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Nuts and energy absorbed

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We have been hinting at the Atwater factors in some previous discussions, but I discovered that there is some recent material about that. 

There are quite a few studies on true energy values provided by nuts, the most recent I know suggests that 80% of the traditional calories declared in almonds, walnuts and pistachios are actually absorbed, because of decreased bioavailability due to trapped oil in intact cells. A customization of the fats contained in nuts in cronometer should probably be done. I could not find much on other nutrients, the suspicion is that many other nutrients may be lesser available than previously thought.




Nut structure and internal constituent properties may decrease lipid bioaccessibilty during digestion. Understanding the mechanisms that allow nuts to be a highly energy dense food without promoting positive energy balance is of particular intest since nuts are an increasingly consumed food with postive health benefits and new strategies could be developed to optimise nut-based functional ingredients. Our results show that chewing causes a rupture of cell walls but the amount of lipid released does not correspond with the number of ruptured cells on the fracture surface of nut tissue. Moreover, the ratio of ruptured cells to intact cells was not related to particle size. In this work, evidence of additional mechanisms by which the structural features of nuts can reduce lipid bioaccessibility was provided. Examination of nut microstructure indicates that the fissures of cell walls as well as lipid storage properties are also important for energy extraction. These findings indicate walnuts, almonds and pistachios yield similar, but limited amounts of energy (~80 %) during digestion, likely through varied mechanisms. For nuts, including walnuts, the limited bioaccessibility may stem in part from the ready hydrolysis of their oliosins at low pH allowing for OB coalescense and resistance to lipolysis.

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