Hi Sibiriak, those are all reasonables doubts, some of which I have been thinking about. The example is of course generic and in my case there was no displacement, since I already eat that amount of fruit.  the assumptions are : isocaloric conditions, minimum requirements of AA and other nutrients respected, macronutrients ratio not significantly altered. Of course I won't diplace protein with carbs, unless I clearly include such situation in the analysis, and then the BF might be even negative if I go below the minimumrequirement of protein after such displacement. The micronutrient/polyphenols content to an extent is already considered in the analysis, since a positive benefit function BF was assigned because of vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals content. Of course we can impose further constraints to the problem, according to our personal situations. You may try and propose an analysis, like for example, 'what's going to be the BF if I displace an isocaloric amount of cereals with X gr of apples with skin?' Or the same, displacing vegetables (which ones?) with X grams of apples, or other fruit. In the previous example, if I included bananas, these are hi-carb fruits whose effects on my blood sugar i did not measure, so I would have less evidence of benefit and probably the BF, until further update,would be less beneficial than apples or oranges.