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How do I get magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain?

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Furthermore, the evaluation of metabolite patterns across brain regions uncovered high levels of free radical scavengers in the frontal cortex. This includes, notably, uric acid and carnosine, which are known to be antioxidants and neuroprotective agents (Fang, et al., 2013; Bae, et al., 2013;). This regional specificity may be linked to surveillance responses, which serve to reduce oxidative stress and protect against oxidative damage. Uric acid was found at lower levels in patients with cognitive impairment (e.g. Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, vascular-linked dementia) when compared to aged individuals who enjoy normal mental, motor and behavioral functions (Gong, et al., 2012; Kim, et al., 2006;). Comparable to uric acid, carnosine is a potent antioxidant that scavenges reactive oxygen species and unsaturated aldehydes leading to reduced oxidative, nitrosative, and glycemic stress (Bellia, et al., 2011). Like uric acid, carnosine levels are reduced in Alzheimer’s disease suggesting that carnosine deficiency affects cognitive function (Fonteh, et al., 2007). Frontal cortical areas have a complex role in cognitive function and the high content of uric acid and carnosine as homeostatic metabolites may be associated with the need for internal control by the brain in preventing oxidative damage.



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