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High Fibre reduces risk of many diseases

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Noteworthy finding for those that avoid whole grains:  "Higher intakes of whole grains were associated with a 13-33% reduction in non-communicable disease (NCD) risk - translating into 26 fewer deaths per 1,000 people from all-cause mortality and seven fewer cases of coronary heart disease per 1,000 people."

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Hi Gordo!

I noticed that.  What isn't clear

3 hours ago, Gordo said:

Higher intakes of whole grains were associated with a 13-33% reduction in non-communicable disease (NCD) risk

is -- compared to what?

My guess:  "Compared to eating refined grains" (e.g., white bread).  

Or do they mean "Compared to eating no grains"?  I doubt this -- very few people eat no grains.  Many members of the CR Society fall into this latter category.  My guess:  That may be a lot better than eating whole grains (and a fortiori refined grains).

Analogy:  Maybe vaping is better than smoking.

  😉

  --  Saul

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My guess:  That may be a lot better than eating whole grains (and a fortiori refined grains).

Next example of Bayesian inference will be on that. 

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21 hours ago, Saul said:

compared to what?

My guess:  "Compared to eating refined grains" (e.g., white bread).  

Or do they mean "Compared to eating no grains"?

And in most of these types of nutritional studies they fail to define their terms.  When they say "grains" are they restricting it to just the seeds of grasses?  And what do they mean by whole?  I see lots of highly processed crap in grocery stores with "whole grains" boldly claimed.  What about buckwheat, quinoa or wild rice?  I eat modest portions of those which aren't true grains but I don't eat wheat or corn.  I eat a modest amount of oats but I ferment them with kefir grains, a potent mix of yeast and bacteria that reduces them to goo after a few days.  They are no longer "whole" because much of the sugar and starch has been consumed.  I seriously doubt eating bowls of wheaties or corn flakes is going to reduce my disease risk.  I had become very unhealthy while eating those "foods".

Edited by Todd Allen

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Good point Todd.

Another example is Fiber One.  This has no added sugar, but has added salt.  It contains "whole grain wheat", and additional bran.  It's a processed product.  Is it a "whole grain" food?   It's a  matter of definition.  The term "whole grain" suggests something good.  I believe "no grains" is probably best.  (But perhaps the bran of some grains, as a food, might be desirable?  I've purchased a bag of pure wheat bran -- but so far haven't opened the bag.)  Luigi Fontana in his video speaks well of whole grains -- and makes it clear that he thinks that the insoluble fiber in them is desirable for developing good gut microbiota.  It is clear from his presentation that he thinks that not only the highly desirable soluble fiber that we get from plants, but also the insoluble fiber from grains, is desirable in one's diet.

To me, it seems hard to believe that the fiber in vegetables (and fruits) is inadequate, without the addition of whole grains, to develop and maintain an optimal gut microbiota.

But Luigi seems to suggest otherwise.  Luigi is the head nutritionist at WUSTL, a lot more knowledgeable than I.  

  ??

  --  Saul

  

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7 hours ago, Saul said:

To me, it seems hard to believe that the fiber in vegetables (and fruits) is inadequate, without the addition of whole grains, to develop and maintain an optimal gut microbiota.

I agree.  And many other non-grain seeds have greater fiber content, for example rolled oats celebrated for fiber are 10% fiber by weight while fennel is 40%, chia 34% and cacao nibs are 32% by weight.

What grains are particularly high in is starch.  Some want that, but starch raises my blood sugar too much.  I have a genetic disease which creates a predisposition to glucose intolerance but I'm not alone, according to the CDC in 2015 25.2% of American seniors were estimated to be diabetic and another 48.3% were pre-diabetic based on fasting glucose and HbA1c.  And possibly another 80% of those considered healthy will have a diabetic level blood sugar spike after a bowl of cornflakes, suggesting this might be a healthy food for roughly 5% of Americans over 65.  https://med.stanford.edu/news/all-news/2018/07/diabetic-level-glucose-spikes-seen-in-healthy-people.html

Quote

“We saw that 80 percent of our participants spiked after eating a bowl of cornflakes and milk,” Snyder said. “Make of that what you will, but my own personal belief is it’s probably not such a great thing for everyone to be eating.”

 

Edited by Todd Allen

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Blood sugar spikes in reaction to ingestion of cereals (and many other foods as a rule) is sometimes a very personal reaction, that is, there is significant variability in individual reactions according to the specific cereal and to related quantities.

 

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In Defense of Whole Grains

Go to the profile of Andrew Merle
 
Andrew MerleFollow
Jan 6

There are several popular diets these days that prohibit eating any grains. In particular, The Paleo Diet, The Ketogenic Diet, and Whole30 Diet are three of the hottest diets right now, and none of them allow for any grains.

It is true that cutting out grains will help with weight loss in the short term, but eliminating whole grains is detrimental to long-term health.

The evidence clearly shows that whole grains promote health and should be a part of any effective eating plan.

Specifically, eating just 2–3 portions of whole grains per day has been shown to reduce the risk of getting a heart attack or prematurely dying of heart disease by 30%, and lower the risk of all forms of cardiovascular disease (heart attack, stroke, or the need for a procedure to bypass or open a clogged artery) by 21%.

Those numbers mean that eating enough whole grains daily is as powerful as high blood pressure medications in alleviating hypertension.

Considering 75 million American adults have high blood pressure — one in every three American adults — we would be smart to consume more whole grains, not less.

But whole grains do much more than just lower blood pressure.

Eating at least 70 grams of whole grains daily has been shown to lower the risk of total mortality by 22% and reduce the risk of cancer mortality by 20%.

Whole grain consumption has also been shown to lower cholesterol and protect against inflammation in the body.

It should come as no surprise that people are encouraged to load up on whole grains on the Mediterranean Diet, which was just named the #1 healthiest diet by a panel of the nation’s foremost nutrition experts.

Whole grains also play a key role in centenarians’ diets in every Blue Zones region in the world. That means the longest-lived people in the world eat whole grains daily.


Grains in general get a bad rap because of all the processed refined grains that exist in our food system today.

Refined grains (like white bread and white rice) are stripped of valuable nutrients in the refining process, including the removal of the germ and bran.

That is a problem because bran is filled with fiber and other nutrients that help regulate blood sugar, prevent blood clots, and lower cholesterol.

And the germ is packed with healthy fats, vitamin E, B vitamins, phytochemicals, and antioxidants.

Once the bran and germ are removed, the only part of the grain that is left is the soft, chewy, easy-to-digest endosperm. That’s why white flour is fluffy and tastes so good, but it is missing most of the nutrition (and food manufacturers add lots of other junk to refined grains these days).

Whole grains offer a “complete package” of health benefits, but all three parts of the whole grain — the bran, germ, and endosperm — need to be intact to reap those benefits.

Whereas refined grains are associated with a range of negative health outcomes, from obesity to diabetes to heart disease.

It is therefore critical to select and eat actual whole grains, instead of the processed and refined stuff.


By now, hopefully you are convinced of the importance of whole grains, but it can still be confusing to buy truly nutritious whole grain products.

That is because words like multigrain, whole grain, and whole wheat show up on nearly every package of food these days, and it is very misleading.

To help simplify the process, your best bet is to choose an unprocessed whole grain in its natural form (which means just one ingredient).

Popular, easy-to-find unprocessed whole grains include brown rice, barley, corn, quinoa, oats, rye, wheat berries, and wild rice.

If you do opt for whole grain bread or pasta with more than one ingredient, you need to look on the back of the label and perform some basic math to ensure you are really getting whole grains without the unhealthy additives.

Specifically, look at the label and make sure the serving size ratio of carbs to fiber is equal to or less than 5-to-1 (for example, if you divided 15 grams of carbs by 3 grams of fiber like in the Ezekiel 4:9 sprouted whole grain bread, that would equal 5 and would pass the test).

Following the 5-to-1 rule is the way to buy healthy whole grain products, according to Dr. Michael Greger, author of the groundbreaking book How Not To Die.


Whole grains should make up roughly 1/4 of your overall diet, according to the Harvard Healthy Eating Plate, the official dietary advice from Harvard doctors and medical professors (fruits and vegetables should account for at least half your plate, and the remaining 1/4 should be healthy protein).

In general, you want to aim for at least three servings of whole grains per day (one serving is equal to half cup of cooked brown rice, one slice of whole grain bread, or a cup of whole grain cereal).

I typically eat two slices of whole grain toast in the morning (topped with olive oil or peanut butter) to cover off on two of the servings, and then I try to add in some brown rice, quinoa, corn, or whole grain pasta for lunch or dinner. Oatmeal is another easy option to start your day with whole grains. And popcorn (unflavored and without added salt) is an incredibly simple whole grain snack.

It doesn’t matter which whole grains you eat, as long as you eat enough of them overall. Select the whole grains you like best.


Don’t be confused by trendy diets that eliminate all grains. You might lose some weight in the short term, but it’s not worth sacrificing your long-term health.

A variety of whole grains should be included in any healthy eating plan. True whole grains are nutrient-dense and protective against many of our most dreaded diseases.

Processed refined grains should be avoided, but you should be eating whole grains every day for optimum health.

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In Defense of Buckwheat

 

Health-Promoting Potential Equal to or Even Higher than that of Vegetables and Fruits

http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=11

 

Quote

Research reported at the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) International Conference on Food, Nutrition and Cancer, by Rui Hai Liu, M.D., Ph.D., and his colleagues at Cornell University shows that whole grains, such as buckwheat, contain many powerful phytonutrients whose activity has gone unrecognized because research methods have overlooked them.

 Despite the fact that for years researchers have been measuring the antioxidant power of a wide array of phytonutrients, they have typically measured only the "free" forms of these substances, which dissolve quickly and are immediately absorbed into the bloodstream. They have not looked at the "bound" forms, which are attached to the walls of plant cells and must be released by intestinal bacteria during digestion before they can be absorbed.

 Phenolics, powerful antioxidants that work in multiple ways to prevent disease, are one major class of phytonutrients that have been widely studied. Included in this broad category are such compounds as quercetin, curcumin, ellagic acid, catechins, and many others that appear frequently in the health news.  When Dr. Liu and his colleagues measured the relative amounts of phenolics, and whether they were present in bound or free form, in common fruits and vegetables like apples, red grapes, broccoli and spinach, they found that phenolics in the "free" form averaged 76% of the total number of phenolics in these foods. In whole grains, however, "free" phenolics accounted for less than 1% of the total, while the remaining 99% were in "bound" form.

 In his presentation, Dr. Liu explained that because researchers have examined whole grains with the same process used to measure antioxidants in vegetables and fruits; looking for their content of "free" phenolics"—the amount and activity of antioxidants in whole grains has been vastly underestimated.

 Despite the differences in fruits', vegetables' and whole grains' content of "free" and "bound" phenolics, the total antioxidant activity in all three types of whole foods is similar, according to Dr. Liu's research. His team measured the antioxidant activity of various foods, assigning each a rating based on a formula (micromoles of vitamin C equivalent per gram). Broccoli and spinach measured 80 and 81, respectively; apple and banana measured 98 and 65; and of the whole grains tested, corn measured 181, whole wheat 77, oats 75, and brown rice 56

 

Buckwheat as a Functional Food and Its Effects on Health

Juan Antonio Giménez-Bastida and Henryk Zieliński

J. Agric. Food Chem. 2015,  63367896-7913

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b02498

 

image.png.30c54088371bf1816c56bad364993245.png

 

 

Quote

Abstract

Buckwheat (BW) is a gluten-free pseudocereal that belongs to the Polygonaceae family. BW grain is a highly nutritional food component that has been shown to provide a wide range of beneficial effects. Health benefits attributed to BW include plasma cholesterol level reduction, neuroprotection, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic effects, and improvement of hypertension conditions.

 In addition, BW has been reported to possess prebiotic and antioxidant activities. In vitro and animal studies suggest that BW’s bioactive compounds, such as d-chiro-inositol (DCI), BW proteins (BWP), and BW flavonoids (mainly rutin and quercetin) may be partially responsible for the observed effects. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent research regarding the health benefits of BW, in vitro and in vivo, focusing on the specific role of its bioactive compounds and on the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted.

 

The Contribution of Buckwheat Genetic Resources to Health and Dietary Diversity

Oksana Sytar,a,bMarian Brestic,b,*Marek Zivcak,b and Lam-Son Phan Tranc

Curr Genomics. 2016 Jun; 17(3): 193–206.

PMCID: PMC4869006

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4869006/

Quote

 […]Buckwheat’s beneficial effects are due to the broad spectrum of flavonoids which are biologically active phytonutrients possessing health benefits, including reduction of cholesterol [1], inhibition of tumors [2], regulation of hypertension [3], as well as control of inflammation, carcinogenesis and diabetes [4].

 * * *

[…]Compared to rice and wheat, buckwheat seeds are richer in protein and antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds [5]. In experiments, D-chiro-inositol, fagopyritols (galactosyl derivatives of D-chiro-inositol), resistant starch, and buckwheat protein, all present in buckwheat, had positive health effects on rats, but further studies should be undertaken to establish their effects on humans [6].

 

The presence of D-fagomine in the human diet from buckwheat-based foodstuffs

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23194529

PMID:  23194529

 

Quote

Abstract

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) groats contain the iminosugar D-fagomine as a minor component that might contribute to the alleged health benefits of this pseudo-cereal. This study presents analysis of D-fagomine in buckwheat-based foodstuffs by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and an estimation of its presence in the human diet based on a published population-based cross-sectional nutrition survey. D-fagomine is present in common buckwheat-based foodstuffs in amounts ranging from 1 to 25 mg/kg or mg/L, it is stable during boiling, baking, frying and fermentation, and it is biosynthesised upon sprouting. The estimated total intake of D-fagomine resulting from a diet that includes such foodstuffs would be between 3 and 17 mg per day (mean for both genders; range from P5 to P95). A diet rich in buckwheat products would provide a daily amount of D-fagomine that may in part explain the beneficial properties traditionally attributed to buckwheat consumption.  

 

D-Fagomine lowers postprandial blood glucose and modulates bacterial adhesion.

Gómez L1, Molinar-Toribio E, Calvo-Torras MÁ, Adelantado C, Juan ME, Planas JM, Cañas X, Lozano C, Pumarola S, Clapés P, Torres JL. PMI 22017795

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22017795

Quote

Abstract

D-Fagomine is an iminosugar originally isolated from seeds of buckwheat (Fagopyrum sculentum Moench), present in the human diet and now available as a pure crystalline product. We tested D-fagomine for activities connected to a reduction in the risk of developing insulin resistance, becoming overweight and suffering from an excess of potentially pathogenic bacteria. The activities were: intestinal sucrase inhibition in vitro (rat mucosa and everted intestine sleeves), modulation of postprandial blood glucose in rats, bacterial agglutination and bacterial adhesion to pig intestinal mucosa.

When ingested together with sucrose or starch, D-fagomine lowered blood glucose in a dose-dependent manner without stimulating insulin secretion. D-Fagomine reduced the area under the curve (0-120 min) by 20 % (P < 0·01) and shifted the time to maximum blood glucose concentration (Tmax) by 15 min at doses of 1-2 mg/kg body weight when administered together with 1 g sucrose/kg body weight. Moreover, D-fagomine (0·14 mm) agglutinated 60 % of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium) populations (P < 0·01), while it did not show this effect on Bifidobacterium spp. or Lactobacillus spp. At the same concentration, d-fagomine significantly (P < 0·001) inhibited the adhesion of Enterobacteriaceae (95-99 % cells in the supernatant) and promoted the adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus (56 % cells in the supernatant) to intestinal mucosa. D-Fagomine did not show any effect on bacterial cell viability. Based on all this evidence, D-fagomine may be used as a dietary ingredient or functional food component to reduce the health risks associated with an excessive intake of fast-digestible carbohydrates, or an excess of potentially pathogenic bacteria.

 

Rutin-Rich Foods Boost BAT Activity

Dean Pomerleau  October 24, 2016

 https://www.crsociety.org/topic/11488-cold-exposure-other-mild-stressors-for-increased-health-longevity/?page=21&tab=comments#comment-19314

Quote

It's been a while since I've added to the list of BAT & thermogenesis boosting substances and interventions. But here is a new one, published today - rutin. In a new study [1] (popular press) mice on a regular diet that was supplemented with rutin in their drinking water (1mg/ml) resulted in 

 reduced adiposity, increased energy expenditure, and improved glucose homeostasis in both the genetically obese mice and the mice with diet-induced obesity.

Mechanistically, it's clear that the rutin was acting as a cold mimetic:

Specifically, the researchers found that rutin directly binds to and stabilizes SIRT1 (NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1), leading to hypoacetylation of PGC1α protein, which stimulates Tfam transactivation and eventually augments mitochondrial number and UCP1 activity in BAT. Rutin functions as a cold mimetic through activating a SIRT1-PGC1α-Tfam signaling cascade and increasing mitochondrial number and UCP1 activity in BAT. Rutin also induced brown-like (beige) adipocyte formation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in both obesity mouse models.

 They used mulberry extract in [1], but according to a few sources (1, 2, 3), the best source of rutin appears to be buckwheat, followed by apple peels, citrus fruit, mulberries, aronia berries, cranberries, peaches, rooibos tea, amaranth leaves, and figs.

I get buckwheat groats from Nuts.com, which I boil and mixed into my starch mix. I've also purchased dried mulberries from Nuts.com in the past too. I include rooibos tea in my "witches brew" beverage. I grow amaranth in my garden, and of course each apples, citrus, cranberries and peaches.

 

Edited by Sibiriak

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Thanks for the reminder that I ran out of buckwheat and need to go get more 😉

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16 hours ago, Gordo said:

In Defense of Whole Grains

Go to the profile of Andrew Merle
 
Andrew MerleFollow
Jan 6

There are several popular diets these days that prohibit eating any grains. In particular, The Paleo Diet, The Ketogenic Diet, and Whole30 Diet are three of the hottest diets right now, and none of them allow for any grains.

It is true that cutting out grains will help with weight loss in the short term, but eliminating whole grains is detrimental to long-term health.

 

I'd still like to know if whole grains are being compared to refined grains or to no grains.

True, the author oƒ this post seems to think that no-grain diets are bad.  He talks against ketogenic diets -- I agree with him on that (most ketogenic diets are high protein).  But the references he gives, simply discuss the value of whole grain -- in each reference, whole grain is lauded, but we are not told whether that means "compared to refined grains", or "compared to no grains".

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Well, it's hard to enjoy the benefits for example of D-fagomine without eating buckwheat, so it makes sense that whole grains are good compared to both no grains and refined grains. And of course eating a variety of healthy foods which contain significant phenolic compounds is best.

One exception I can think about, except intolerant subjects, is diabetics and pre-diabetics. If a specific cereal above a specific amount causes a significant peak (> 140 mg/dL) after 2 hours, then it arguably should be avoided or eaten in very modest amounts.

I'm aware of the allegations that cooked, whole unprocessed cereals (boiled cereals seeds) should not increase significantly blood-sugar, but so far the evidence (measurements) I collected on people sensitive to carbs would show that there is an unfavourable effect, which may be dose-dependent (related to the amount of grains ingested).

I'm also aware that Brenda Davis suggested whole unprocessed grains to the Marshall Islands citizens, afflicted by T2D, but in her presentations she never included blood sugar measurements and the average values exhibited by people were huge anyway.

Edited by mccoy

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17 hours ago, Gordo said:

Popular, easy-to-find unprocessed whole grains include brown rice, barley, corn, quinoa, oats, rye, wheat berries, and wild rice.

...

It doesn’t matter which whole grains you eat, as long as you eat enough of them overall. Select the whole grains you like best.

Actually choices in grain do matter as does processing, appropriate processing can be essential.   Quantity matters too - you can get too much of a good thing or at least not enough of better things.  From the wikipedia article on pellagra which is an unpleasant way to die:

Quote

 

Pellagra can be common in people who obtain most of their food energy from maize, notably rural South America, where maize is a staple food.

...

The native New World cultivators who first domesticated corn (maize) prepared it by nixtamalization, in which the grain is treated with a solution of alkali such as lime. Nixtamalization makes the niacin nutritionally available and prevents pellagra.[

...

Pellagra was first reported in 1902 in the United States, and has "caused more deaths than any other nutrition-related disease in American history"

 

 

 

Edited by Todd Allen

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So if eating endosperm (refined grain) is a net negative, and whole grains are a net positive, what happens if you eliminate endosperm, but consume just the bran? For example, oat bran, rather than say, whole oats? The idea being that you keep what is optimal and discard the suboptimal, to net out for a superior package. 

Now, it's apparently non-obvious, because I seem to remember a remark MR made 15-20 years ago, wherein he mentioned in passing that the greatest health benefits were in those who consumed the whole apple, rather than just the rinds - the same idea being that if fructose by itself is suboptimal, why not eat only that part of the apple that has the key beneficial agents and discard the suboptimal (in this case fructose). Now, I don't know what study MR was referring to, but it's possible that unless the comparison of rind to whole apple was isocaloric, the whole apple might have simply displaced calorically some other food that was even worse than fructose (say, butter) for a net effect that was superior to just a rind that didn't displace the butter.

Anyhow, I think there is a lot more to this and as usual we have to await more studies.

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Tomb, that's an interesting aspect similar to consumption for example of processed nonfat dairy products, which at least theoretically should provide health advantages because they avoid hypercholesterolemia and excessive caloric intake.

On the other side the fat in dairy might contain some useful compounds...

The pulp of apples probably contains a lot of pectin which the rind does not.

The bran of cereals might not contain other useful parts as the germ, or compounds contained into the endosperm matrix...

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14 hours ago, InquilineKea said:

Isn't diverticulitis/straining the intestines an issue if you eat too much of the fiber? Like if you eat 1-2 kg of veggies per day?

It sure may be and there is a upper tolerable level which varies according to individuals. Very high fiber gives me loose bowels for example. The UTL may probably vary when the body gets accustomed to a new high fiber regimen.

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18 hours ago, InquilineKea said:

Isn't diverticulitis/straining the intestines an issue if you eat too much of the fiber? Like if you eat 1-2 kg of veggies per day?

Not really.  If you build a healthy gut microbiota, by gradually increasing your intake of healthy vegetables it's unlikely.

I should note:  Prior to going on calorie restriction (over 20 years ago), I was overweight, on a somewhat crappy diet, and developed diverticulitis.  It disappeared as my diet improved (it's supposed to be difficult for diverticulitis to disappear -- but an improving veggie diet did it -- with increasing fiber).

Concerning McCoy's comment:  Again, not surprising.  But, if your diet slowly improves, this will probably change.

  --  Saul

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I don't really trust the generalizebilty of this but when you're talking about ppl who eat 2kg+ of veggies per day, that's a diet regime that very few people (or traditional cultures) have tried so there is some risk of the unknown there.

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On 3/18/2019 at 5:03 PM, Todd Allen said:

Pellagra was first reported in 1902 in the United States, and has "caused more deaths than any other nutrition-related disease in American history"

That's surprising since I've never even heard of it and don't know of anyone who has ever had it.  I think "heart disease", you know, the #1 killer globally and in the U.S. has it beat by just a little 😉

 

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Gordo, the US pellagra epidemic ended after millions of cases over 4 decades in 1942 when milling industries enriched flours and cornmeal with added thiamine (for beriberi), niacin (for pellagra) and iron (for anemia) correcting the worst deficiencies they had caused.  Adding riboflavin and folic acid came later.  Those conditions primarily affected the poor who couldn't afford enough fresh meat and other nutrient dense foods and subsisted on grain based diets, especially corn, plus lard and molasses.

Heart disease by contrast isn't typically considered a nutrition related disease even if nutrition is a contributor because so many other factors come into play such as smoking, infections, stress, poor sleep, age, etc.  Calling it a lifestyle disease is probably a better choice.

Edited by Todd Allen

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