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TomBAvoider

Consuming Omega-3 FA can lead to Diabetes

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Boy, the controversy over fats - which are good for you and which not, how much to consume and so on, we seem to know less than ever. Old conventional wisdom has been so thoroughly debunked, that we're left with completely random recommendations. Here's the latest - now it seems the highest consumers of omega-3 including from healthy sources such as fatty fish are at dramatically elevated risk of developing diabetes. And worse: it was particularly pronounced for those whose BMI was within the normal range rather than overweight. Who knew?! Sadly this is a pretty thin article and I can't find the study, but here's what we have for now:

 

Consumption of certain fatty acids linked to type 2 diabetes in women

 

"A total of 71 334 women who were non-diabetic at baseline were followed from 1993 to 2011. Subsequent diabetes diagnoses were identified using questionnaires and drug reimbursement claims, and incident cases were subsequently validated. Fatty acid consumption in 1993 was estimated from a validated dietary questionnaire. Computer modelling was used to calculate the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

A positive association was observed between high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes; this persisted after adjustment for confounders, including other fatty acid groups and body mass index (BMI). Those women with the highest consumption (the top third or 33%, more than 1.6g per day) had a 26% increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with the lowest 33% consumption group (less than 1.3g per day)."

Lowest consumption of omega 3 was shown as best - LOL as the kids say. 

 

 

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If you are looking to obtain adequate DHA levels via conversion from ALA,  curcumin may help.

 

 

Abstract

Dietary deficiency of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3; DHA) is linked to the neuropathology of several cognitive
disorders, including anxiety. DHA, which is essential for brain development and protection, is primarily obtained
through the diet or synthesized from dietary precursors, however the conversion efficiency is low. Curcumin
(diferuloylmethane), which is a principal component of the spice turmeric, complements the action of DHA in
the brain, and this studywas performed to determine molecularmechanisms involved.

 

We report that curcumin enhances the synthesis of DHA from its precursor, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3; ALA) and elevates levels of
enzymes involved in the synthesis of DHA such as FADS2 and elongase 2 in both liver and brain tissues. Furthermore,
in vivo treatment with curcumin and ALA reduced anxiety-like behavior in rodents. Taken together, these
data suggest that curcumin enhances DHA synthesis, resulting in elevated brain DHA content.

 

These findings have important implications for human health and the prevention of cognitive disease, particularly for populations
eating a plant-based diet or who do not consume fish, a primary source of DHA, since DHA is essential for
brain function and its deficiency is implicated in many types of neurological disorders.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925443914003779

Edited by Sibiriak

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And now a gentle late night poem by sthira:

 

Go forth now: free omega three fish: so what so grind flaxseed: duh like scientists solved all this: created all this: fish and by-catch shall live again now in the plastic oceans: plastic particles outnumber plankton by a ratio of 26:1: one up your amphetamine streams even spawns like a real salmon: while we await your flaxseed trials in rats: years: decades: humans: billions: google scholar it to see for yourself: one rat trial one data point shows ground flaxseeds cause Cotard's Delusion: blooming stage: scientists: the universe spins on anyway: anawyy no way: while we watch the singularity sleep now in the fire

Edited by Sthira

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Consumption of certain fatty acids linked to type 2 diabetes in women

 

 

A positive association was observed between high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes; this persisted after adjustment for confounders, including other fatty acid groups and body mass index (BMI). Those women with the highest consumption (the top third or 33%, more than 1.6g per day) had a 26% increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with the lowest 33% consumption group (less than 1.3g per day).   [emphasis added]

 

Nota bene: 

 

1) 1.6g/day  omega-3 intake is indeed a high amount.

 

  • National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends 650mg of EPA+DHA per day.
  • WHO recommends 250-500mg of omega-3 EPA+DHA per day.
  • EFSA recommends 250mg of omega-3 EPA+DHA per day.
  • ISSFAL recommends 500mg of omega-3 EPA+DHA per day (at least 220mg of DHA and 220mg of EPA).
  • IOM recommends 130-260mg of omega-3 EPA+DHA per day.
  • AHA makes no specific EPA+DHA intake recommendation for healthy people, but advises them to eat at least two servings of fatty seafood per week (e.g., salmon, tuna, sablefish, mackerel, or sardines).
  • AHA advises heart patients to take 1000mg (1 gram) of omega-3 EPA+DHA per day, and says that heart patients can lower triglyceride levels as needed under a physician's guidance by taking 2000mg to 4000mg grams of omega-3 EPA+DHA per day.

 

2) 1.3 g/day is still quite a substantial amount.

 

 

 

 

The associations of docosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid persisted even after further analyses were carried out, with adjustment to account for the principal dietary source in this cohort, the consumption of meat. In this cohort, the main sources of DPA were: meat (31.3%) and fish/seafood (22.6%). The main sources of AA were: meat (42.7%), fish/seafood (10.7%), and eggs (9.7%). Meat included meat, processed meat and offal.  [emphasis added]

 

 

Nota bene:  Only DPA  and AA are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes, and in both cases the main dietary sources were meat.  Accordingly,  the authors' conclusion focuses on meat:

 

 

Different polyunsaturated fatty acids appear to have different effects regarding the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. A high consumption of docosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes

 

We wouldn't necessarily recommend cutting these sources out of our diet, but perhaps diminishing meat intake, as it is often consumed in quantities much greater than our nutritional requirements

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I have two issues to pose here.

Issue#1: it is not evident from the posted material but maybe what increased diabetes hazard was redundant proteins, I say this without having done the calcs but some literature like the pro vegan book by Dr. Garth Davis quote material galore supporting this hypothesis. And we know that proteins do stimulate IIS signaling.

Edited by mccoy

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Issue #2: maybe the rdi.'s on epa and dha are not so accurate.

My case is an example. I have been 40 years without eating fish at all nor meat. Never took omega3 supplements. Never worried about eating abundant walnuts and just ignored flaxseed totally. I am starting to worry about omega 3s right now after my recent nutrition update.

Why I don't have impaired physical and cognitive faculties ?

I know I am n=1 but I am sure I have been far below the the omega 3s rdi's for most of 4 decades.

Edited by mccoy

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maybe the rdi.'s on epa and dha are not so accurate.

 

[...]  Why I don't have impaired physical and cognitive faculties ?

 

Maybe you do.

 

Maybe you will.

 

Maybe you're lucky.

 

Maybe you're right.

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So I looked at the paper(s) published by the two authors that were supplied in the ScienceDaily https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/09/160913184945.htmsite  that described a report at a meeting, not a peer-reviewed paper.  The single paper published by the two authors seemed to present different data:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Fagherazzi-g+Dow-c

Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study.
Forouhi NG, Imamura F, Sharp SJ, Koulman A, Schulze MB, Zheng J, Ye Z, Sluijs I, Guevara M, Huerta JM, Kröger J, Wang LY, Summerhill K, Griffin JL, Feskens EJ, Affret A, Amiano P, Boeing H, Dow C, Fagherazzi G, Franks PW, Gonzalez C, Kaaks R, Key TJ, Khaw KT, Kühn T, Mortensen LM, Nilsson PM, Overvad K, Pala V, Palli D, Panico S, Quirós JR, Rodriguez-Barranco M, Rolandsson O, Sacerdote C, Scalbert A, Slimani N, Spijkerman AM, Tjonneland A, Tormo MJ, Tumino R, van der A DL, van der Schouw YT, Langenberg C, Riboli E, Wareham NJ.
PLoS Med. 2016 Jul 19;13(7):e1002094. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002094. eCollection 2016 Jul.
PMID: 27434045
Free PMC Article
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4951144/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4951144/pdf/pmed.1002094.pdf

Abstract

Background

Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations.

Methods and Findings

Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [sD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88–0.98), but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA) (0.80; 95% CI 0.77–0.83) and eicosadienoic acid (EDA) (0.89; 95% CI 0.85–0.94) were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA) was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA), and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA), with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs.

Conclusions

These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA) but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) with T2D. Moreover, they highlight that the most abundant n6-PUFA (LA) is inversely associated with T2D. The detection of associations with previously less well-investigated PUFAs points to the importance of considering individual fatty acids rather than focusing on fatty acid class.

Author Summary

Why Was This Study Done?

    Most dietary guidelines recommend the consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids for cardiovascular health, but it is unclear whether or how n-3 and n-6 types of polyunsaturated fatty acids are related to type 2 diabetes.
    Health concerns have been raised previously about a diet high in linoleic acid (n-6 fatty acid), but its association with type 2 diabetes is unclear.
    Major limitations in previous studies have included the error-prone subjective assessment of the habitual consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids when dietary intakes were evaluated and a small number of type 2 diabetes cases (n = 71 to 673) when objective biomarkers of polyunsaturated fatty acids were measured.

What Did the Researchers Do and Find?

    We measured circulating individual polyunsaturated fatty acids in the blood samples of individuals within a large study from across eight countries of Europe among a reference sample of 15,919 individuals as well as 12,132 individuals who subsequently developed diabetes. Individuals were followed up for an average of approximately 10 y.
    We investigated the association between individual polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of future type 2 diabetes using statistical analyses that accounted for factors that could be potential alternative explanations for any observed associations.
    We found that higher levels of blood alpha-linolenic acid, a plant-origin n-3 fatty acid, and n-6 linoleic acid, the most abundant type of polyunsaturated fatty acid, were associated with a lower risk of future type 2 diabetes. In contrast, higher levels of four other minor individual n-6 fatty acids were associated with higher type 2 diabetes risk, while the blood marine-origin n-3 fatty acids were not associated with future diabetes.

What Do These Findings Mean?

    Our findings show that it is important to consider individual circulating polyunsaturated fatty acids for association with type 2 diabetes risk, rather than placing emphasis on the class of circulating polyunsaturated fatty acids.
    We found that blood n-6 linoleic acid, the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid, is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes.
    We found no evidence that blood total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids may elevate the risk of type 2 diabetes, but several individual minor blood n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids were associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk, highlighting the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in the development of type 2 diabetes.

Edited by AlPater

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