 person years in higher and non-consumers, respectively). Aspartame intake was associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular events (1.17, 1.03 to 1.33, P=0.02; incidence rates 186 and 151 per 100 000 person years in higher and non-consumers, respectively), and acesulfame potassium and sucralose were associated with increased coronary heart disease risk (730 events; acesulfame potassium: 1.40, 1.06 to 1.84, P=0.02; incidence rates 167 and 164; sucralose: 1.31, 1.00 to 1.71, P=0.05; incidence rates 271 and 161).
Conclusions The findings from this large scale prospective cohort study suggest a potential direct association between higher artificial sweetener consumption (especially aspartame, acesulfame potassium, and sucralose) and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Artificial sweeteners are present in thousands of food and beverage brands worldwide, however they remain a controversial topic and are currently being re-evaluated by the European Food Safety Authority, the World Health Organization, and other health agencies.

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Inside the billion-dollar meeting for the mega-rich who want to live forever
Hope, hype, and self-experimentation collided at an exclusive conference for ultra-rich investors who want to extend their lives past 100. I went along for the ride.
By Jessica Hamzelou
November 16, 2022

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Nir Barzilai, director of the Institute for Aging Research at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City, was one of the scientists in attendance. He finds it concerning. In the past, he says, he took the line that the sale of most supplements was “good for the economy” and not much else—essentially a harmless waste of money. But today, plenty of companies are leaning on science to develop supplements designed to target biological functions that seem to be linked to aging.

We don’t know exactly what these supplements are doing. None have been through rigorous clinical trials. “You don’t know how they are interacting with each other … I’m worried that we don’t know what they are doing.” says Barzilai.

I haven't gotten around to reading Barzilai's book,  by McCoy said it's pretty good.



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8 hours ago, Sibiriak said:

I haven't gotten around to reading Barzilai's book,  by McCoy said it's pretty good.

Pretty good to understand how pharmaceutical science is trying to develop drugs based on natural metabolic signals which slow down ageing. Not about diet or lifestyle strategies, at least very little as I remember it.

At the end the book is discouraging though. Barzilai describes many potential molecules, which the FDA will maybe never approve. The only trial in progress,with metformin, is proceeding with an extremely slow pace, years of talk and maybe it's going to start before the end of this year.






After closing the final $40m of its required $75m budget with a donation from a private source, the first drug trial directly targeting aging is set to begin at the end of this year, lead researcher Dr Nir Barzilai has revealed in an exclusive interview with Longevity.Technology. Back in 2015, when his revolutionary anti-aging trial TAME finally received FDA approval, it would have been forgivable to think that Dr Barzilai had, at last, got past the hard part. But TAME went into financial limbo, with many wondering if it would ever be able to escape.

“We wasted valuable time negotiating,” said Dr Barzilai, director of the Institute for Aging Research at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine,“but we’re finally on track.” His trial TAME (Targeting Aging with Metformin) had been stalled for four years while he and his colleagues engaged in funding negotiations with the US NIH (National Institute of Health).
“It was down to their conservative approach over there. They really didn’t understand what we were trying to achieve,” he said.





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The Bomb Didn’t Beat Japan … Stalin Did
Have decades of nuclear policy been based on a lie?
Foreign Policy
Ward Wilson

A tortoise named Jonathan just celebrated his 190th birthday — but he could be even older
Radio -As It Happens

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How a Humble Mushroom Could Save Forests and Fight Climate Change
Inoculating trees with an edible fungi can produce more protein per hectare than pasture-raised beef, while reforesting, storing carbon and restoring biodiversity.
The Conversation
Paul W. Thomas


Prospective Associations of Daily Step Counts and Intensity With Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease Incidence and Mortality and All-Cause Mortality.
Del Pozo Cruz B, Ahmadi MN, Lee IM, Stamatakis E.
JAMA Intern Med. 2022 Nov 1;182(11):1139-1148. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.4000.
PMID: 36094529 Free PMC article.
Importance: Recommendations for the number of steps per day may be easier to enact for some people than the current time- and intensity-based physical activity guidelines, but the evidence to support steps-based goals is limited.
Objective: To describe the associations of step count and intensity with all-cause mortality and cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality.
Design, setting, and participants: This population-based prospective cohort study used data from the UK Biobank for 2013 to 2015 (median follow-up, 7 years) and included adults 40 to 79 years old in England, Scotland, and Wales. Participants were invited by email to partake in an accelerometer study. Registry-based morbidity and mortality were ascertained through October 2021. Data analyses were performed during March 2022.
Exposures: Baseline wrist accelerometer-measured daily step count and established cadence-based step intensity measures (steps/min): incidental steps, (<40 steps/min), purposeful steps (≥40 steps/min); and peak-30 cadence (average steps/min for the 30 highest, but not necessarily consecutive, min/d).
Main outcomes and measures: All-cause mortality and primary and secondary CVD or cancer mortality and incidence diagnosis. For cancer, analyses were restricted to a composite cancer outcome of 13 sites that have a known association with reduced physical activity. Cox restricted cubic spline regression models were used to assess the dose-response associations. The linear mean rate of change (MRC) in the log-relative hazard ratio for each outcome per 2000 daily step increments were also estimated.
Results: The study population of 78 500 individuals (mean [SD] age, 61 [8] years; 43 418 [55%] females; 75 874 [97%] White individuals) was followed for a median of 7 years during which 1325 participants died of cancer and 664 of CVD (total deaths 2179). There were 10 245 incident CVD events and 2813 cancer incident events during the observation period. More daily steps were associated with a lower risk of all-cause (MRC, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.11 to -0.06), CVD (MRC, -0.10; 95% CI, -0.15 to -0.06), and cancer mortality (MRC, 95% CI, -0.11; -0.15 to -0.06) for up to approximately 10 000 steps. Similarly, accruing more daily steps was associated with lower incident disease. Peak-30 cadence was consistently associated with lower risks across all outcomes, beyond the benefit of total daily steps.
Conclusions and relevance: The findings of this population-based prospective cohort study of 78 500 individuals suggest that up to 10 000 steps per day may be associated with a lower risk of mortality and cancer and CVD incidence. Steps performed at a higher cadence may be associated with additional risk reduction, particularly for incident disease.

When should you eat? It’s just as important as what you eat.
We crave food at night—which made sense back when humans only cared about surviving the day. But science shows

Would You Want to Know if You’re Going to Get Alzheimer’s Disease?
Advances in genetic research mean predicting who develops the condition is becoming more accurate, but that’s not necessarily a comfort.
The Telegraph
    David Cox

Appetite for Change | Food
What is the lowest-carbon protein?
Swapping a beef burger for a plant-based alternative can significantly reduce our individual carbon emissions (Credit: Alamy)
By Isabelle Gerretsen
15th December 2022
Finding protein-rich foods that are good for the climate can be complex. Isabelle Gerretsen digs into the data to understand which food choices can help us curb emission.

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