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Gut bacteria selectively promoted by dietary fibers alleviate type 2 diabetes.

Zhao L, Zhang F, Ding X, Wu G, Lam YY, Wang X, Fu H, Xue X, Lu C, Ma J, Yu L, Xu C, Ren Z, Xu Y, Xu S, Shen H, Zhu X, Shi Y, Shen Q, Dong W, Liu R, Ling Y, Zeng Y, Wang X, Zhang Q, Wang J, Wang L, Wu Y, Zeng B, Wei H, Zhang M, Peng Y, Zhang C.

Science. 2018 Mar 9;359(6380):1151-1156. doi: 10.1126/science.aao5774.

PMID: 29590046

Abstract

The gut microbiota benefits humans via short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from carbohydrate fermentation, and deficiency in SCFA production is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a randomized clinical study of specifically designed isoenergetic diets, together with fecal shotgun metagenomics, to show that a select group of SCFA-producing strains was promoted by dietary fibers and that most other potential producers were either diminished or unchanged in patients with T2DM. When the fiber-promoted SCFA producers were present in greater diversity and abundance, participants had better improvement in hemoglobin A1c levels, partly via increased glucagon-like peptide-1 production. Promotion of these positive responders diminished producers of metabolically detrimental compounds such as indole and hydrogen sulfide. Targeted restoration of these SCFA producers may present a novel ecological approach for managing T2DM.

 

Dietary Protein and Preservation of Physical Functioning Among Middle-aged and Older Adults in the Framingham Offspring Study.

Mustafa J, Ellison RC, Singer MR, Bradlee ML, Kalesan B, Holick MF, Moore LL.

Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Mar 24. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwy014. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29590270

Abstract

Dietary protein may help prevent age-related declines in strength and functional capacity. This study examines the independent relation between dietary protein and longitudinal changes in physical functioning among Framingham Offspring Study adults from Exams 5 (1991-1995) to 8 (2005-2008). Protein intakes were derived from three-day diet records during exams 3 and 5; functional status was determined over 12 years using seven items selected from standardized questionnaires. Multivariable models were used to adjust for age, sex, education, physical activity, smoking, height, and energy intake. Functional tasks that benefitted most from a higher-protein diet (≥1.2 vs.<0.8 g/kg/day) were doing heavy work at home, walking ½ mile, going up and down stairs, stooping/kneeling/crouching, and lifting heavy items. Those with higher protein intakes were 41% less likely (95% CI: 0.43, 0.82) to become dependent in one or more of the functional tasks over follow-up. Higher physical activity and lower body mass index were both independently associated with less functional decline. The greatest risk reductions were found among those with higher protein intakes combined with either higher physical activity, more skeletal muscle mass, or lower BMI. This study demonstrates that dietary protein intakes above the current RDA may slow functional decline in older adults.

 

Exercise habituation is effective for improvement of periodontal disease status: a prospective intervention study.

Omori S, Uchida F, Oh S, So R, Tsujimoto T, Yanagawa T, Sakai S, Shoda J, Tanaka K, Bukawa H.

Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2018 Mar 20;14:565-574. doi: 10.2147/TCRM.S153397. eCollection 2018.

PMID: 29593415 Free PMC Article

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5865566/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5865566/pdf/tcrm-14-565.pdf

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Periodontal disease is closely related to lifestyle-related diseases and obesity. It is widely known that moderate exercise habits lead to improvement in lifestyle-related diseases and obesity. However, little research has been undertaken into how exercise habits affect periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise habits on periodontal diseases and metabolic pathology.

METHODS:

We conducted a prospective intervention research for 12 weeks. The subjects were 71 obese men who participated in an exercise and/or dietary intervention program. Fifty subjects were assigned to exercise interventions (exercise intervention group) and 21 subjects were assigned to dietary interventions (dietary intervention group). This research was conducted before and after each intervention program.

RESULTS:

In the exercise intervention group, the number of teeth with a probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥4 mm significantly decreased from 14.4% to 5.6% (P<0.001), and the number of teeth with bleeding on probing (BOP) significantly decreased from 39.8% to 14.4% (P<0.001). The copy counts of Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola decreased significantly (P=0.001). A positive correlation was found between the change in the copy count of T. denticola and the number of teeth with PPD ≥4 mm (P=0.003) and the number of teeth with BOP (P=0.010). A positive correlation was also found between the change in the copy count of T. denticola and body weight (P=0.008), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.049), and fasting insulin (P=0.041). However, in the dietary intervention group the copy count of T. denticola decreased significantly (P=0.007) and there was no correlation between the number of periodontal disease-causing bacteria and PPD and BOP.

CONCLUSION:

Our results are the first to show that exercise might contribute to improvements in periodontal disease.

KEYWORDS:

bacteria; intervention studies; lifestyle; metabolic syndrome; obesity; periodontal disease; periodontal status

 

Vitamin intake and pancreatic cancer risk reduction: A meta-analysis of observational studies.

Liu Y, Wang X, Sun X, Lu S, Liu S.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Mar;97(13):e0114. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000010114. Review.

PMID: 29595633 Free Article

https://journals.lww.com/md-journal/fulltext/2018/03300/Vitamin_intake_and_pancreatic_cancer_risk.6.aspx

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The relationship between vitamin intake and pancreatic cancer (PC) risk is disputed. We aimed to investigate the association between vitamin intake and the risk of PC via meta-analysis.

METHODS:

We conducted a meta-analysis of studies concerning vitamin intake and the risk of PC from EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library. The search yielded 25 correlative studies including 1,214,995 individuals. The relative risks (RR) were examined by a random-effect model or fixed-effect model. Subgroup analysis, dose-response analysis, sensitivity analysis, meta-regression, and publication bias analysis were used to analyze studies.

RESULTS:

The RR of PC in the highest vitamin intake group was 0.90 (95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.98) compared with that in the lowest vitamin intake in the prospective studies. Different increments of vitamin intake and the risk of PC were examined with dose-response analysis, and a decrease in the risk of PC was observed with vitamin D (25%) and vitamin B12 (27%).

CONCLUSIONS:

This meta-analysis found that vitamin intake can decrease the risk of PC, particularly vitamin D and vitamin B12.

 

Tree nut, peanut, and peanut butter consumption and the risk of gastric and esophageal cancer subtypes: the Netherlands Cohort Study.

Nieuwenhuis L, van den Brandt PA.

Gastric Cancer. 2018 Mar 28. doi: 10.1007/s10120-018-0821-2. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29594821

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Nut consumption has been associated with reduced cancer-related mortality. However, it is unclear whether nut consumption also reduces the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes. We prospectively investigated the relationship of tree nut, peanut, and peanut butter intake with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA), and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) in the Netherlands Cohort Study.

METHODS:

In 1986, 120,852 males and females, aged 55-69 years, completed a baseline questionnaire on diet and cancer risk factors. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 133 ESCC, 200 EAC, 191 GCA, and 586 GNCA cases, and 3,720 subcohort members were available for multivariable Cox regression analyses, using a case-cohort approach.

RESULTS:

Increased total nut consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of ESCC and GNCA [hrs (95% CIs) for 10 + g/day vs. nonconsumers = 0.54 (0.30-0.96) and 0.73 (0.55-0.97), respectively], but not with EAC and GCA risk. Similar trends were observed for tree nut and peanut intake, which were mostly nonsignificant. For peanut butter intake, no significant associations were found. When excluding the first four years of follow-up to reduce the possible influence of reversed causation, the relation between nut consumption and ESCC risk attenuated, but remained inverse.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings suggest that increased tree nut and peanut consumption is inversely associated with GNCA risk and possibly with ESCC risk, but not with the risk of the other esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes.

KEYWORDS:

Chemoprevention; Cohort studies; Esophageal neoplasms; Nuts; Stomach neoplasms

 

Gender, nutritional status and disability-free life expectancy among older people in Santiago, Chile.

Moreno X, Albala C, Lera L, Leyton B, Angel B, Sánchez H.

PLoS One. 2018 Mar 28;13(3):e0194074. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194074. eCollection 2018.

PMID: 29590148 Free PMC Article

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5874002/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5874002/pdf/pone.0194074.pdf

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This study was aimed to estimate life expectancy (LE), disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and disabled life expectancy (DLE) among older adults from Santiago, Chile, and to determine the existence of differences by gender and by body mass index (BMI) categories in these indicators.

METHODS:

A sample of 1216 people aged 60 or more, from the Chilean cohort of the Study of Health, Ageing and Well-Being was recruited in 2000; two follow-up assessments were carried out in a 10-year period. Functional limitation was assessed through self-report of difficulties in activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living and mobility. BMI was determined with measured weight and height. Multistate life tables were employed to estimate LE and healthy life expectancy (HLE).

RESULTS:

At 60 years, women could expect to live on average an additional 20.4 years (95% CI 19.0-21.6), and men an additional 16.4 years (95% CI 14.9-17.7). Total LE was longer among women at all ages, but they had a higher proportion of disabled years to be lived compared to men, with a difference of 14% at 60 years, and 10% at 90 years. There were no significant differences in LE, DFLE and DLE between BMI categories.

DISCUSSION:

Despite a longer LE, Chilean older women expect to live a higher proportion of years with disabilities, compared to men. Public health programs should address factors affecting LE of older men, and those associated with disability among older women.

 

Effect of Protein Intake on Lean Body Mass in Functionally Limited Older Men: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Bhasin S, Apovian CM, Travison TG, Pencina K, Moore LL, Huang G, Campbell WW, Li Z, Howland AS, Chen R, Knapp PE, Singer MR, Shah M, Secinaro K, Eder RV, Hally K, Schram H, Bearup R, Beleva YM, McCarthy AC, Woodbury E, McKinnon J, Fleck G, Storer TW, Basaria S.

JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Apr 1;178(4):530-541. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.0008.

PMID: 29532075

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

The Institute of Medicine set the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein at 0.8 g/kg/d for the entire adult population. It remains controversial whether protein intake greater than the RDA is needed to maintain protein anabolism in older adults.

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate whether increasing protein intake to 1.3 g/kg/d in older adults with physical function limitations and usual protein intake within the RDA improves lean body mass (LBM), muscle performance, physical function, fatigue, and well-being and augments LBM response to a muscle anabolic drug.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

This randomized clinical trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design was conducted in a research center. A modified intent-to-treat analytic strategy was used. Participants were 92 functionally limited men 65 years or older with usual protein intake less thanor equal to 0.83 g/kg/d within the RDA. The first participant was randomized on September 21, 2011, and the last participant completed the study on January 19, 2017.

INTERVENTIONS:

Participants were randomized for 6 months to controlled diets with 0.8 g/kg/d of protein plus placebo, 1.3 g/kg/d of protein plus placebo, 0.8 g/kg/d of protein plus testosterone enanthate (100 mg weekly), or 1.3 g/kg/d of protein plus testosterone. Prespecified energy and protein contents were provided through custom-prepared meals and supplements.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

The primary outcome was change in LBM. Secondary outcomes were muscle strength, power, physical function, health-related quality of life, fatigue, affect balance, and well-being.

RESULTS:

Among 92 men (mean [sD] age, 73.0 [5.8] years), the 4 study groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. Changes from baseline in LBM (0.31 kg; 95% CI, -0.46 to 1.08 kg; P = .43) and appendicular (0.04 kg; 95% CI, -0.48 to 0.55 kg; P = .89) and trunk (0.24 kg; 95% CI, -0.17 to 0.66 kg; P = .24) lean mass, as well as muscle strength and power, walking speed and stair-climbing power, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and well-being, did not differ between men assigned to 0.8 vs 1.3 g/kg/d of protein regardless of whether they received testosterone or placebo. Fat mass decreased in participants given higher protein but did not change in those given the RDA: between-group differences were significant (difference, -1.12 kg; 95% CI, -2.04 to -0.21; P = .02).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Protein intake exceeding the RDA did not increase LBM, muscle performance, physical function, or well-being measures or augment anabolic response to testosterone in older men with physical function limitations whose usual protein intakes were within the RDA. The RDA for protein is sufficient to maintain LBM, and protein intake exceeding the RDA does not promote LBM accretion or augment anabolic response to testosterone.

 

Association between dietary fibre:carbohydrate intake ratio and insulin resistance in Japanese adults without type 2 diabetes.

Morimoto N, Kasuga C, Tanaka A, Kamachi K, Ai M, Urayama KY, Tanaka A.

Br J Nutr. 2018 Mar;119(6):620-628. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517003725.

PMID: 29553029

Abstract

An easily understandable index that measures the quality of carbohydrate may aid people in adopting dietary habits that improve their glucose tolerance. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between a ratio of dietary fibre to carbohydrate intakes (fibre:carbohydrate ratio (F:C-R)) and glucose tolerance cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Subjects were 190 Japanese men and women without type 2 diabetes (mean age 55·4 years) who participated in a 5-month diet and exercise programme. We compared baseline anthropometric, dietary and metabolic profiles between those with higher F:C-R and those with lower ratios. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between the F:C-R and homoeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HbA1c at baseline and between changes in the F:C-R and changes in HOMA-IR and HbA1c over the 5-month period. At baseline, the higher F:C-R group had significantly lower body weight, lean body mass, fasting insulin level and HOMA-IR as compared with the lower F:C-R group. The two groups had similar intakes of carbohydrate and fat, whereas protein intake was greater in the high F:C-R group. Baseline F:C-R was not significantly associated with HOMA-IR or HbA1c at the beginning of the study in multivariable models. Increases in the ratio during the 5-month programme was associated with reductions in HbA1c (P<0·001). These findings highlight the potential utility of the F:C-R in strategies aimed at type 2 diabetes prevention.

KEYWORDS:

β3AR β-3 adrenergic receptor; F:C-R fibre:carbohydrate ratio; HOMA-IR homoeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance; Carbohydrate; Diabetes prevention; Fibre; Insulin resistance

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Patterns of plant and animal protein intake are strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality: the Adventist Health Study-2 cohort.

Tharrey M, Mariotti F, Mashchak A, Barbillon P, Delattre M, Fraser GE.

Int J Epidemiol. 2018 Apr 2. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyy030. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29618018

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Current evidence suggests that plant and animal proteins are intimately associated with specific large nutrient clusters that may explain part of their complex relation with cardiovascular health. We aimed at evaluating the association between specific patterns of protein intake with cardiovascular mortality.

METHODS:

We selected 81 337 men and women from the Adventist Health Study-2. Diet was assessed between 2002 and 2007, by using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns based on the participants' protein consumption were derived by factor analysis. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and dietary components.

RESULTS:

There were 2276 cardiovascular deaths during a mean follow-up time of 9.4 years. The HRs for cardiovascular mortality were 1.61 [98.75% confidence interval (CI), 1.12 2.32; P-trend < 0.001] for the 'Meat' protein factor and 0.60 (98.75% CI, 0.42 0.86; P-trend < 0.001) for the 'Nuts & Seeds' protein factor (highest vs lowest quintile of factor scores). No significant associations were found for the 'Grains', 'Processed Foods' and 'Legumes, Fruits & Vegetables' protein factors. Additional adjustments for the participants' vegetarian dietary pattern and nutrients related to cardiovascular disease outcomes did not change the results.

CONCLUSIONS:

Associations between the 'Meat' and 'Nuts & Seeds' protein factors and cardiovascular outcomes were strong and could not be ascribed to other associated nutrients considered to be important for cardiovascular health. Healthy diets can be advocated based on protein sources, preferring low contributions of protein from meat and higher intakes of plant protein from nuts and seeds.

 

Intakes of magnesium, calcium and risk of fatty liver disease and prediabetes.

Li W, Zhu X, Song Y, Fan L, Wu L, Kabagambe EK, Hou L, Shrubsole MJ, Liu J, Dai Q.

Public Health Nutr. 2018 Apr 2:1-8. doi: 10.1017/S1368980018000642. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29607802

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Obesity and insulin resistance play important roles in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mg intake is linked to a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance; people with NAFLD or alcoholic liver disease are at high risk of Mg deficiency. The present study aimed to investigate whether Mg and Ca intakes were associated with risk of fatty liver disease and prediabetes by alcohol drinking status.

DESIGN:

We analysed the association between Ca or Mg intake and fatty liver disease, prediabetes or both prediabetes and fatty liver disease in cross-sectional analyses.

SETTING:

Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) follow-up cohort of US adults.

SUBJECTS:

Nationally representative sample of US adults in NHANES (n 13 489).

RESULTS:

After adjusting for potential confounders, Mg intake was associated with approximately 30 % reduced odds of fatty liver disease and prediabetes, comparing the highest intake quartile v. the lowest. Mg intake may only be related to reduced odds of fatty liver disease and prediabetes in those whose Ca intake is less than 1200 mg/d. Mg intake may also only be associated with reduced odds of fatty liver disease among alcohol drinkers.

CONCLUSIONS:

The study suggests that high intake of Mg may be associated with reduced risks of fatty liver disease and prediabetes. Further large studies, particularly prospective cohort studies, are warranted to confirm the findings.

KEYWORDS:

Calcium; Fatty liver disease; Magnesium; Prediabetes

 

Aging and Intermittent Fasting Impact on Transcriptional Regulation and Physiological Responses of Adult Drosophila Neuronal and Muscle Tissues.

Zhang S, Ratliff EP, Molina B, El-Mecharrafie N, Mastroianni J, Kotzebue RW, Achal M, Mauntz RE, Gonzalez A, Barekat A, Bray WA, Macias AM, Daugherty D, Harris GL, Edwards RA, Finley KD.

Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Apr 10;19(4). pii: E1140. doi: 10.3390/ijms19041140.

PMID: 29642630

Abstract

The progressive decline of the nervous system, including protein aggregate formation, reflects the subtle dysregulation of multiple functional pathways. Our previous work has shown intermittent fasting (IF) enhances longevity, maintains adult behaviors and reduces aggregates, in part, by promoting autophagic function in the aging Drosophila brain. To clarify the impact that IF-treatment has upon aging, we used high throughput RNA-sequencing technology to examine the changing transcriptome in adult Drosophila tissues. Principle component analysis (PCA) and other analyses showed ~1200 age-related transcriptional differences in head and muscle tissues, with few genes having matching expression patterns. Pathway components showing age-dependent expression differences were involved with stress response, metabolic, neural and chromatin remodeling functions. Middle-aged tissues also showed a significant increase in transcriptional drift-variance (TD), which in the CNS included multiple proteolytic pathway components. Overall, IF-treatment had a demonstrably positive impact on aged transcriptomes, partly ameliorating both fold and variance changes. Consistent with these findings, aged IF-treated flies displayed more youthful metabolic, behavioral and basal proteolytic profiles that closely correlated with transcriptional alterations to key components. These results indicate that even modest dietary changes can have therapeutic consequences, slowing the progressive decline of multiple cellular systems, including proteostasis in the aging nervous system.

KEYWORDS:

Drosophila; RNA-sequencing; aging; aging-delaying interventions; cellular proteostasis; intermittent fasting; metabolism; neural degeneration

 

Mesenteric visceral lipectomy using tissue liquefaction technology reverses insulin resistance and causes weight loss in baboons.

Andrew MS, Huffman DM, Rodriguez-Ayala E, Williams NN, Peterson RM, Bastarrachea RA.

Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2018 Mar 9. pii: S1550-7289(18)30127-8. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2018.03.004. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29631983

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Visceral obesity is associated with diabetogenic and atherogenic abnormalities, including insulin resistance and increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases and mortality. Rodent lipectomy studies have demonstrated a causal link between visceral fat and insulin resistance, yet human omentectomy studies have failed to replicate this metabolic benefit, perhaps owing to the inability to target the mesentery.

OBJECTIVES:

We aimed to demonstrate that safe and effective removal of mesenteric fat could be achieved in obese insulin-resistant baboons using tissue liquefaction technology.

SETTING:

Southwest National Primate Research Center, San Antonio, Texas.

METHODS:

Tissue liquefaction technology has been developed to enable mesenteric visceral lipectomy (MVL) to be safely performed without disturbing the integrity of surrounding nerves and vessels in the mesentary. After an initial MVL optimization study (n = 3), we then performed MVL (n = 4) or sham surgery (n = 2) in a cohort of insulin-resistant baboons, and the metabolic phenotype was assessed via hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps at baseline and 6 weeks later.

RESULTS:

MVL led to a 75% improvement in glucose disposal at 6-weeks follow-up (P = .01). Moreover, despite removing only an average of 430 g of mesenteric fat (~1% of total body mass), MVL led to a 14.4% reduction in total weight (P = .001). Thus, these data demonstrate that mesenteric fat can be safely targeted for removal by tissue liquefaction technology in a nonhuman primate, leading to substantial metabolic improvements, including reversal of insulin resistance and weight loss.

CONCLUSIONS:

These data provide the first demonstration of successful adipose tissue removal from the mesentery in a mammal. Importantly, we have demonstrated that when MVL is performed in obese, insulin-resistant baboons, insulin resistance is reversed, and significant weight loss occurs. Therefore, trials performing MVL in humans with abdominal obesity and related metabolic sequelae should be explored as a potential clinical tool to ameliorate insulin resistance and treat type 2 diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

Hypophagia; Insulin-resistant baboons; Mesenteric fat; Metabolic improvement; Tissue liquefaction technology

 

Pattern of Daily Steps is Associated with Weight Loss: Secondary Analysis from the Step-Up Randomized Trial.

Creasy SA, Lang W, Tate DF, Davis KK, Jakicic JM.

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2018 Apr 6. doi: 10.1002/oby.22171. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29633583

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to examine the association between the amount, intensity, and pattern of steps·day-1 with weight loss.

METHODS:

Participants (N = 260; age = 42.8 ± 8.9 y; BMI = 32.8 ± 3.5 kg/m2 ) completed an 18-month weight-loss intervention that included a calorie-restricted diet and prescribed physical activity. Participants were categorized by 18-month weight loss as weight gain (GAIN), weight loss of 0% to < 5% (WL < 5%), 5% to < 10% (WL < 10%), or ≥ 10% (WL ≥ 10%). Steps·day-1 were measured at 0, 6, 12, and 18 months and defined as total steps·day-1 , total steps·day-1 of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (≥3 metabolic equivalents) in bouts of ≥ 10 minutes (BOUT-MVPA), MVPA in bouts of < 10 minutes (NON-BOUT-MVPA), or non-MVPA steps·day-1 (NON-MVPA).

RESULTS:

There was a weight-loss category by time interaction (P < 0.0001) for total and BOUT-MVPA steps·day-1 . The total steps·day-1 at 18 months were WL ≥ 10% = 9,822 (95% CI: 9,073-10,571), WL < 10% = 8,612 (7,613-9,610), WL < 5% = 7,802 (6,782-8,822), and GAIN = 7,801 (6,549-9,053). BOUT-MVPA steps·day-1 at 18 months were WL ≥ 10% = 3,482 (2,982-3,981), WL < 10% = 1,949 (1,269-2,629), WL < 5% = 1,735 (1,045-2,426), and GAIN = 1,075 (210-1,941). Participants were also categorized based on achieving ≥ 10% weight loss at either 6 or 18 months, and a similar pattern was observed.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings show that 10,000 steps·day-1 , with approximately 3,500 steps·day-1 performed as BOUT-MVPA, are associated with enhanced weight loss in a behavioral intervention.

 

Dynamic changes in morphology, gene expression and microbiome in the jejunum of compensatory-growth rats induced by protein restriction.

Zhu Y, Shi C, Niu Q, Wang J, Zhu W.

Microb Biotechnol. 2018 Apr 6. doi: 10.1111/1751-7915.13266. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29633535

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/1751-7915.13266

Abstract

We previously reported that protein-restricted rats experienced compensatory growth when they were switched to a normal protein diet (NPD). This study aimed to investigate the changes in gene expression and microbiome in the jejunum of compensatory-growth rats. Weaned Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to an N group, an LN group and an L group. The rats in the L and N groups were fed a low protein diet (LPD) and the NPD respectively. The rats in the LN group were fed with the LPD for 2 weeks, followed by the NPD. The experiment lasted 70 days, and the rats were sacrificed for sampling on days 14, 28 and 70 to determine the jejunal morphology, microbiome and gene expression related to digestive, absorptive and barrier function. The results showed that, although rats in the LN group had temporarily impaired morphology and gene expression in the jejunum on day 14 in response to the LPD, they had improved jejunal morphology and gene expression related to jejunal function on day 28 compared to rats in the N group. This improvement might promote compensatory growth of rats. However, lower expression of genes related to nutrient absorption and undifferentiated villous height (VH) were observed in the jejunum of rats in the LN group on day 70. In contrast, rats in the L group had lower VH on day 28 and day 70, while the expression of absorptive genes increased on day 28 compared to rats in the N group. Additionally, dramatic microbial changes in the jejunum of compensatory-growth rats were observed, principally for Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus. Moreover, the abundance of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus significantly correlated with gene expression in the jejunum as revealed by the correlation analysis.

 

Should We Be Eating Fewer Avocados & More Legumes? Dr. Valter Longo Shares The Secrets Of Longevity

Jason Wachob

https://www.mindbodygreen.com/articles/mbg-podcast-valter-longo

 

Associations of Fitness, Physical Activity, Strength, and Genetic Risk With Cardiovascular Disease: Longitudinal Analyses in the UK Biobank Study.

Tikkanen E, Gustafsson S, Ingelsson E.

Circulation. 2018 Apr 9. pii: CIRCULATIONAHA.117.032432. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.032432. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29632216

http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/circulationaha/early/2018/04/04/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.032432.full.pdf

Abstract

Background -Observational studies have shown inverse associations among fitness, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about these associations in individuals with elevated genetic susceptibility for these diseases. Methods -We estimated associations of grip strength, objective and subjective physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular events and all-cause death in a large cohort of 502635 individuals from the UK Biobank (median follow-up, 6.1 years; interquartile range, 5.4-6.8 years). Then we further examined these associations in individuals with different genetic burden by stratifying individuals based on their genetic risk scores for coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation. We compared disease risk among individuals in different tertiles of fitness, physical activity, and genetic risk using lowest tertiles as reference. Results -Grip strength, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness showed inverse associations with incident cardiovascular events (coronary heart disease: hazard ratio {HR}, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77- 0.81; HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.97; and HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.63-0.74, per SD change, respectively; atrial fibrillation: HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.73- 0.76; HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.91-0.95; and HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.56-0.65, per SD change, respectively). Higher grip strength and cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with lower risk of incident coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation in each genetic risk score group (Ptrend <0.001 in each genetic risk category). In particular, high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with 49% lower risk for coronary heart disease (HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.38-0.69) and 60% lower risk for atrial fibrillation (HR, 0.40; 95%, CI 0.30-0.55) among individuals at high genetic risk for these diseases. Conclusions - Fitness and physical activity demonstrated inverse associations with incident cardiovascular disease in the general population, as well as in individuals with elevated genetic risk for these diseases.

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular disease; epidemiology; fitness; genetics; physical activity

Edited by AlPater

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Association of 25-OH Vitamin D Status with Findings on Screening Colonoscopy.

Bryce C.

Mil Med. 2018 Mar 1;183(suppl_1):547-551. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usx152.

PMID: 29635620

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Greater serum levels and dietary intake of vitamin D have been inversely associated with the risk of multiple cancers including colon cancer. Most colorectal cancers are thought to arise from adenomatous polyps, which become dysplastic under the influence of numerous factors. Prospective data are needed to distinguish between association or a causative role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer.

METHODS:

A prospective cohort study was designed, located at a hospital-based screening colonoscopy referral center, including Department of Defense beneficiaries aged 18 yr or older. A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was drawn, and colonoscopy findings were recorded. A power calculation using p = 0.8, alpha = 0.05 generated a necessary sample size of n = 224 to detect an association between vitamin D level and adenomatous polyp. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate associations between outcomes, adjusted for known risk factors.

RESULTS:

Of final population (n) = 228, 155 (68%) were diagnosed with vitamin D insufficiency (<30 ng/mL) and 104 (46%) were found to have adenomatous polyps. Adjusted odds ratio for adenomatous colon polyp given vitamin D <30 ng/mL = 1.16 (95% CI 0.57-2.36).

CONCLUSIONS:

Serum vitamin D level was not associated with increased adenomatous polyp detection at screening colonoscopy in this population.

 

Fat intake and risk of skin cancer in US adults.

Park MK, Li WQ, Qureshi AA, Cho E.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018 Apr 10. pii: cebp.0782.2017. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-17-0782. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29636341

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Fat intake has been associated with certain cancers, including colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers. However, literature on dietary fat and skin cancer has been limited.

METHODS:

We examined the association between fat intake and risk of skin cancer including cutaneous malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) within two prospective studies; the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Dietary information on total, saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, omega-6, and omega-3 fat and cholesterol was repeatedly assessed generally every 4 years. Incident cases were identified by self-report. Diagnosis on melanoma and SCC were confirmed by pathologic records.

RESULTS:

A total of 794 melanoma, 2,223 SCC, and 17,556 BCC in the NHS (1984 to 2012) and 736 melanoma, 1,756 SCC, and 13,092 BCC in the HPFS (1986 to 2012) were documented. Higher polyunsaturated fat intake was associated with risk of SCC (pooled hazard ratio (HR) for highest vs. lowest quintiles, 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.28; Ptrend=0.001) and BCC (pooled HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.11; Ptrend=0.01). Higher omega-6 fat intake was associated with risks of SCC, BCC, and melanoma. Omega-3 fat intake was associated with risk of BCC, but not with SCC or melanoma. No other fats were associated with melanoma risk. The associations were similar in women and men and by other skin cancer risk factors.

CONCLUSIONS:

Polyunsaturated fat intake was modestly associated with skin cancer risk.

IMPACT:

Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to identify relevant biological mechanisms.

 

Still reduced cardiovascular mortality 12 years after supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years: A validation of previous 10-year follow-up results of a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in elderly.

Alehagen U, Aaseth J, Alexander J, Johansson P.

PLoS One. 2018 Apr 11;13(4):e0193120. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193120. eCollection 2018.

PMID: 29641571 Free Article

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193120

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193120&type=printable

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Selenium and coenzyme Q10 are both necessary for optimal cell function in the body. The intake of selenium is low in Europe, and the endogenous production of coenzyme Q10 decreases as age increases. Therefore, an intervention trial using selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years as a dietary supplement was performed. The main publication reported reduced cardiovascular mortality as a result of the intervention. In the present sub-study the objective was to determine whether reduced cardiovascular (CV) mortality persisted after 12 years, in the supplemented population or in subgroups with diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease or reduced functional capacity due to impaired cardiac function.

METHODS:

From a rural municipality in Sweden, four hundred forty-three healthy elderly individuals were included. All cardiovascular mortality was registered, and no participant was lost to the follow-up. Based on death certificates and autopsy results, mortality was registered.

FINDINGS:

After 12 years a significantly reduced CV mortality could be seen in those supplemented with selenium and coenzyme Q10, with a CV mortality of 28.1% in the active treatment group, and 38.7% in the placebo group. A multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated a reduced CV mortality risk in the active treatment group (HR: 0.59; 95%CI 0.42-0.81; P = 0.001). In those with ischemic heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and impaired functional capacity we demonstrated a significantly reduced CV mortality risk.

CONCLUSIONS:

This is a 12-year follow-up of a group of healthy elderly participants that were supplemented with selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years. Even after twelve years we observed a significantly reduced risk for CV mortality in this group, as well as in subgroups of patients with diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease or impaired functional capacity. The results thus validate the results obtained in the 10-year evaluation. The protective action was not confined to the intervention period, but persisted during the follow-up period. The mechanisms behind this effect remain to be fully elucidated, although various effects on cardiac function, oxidative stress, fibrosis and inflammation have previously been identified. Since this was a small study, the observations should be regarded as hypothesis-generating.

 

Integration of risk factors for Parkinson disease in 2 large longitudinal cohorts.

Kim IY, O'Reilly ÉJ, Hughes KC, Gao X, Schwarzschild MA, Hannan MT, Betensky RA, Ascherio A.

Neurology. 2018 Apr 11. pii: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000005473. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000005473. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29643081

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To prospectively examine how selected lifestyle factors and family history of Parkinson disease (PD) combine to determine overall PD risk.

METHODS:

We derived risk scores among 69,968 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (1984-2012) and 45,830 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) (1986-2012). Risk scores were computed for each individual based on the following factors previously associated with PD risk: total caffeine intake, smoking, physical activity, and family history of PD for the NHS, and additionally total flavonoid intake and dietary urate index for the HPFS. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. In addition, we performed tests of interactions on both the multiplicative and additive scale between pairs of risk factors.

RESULTS:

We documented 1,117 incident PD cases during follow-up. The adjusted hazard ratios comparing individuals in the highest category of the reduced risk score to those in the lowest category were 0.33 (95% confidence interval: 0.21, 0.49; ptrend < 0.0001) in the NHS and 0.18 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.32; ptrend < 0.0001) in the HPFS. Results were similar when applying the risk scores computed by summing the predictors weighted by the log of their individual effect sizes on PD risk in these cohorts. Additive interaction was present between no family history of PD and caffeine in men and between caffeine and physical activity in women.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results suggest that known protective factors for PD tend to have additive or superadditive effects, so that PD risk is very low in individuals with multiple protective risk factors.

 

Vitamin C intake in relation to bone mineral density and risk of hip fracture and osteoporosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Malmir H, Shab-Bidar S, Djafarian K.

Br J Nutr. 2018 Apr;119(8):847-858. doi: 10.1017/S0007114518000430.

PMID: 29644950

Abstract

We aimed to systematically review available data on the association between vitamin C intake and bone mineral density (BMD), as well as risk of fractures and osteoporosis, and to summarise this information through a meta-analysis. Previous studies on vitamin C intake in relation to BMD and risk of fracture and osteoporosis were selected through searching PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar databases before February 2017, using MeSH and text words. To pool data, either a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model was used, and for assessing heterogeneity, Cochran's Q and I 2 tests were used. Subgroup analysis was applied to define possible sources of heterogeneity. Greater dietary vitamin C intake was positively associated with BMD at femoral neck (pooled r 0·18; 0·06, 0·30) and lumbar spine (pooled r 0·14; 95 % CI 0·06, 0·22); however, significant between-study heterogeneity was found at femoral neck: I 2=87·6 %, P heterogeneity<0·001. In addition, we found a non-significant association between dietary vitamin C intake and the risk of hip fracture (overall relative risk=0·74; 95 % CI 0·51, 1·08). Significant between-study heterogeneity was found (I 2=79·1 %, P heterogeneity<0·001), and subgroup analysis indicated that study design, sex and age were the main sources of heterogeneity. Greater dietary vitamin C intake was associated with a 33 % lower risk of osteoporosis (overall relative risk=0·67; 95 % CI 0·47, 0·94). Greater dietary vitamin C intake was associated with a lower risk of hip fracture and osteoporosis, as well as higher BMD, at femoral neck and lumbar spine.

KEYWORDS:

BMD bone mineral density; RR relative risk; Bone mineral density; Fractures; Meta-analyses; Osteoporosis; Vitamin C

 

Strategies for Optimal Cardiovascular Aging.

Seals DR, Brunt VE, Rossman MJ.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2018 Apr 13. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00734.2017. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29652545

Abstract

This review summarizes the opening keynote presentation overview of the American Physiological Society conference on Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends held in Westminster, CO, in August 2017. Age is the primary risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Without effective intervention, increased numbers of older adults in the future will translate to greater prevalence of CVD and related disorders. Advancing age increases the risk of CVD partly via direct effects on the heart and through increases in blood pressure; however, much of the risk is mediated by arterial dysfunction, including large elastic artery stiffening and both macro- and micro-vascular endothelial dysfunction. Although excessive superoxide-related oxidative stress and chronic low-grade inflammation are the major processes driving cardiovascular aging, the upstream mechanisms involved represent new frontiers of investigation and potential therapeutic targets. Lifestyle practices, including aerobic exercise, energy intake (caloric) restriction, and healthy diet composition are the most evidence-based strategies (old friends) for optimal cardiovascular aging, but adherence is poor in some groups. Healthy lifestyle "mimicking" approaches, including novel forms of physical training, intermittent fasting paradigms, exercise/healthy diet-inspired nutraceuticals (functional foods and natural supplements), as well as controlled environmental stress exposure (e.g., heat therapy), may hold promise, but are unproven. Mitigating the adverse effects of aging on cardiovascular function and health is a high biomedical priority.

KEYWORDS:

caloric restriction; energy-sensing; mitochondrial dysfunction; nitric oxide

 

Low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet impairs anaerobic exercise performance in exercise-trained women and men: a randomized-sequence crossover trial.

Wroble KA, Trott MN, Schweitzer GG, Rahman RS, Kelly PV, Weiss EP.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2018 Apr 4. doi: 10.23736/S0022-4707.18.08318-4. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29619799

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets cause mild, sub-clinical systemic acidosis. Anaerobic exercise performance is limited by acidosis. Therefore, we evaluated the hypothesis that a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet impairs anaerobic exercise performance, as compared to a high-carbohydrate diet.

METHODS:

Sixteen men and women (BMI, 23±1 kg/m2, age 23±1 yr) participated in a randomized-sequence, counterbalanced crossover study in which they underwent exercise testing after four days of either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LC; <50 g/day and <10% of energy from carbohydrates) or a high-carbohydrate diet (HC; 6-10 g/kg/day carbohydrate). Dietary compliance was assessed with nutrient analysis of diet records, and with measures of urine pH and ketones. Anaerobic exercise performance was evaluated with the Wingate anaerobic cycling test and the yo-yo intermittent recovery test.

RESULTS:

The diets were matched for total energy (LC: 2333±158 kcal/d; HC: 2280±160 kcal/d; p=0.65) but differed in carbohydrate content (9±1 vs. 63±2% of energy intake; p<0.001). LC resulted in lower urine pH (5.9±0.1 vs. 6.3±0.2, p=0.004) and the appearance of urine ketones in every participant. LC resulted in 7% lower peak power (801±58 vs. 857±61 watts, p=0.008) and 6% lower mean power (564±50 vs. 598±51 watts, p=0.01) during the Wingate test. Total distance ran in the yo-yo intermittent recovery test was 15% less after LC diet (887±139 vs. 1045±145 meters, p=0.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

Short-term low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets reduce exercise performance in activities that are heavily dependent on anaerobic energy systems. These findings have clear performance implications for athletes, especially for high-intensity, short duration activities and sports.

 

Consumption of meat in relation to physical functioning in the Seniors-ENRICA cohort.

Struijk EA, Banegas JR, Rodríguez-Artalejo F, Lopez-Garcia E.

BMC Med. 2018 Apr 5;16(1):50. doi: 10.1186/s12916-018-1036-4.

PMID: 29622014 Free PMC Article

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5887175/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5887175/pdf/12916_2018_Article_1036.pdf

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Meat is an important source of high-quality protein and vitamin B but also has a relatively high content of saturated and trans fatty acids. Although protein and vitamin B intake seems to protect people from functional limitations, little is known about the effect of habitual meat consumption on physical function. The objective of this study was to examine the prospective association between the intake of meat (processed meat, red meat, and poultry) and physical function impairment in older adults.

METHODS:

Data were collected for 2982 participants in the Seniors-ENRICA cohort, who were aged ≥60 years and free of physical function impairment. In 2008-2010, their habitual diet was assessed through a validated computer-assisted face-to-face diet history. Study participants were followed up through 2015 to assess self-reported incident impairment in agility, mobility, and performance-based lower-extremity function.

RESULTS:

Over a median follow-up of 5.2 years, we identified 625 participants with impaired agility, 455 with impaired mobility, and 446 with impaired lower-extremity function. After adjustment for potential confounders, processed meat intake was associated with a higher risk of impaired agility (hazard ratio {HR} for highest vs. lowest tertile: 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.64; p trend = 0.01) and of impaired lower-extremity function (HR for highest vs. lowest tertile: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02-1.68; p trend = 0.04). No significant associations were found for red meat and poultry. Replacing one serving per day of processed meat with one serving per day of red meat, poultry, or with other important protein sources (fish, legumes, dairy, and nuts) was associated with lower risk of impaired agility and lower-extremity function.

CONCLUSIONS:

A higher consumption of processed meat was associated with a higher risk of impairment in agility and lower-extremity function. Replacing processed meat by other protein sources may slow the decline in physical functioning in older adults.

KEYWORDS:

Agility; Elderly; Meat intake; Mobility; Physical functioning; Poultry; Processed meat; Red meat; SPPB

 

The effects of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplementation on blood parameters of renal function: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials.

Firouzi S, Haghighatdoost F.

Nutrition. 2018 Feb 6;51-52:104-113. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2018.01.007. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 29626749

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Recent studies have demonstrated promising results regarding possible improvements in renal function after prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplementation. The aim of this review was to demonstrate whether such supplementation will improve renal profile indexes including glomerular filtration rate (GFR), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (UA), and urea.

METHOD:

The meta-analysis included all studies that examined the effect of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplements on one or more renal function parameters and had a control group. We searched July 1967 through to March 2016 MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases.

RESULTS:

Of 437 studies, 13 were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. GFR levels tended to be reduced; whereas creatinine levels increased in the intervention group compared with the placebo group, both in a non-significant manner. The pooled effect on BUN demonstrated a significant decline compared with the placebo group (MD, -1.72 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.93 to -0.51; P = 0.005). Urea significantly decreased after intervention (-0.46 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.60 to -0.32; P <0.0001). The UA levels significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the placebo group (12.28 µmol/L; 95% CI, 0.85-23.71; P = 0.035).

CONCLUSION:

This study showed a significant increase in UA and a decrease in urea and BUN. The use of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplements among those with compromised renal function or those at risk for renal failure should be limited until large-scale, well-designed randomized controlled trials prove the safety and efficacy of these supplements in improving renal function.

KEYWORDS:

Blood urea nitrogen; Creatinine; Glomerular filtration rate; Prebiotic; Probiotic

 

Cancer and vitamin D supplementation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Goulão B, Stewart F, Ford JA, MacLennan G, Avenell A.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 Apr 1;107(4):652-663. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqx047.

PMID: 29635490

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D status has been associated with a higher risk of cancer in epidemiologic studies.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of vitamin D supplementation alone on cancer incidence and mortality.

DESIGN:

A systematic review was undertaken. MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, conference abstracts, and clinical trial registries were searched (last search March 2017) for RCTs investigating vitamin D supplementation alone. RCTs with ≥12 mo of follow-up and in participants with a mean or median age ≥60 y were eligible. During-study events were used as the main analysis, but after-study events were included in a secondary analysis. Subgroup analyses concerning different forms of vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D status at baseline, vitamin D dose, and exclusion of open-label trials were undertaken.

RESULTS:

Thirty studies in 18,808 participants were included in the systematic review, with a median follow-up ranging from 1 to 6.2 y. The results of the meta-analysis for during-study events showed no evidence of an effect of vitamin D supplementation for cancer incidence (RR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.15) and cancer-related deaths (RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.04). Including after-study events, the RRs were 1.02 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.13) and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), respectively. These results did not appear to be affected by baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D status, vitamin D dose, or the exclusion of open-label trials.

CONCLUSION:

We did not find evidence to suggest that vitamin D supplementation alone reduces the incidence of cancer or cancer mortality, even after including long-term follow-up results.

 

The Necessity of Active Muscle Metabolism for Healthy Aging: Muscular Activity Throughout the Entire Day.

Hamilton MT, Hamilton DG, Zderic TW.

Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2018;155:53-68. doi: 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2017.12.014. Epub 2018 Feb 24.

PMID: 29653682

Abstract

There is more need for "a movement-movement" than ever before. The percentage of seniors in our population is rising exponentially. Sedentary lifestyles throughout the lifespan have become the norm, including inactive youth and a sedentary workforce. Preventable chronic diseases caused by sedentary living have both lowered the quality of life for those directly affected or their families, and have created an unsustainable economic dilemma. In this article, we explain that whether it is a sedentary student, worker, or retiree, the most neglected but essential facts are as follows. By far, the most potent and rapid way to raise the rate of healthy metabolic and cardiovascular processes is through the immediate benefits of muscle contractions. Working muscle demands more energy and fuel than any other tissue in the body, but during inactivity the metabolic rate of muscle is relatively low. Depending on the type of contraction, muscle type, and other factors, the local fuel requirements within the working muscle can help to manage metabolic risks through a variety of processes, such as blood glucose utilization, uptake of unhealthy blood triglycerides, and increased blood flow. Given the large amount of time that people spend inactive each day, there is an enormous opportunity to raise the bar in optimizing health throughout the entire lifespan. Developed correctly, safe and low effort muscular activity can be performed for relatively long periods of time each day by the elderly and all segments of the population to optimize health and well being during aging.

KEYWORDS:

aging; chronic disease; corporate wellness; diabetes; elderly; exercise; physical activity; sedentary behavior; sitting

 

Dwarf Mice and Aging.

Masternak MM, Darcy J, Victoria B, Bartke A.

Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2018;155:69-83. doi: 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2017.12.002. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

PMID: 29653683

Abstract

Dwarf mice have been studied for many decades, however, the focus of these studies shifted in 1996 when it was shown by Brown-Borg and her coworkers that Ames dwarf (Prop1df) mice are exceptionally long-lived. Since then, Snell dwarf (Pit1dw) and growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-KO, a.k.a. Laron dwarf) mice were also shown to be exceptionally long-lived, presumably due to their growth hormone (GH)-deficiency or -resistance, respectively. What is of equal importance in these dwarf mice is their extended health span, that is, these animals have a longer period of life lived free of frailty and age-related diseases. This review article focuses on recent studies conducted in these dwarf mice, which concerned brown and white adipose tissue biology, microRNA (miRNA) profiling, as well as early-life dietary and hormonal interventions. Results of these studies identify novel mechanisms linking reduced GH action with extensions of both life span and health span.

KEYWORDS:

Ames dwarf; GHR-KO; aging; dwarf; growth hormone

 

Lycopene Protects Against Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer Formation in Laying Hens.

Sahin K, Yenice E, Tuzcu M, Orhan C, Mizrak C, Ozercan IH, Sahin N, Yilmaz B, Bilir B, Ozpolat B, Kucuk O.

J Cancer Prev. 2018 Mar;23(1):25-36. doi: 10.15430/JCP.2018.23.1.25. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

PMID: 29629346 Free PMC Article

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5886492/

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Dietary intake of lycopene has been associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against ovarian carcinogenesis. Lycopene's molecular mechanisms of action in ovarian cancer have not been fully understood. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of lycopene on the ovarian cancer formation using the laying hen model, a biologically relevant animal model of spontaneous ovarian carcinogenesis due to high incidence rates similar to humans.

METHODS:

In this study, a total of 150 laying hens at age of 102 weeks were randomized into groups of 50: a control group (0 mg of lycopene per kg of diet) and two treatment groups (200 mg or 400 mg of lycopene per kg of diet, or ~26 and 52 mg/d/hen, respectively). At the end of 12 months, blood, ovarian tissues and tumors were collected.

RESULTS:

We observed that lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the overall ovarian tumor incidence (P < 0.01) as well as the number and the size of the tumors (P < 0.004 and P < 0.005, respectively). Lycopene also significantly decreased the rate of adenocarcinoma, including serous and mucinous subtypes (P < 0.006). Moreover, we also found that the serum level of oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde was significantly lower in lycopene-fed hens compared to control birds (P < 0.001). Molecular analysis of the ovarian tumors revealed that lycopene reduced the expression of NF-κB while increasing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 and its major target protein, heme oxygenase 1. In addition, lycopene supplementation decreased the expression of STAT3 by inducing the protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 expression in the ovarian tissues.

CONCLUSIONS:

Taken together, our findings strongly support the potential of lycopene in the chemoprevention of ovarian cancer through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

KEYWORDS:

Chemoprevention; Laying hen model; Lycopene; Ovarian cancer; Transcription factors

 

Light Alcohol Consumption Does Not Protect Cognitive Function: A Longitudinal Prospective Study.

Hassing LB.

Front Aging Neurosci. 2018 Mar 26;10:81. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2018.00081. eCollection 2018.

PMID: 29632484 Free PMC Article

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5879951/pdf/fnagi-10-00081.pdf

Abstract

Studies show that light to moderate alcohol consumption is related to better health and higher cognitive performance. However, it has been suggested that this association is caused by a systematic bias in the control group as many people abstain from drinking or quit because of health issues. Therefore, the group of non-drinkers is biased towards poor health and may not be suitable as a control group. The present study examined the effect of alcohol on cognitive performance while addressing this bias by excluding the non-drinkers. Thus, instead of comparing different levels of alcohol consumption to a non-drinking control group, a dose-response association was calculated between all levels of alcohol intake and cognitive performance. The study used information from a sample of people in the Swedish Twin Registry, who in their midlife (1967) participated in a survey on alcohol intake and 25 years later participated in a longitudinal study on cognitive aging (N = 486). The cognitive aging study took place on five occasions, at 2-year intervals, and included the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), tests of episodic memory, semantic memory and spatial ability. The association between midlife alcohol consumption and later cognitive performance was analyzed using growth curve models, adjusting for background variables. The findings showed that there was a significant negative dose-response association between alcohol intake in midlife and the MMSE, and the tests of episodic memory, such that higher intake in midlife was related to lower performance in old age. The associations between alcohol and semantic memory, and spatial ability respectively, were not significant. In contrast to findings from other studies, which show that low to moderate alcohol intake promotes cognitive function, the current study showed that alcohol intake was related to lower cognitive performance in a dose-response manner, even at low levels. The results from this study indicate that the observed benefits of moderate alcohol intake for cognitive function reported by others might be solely due to comparisons to an inappropriate control group, a group that is biased towards poor health. Hence, it is concluded that light alcohol intake may not protect cognitive function.

KEYWORDS:

abstainer bias; alcohol consumption; cognitive aging; longitudinal study; memory

 

Lung cancer patients live longer with immune therapy, study suggests

Immune therapy treatments worked for only about half of patients, but that's far better than chemo has done

The Associated Press · Posted: Apr 16, 2018

http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/keytruda-1.4621895

NEJM

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Pembrolizumab plus Chemotherapy in Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Gandhi L, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Gadgeel S, Esteban E, Felip E, De Angelis F, Domine M, Clingan P, Hochmair MJ, Powell SF, Cheng SY, Bischoff HG, Peled N, Grossi F, Jennens RR, Reck M, Hui R, Garon EB, Boyer M, Rubio-Viqueira B, Novello S, Kurata T, Gray JE, Vida J, Wei Z, Yang J, Raftopoulos H, Pietanza MC, Garassino MC; KEYNOTE-189 Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2018 Apr 16. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1801005. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29658856

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1801005

Abstract

Background First-line therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that lacks targetable mutations is platinum-based chemotherapy. Among patients with a tumor proportion score for programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) of 50% or greater, pembrolizumab has replaced cytotoxic chemotherapy as the first-line treatment of choice. The addition of pembrolizumab to chemotherapy resulted in significantly higher rates of response and longer progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone in a phase 2 trial. Methods In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) 616 patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC without sensitizing EGFR or ALK mutations who had received no previous treatment for metastatic disease to receive pemetrexed and a platinum-based drug plus either 200 mg of pembrolizumab or placebo every 3 weeks for 4 cycles, followed by pembrolizumab or placebo for up to a total of 35 cycles plus pemetrexed maintenance therapy. Crossover to pembrolizumab monotherapy was permitted among the patients in the placebo-combination group who had verified disease progression. The primary end points were overall survival and progression-free survival, as assessed by blinded, independent central radiologic review. Results After a median follow-up of 10.5 months, the estimated rate of overall survival at 12 months was 69.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.1 to 73.8) in the pembrolizumab-combination group versus 49.4% (95% CI, 42.1 to 56.2) in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio for death, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; P<0.001). Improvement in overall survival was seen across all PD-L1 categories that were evaluated. Median progression-free survival was 8.8 months (95% CI, 7.6 to 9.2) in the pembrolizumab-combination group and 4.9 months (95% CI, 4.7 to 5.5) in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.64; P<0.001). Adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 67.2% of the patients in the pembrolizumab-combination group and in 65.8% of those in the placebo-combination group. Conclusions In patients with previously untreated metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC without EGFR or ALK mutations, the addition of pembrolizumab to standard chemotherapy of pemetrexed and a platinum-based drug resulted in significantly longer overall survival and progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone.

 

The State of US Health, 1990-2016: Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Among US States.

US Burden of Disease Collaborators, Mokdad AH, Ballestros K, Echko M, Glenn S, Olsen HE, Mullany E, Lee A, Khan AR, Ahmadi A, Ferrari AJ, Kasaeian A, Werdecker A, Carter A, Zipkin B, Sartorius B, Serdar B, Sykes BL, Troeger C, Fitzmaurice C, Rehm CD, Santomauro D, Kim D, Colombara D, Schwebel DC, Tsoi D, Kolte D, Nsoesie E, Nichols E, Oren E, Charlson FJ, Patton GC, Roth GA, Hosgood HD, Whiteford HA, Kyu H, Erskine HE, Huang H, Martopullo I, Singh JA, Nachega JB, Sanabria JR, Abbas K, Ong K, Tabb K, Krohn KJ, Cornaby L, Degenhardt L, Moses M, Farvid M, Griswold M, Criqui M, Bell M, Nguyen M, Wallin M, Mirarefin M, Qorbani M, Younis M, Fullman N, Liu P, Briant P, Gona P, Havmoller R, Leung R, Kimokoti R, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Hay SI, Yadgir S, Biryukov S, Vollset SE, Alam T, Frank T, Farid T, Miller T, Vos T, Bärnighausen T, Gebrehiwot TT, Yano Y, Al-Aly Z, Mehari A, Handal A, Kandel A, Anderson B, Biroscak B, Mozaffarian D, Dorsey ER, Ding EL, Park EK, Wagner G, Hu G, Chen H, Sunshine JE, Khubchandani J, Leasher J, Leung J, Salomon J, Unutzer J, Cahill L, Cooper L, Horino M, Brauer M, Breitborde N, Hotez P, Topor-Madry R, Soneji S, Stranges S, James S, Amrock S, Jayaraman S, Patel T, Akinyemiju T, Skirbekk V, Kinfu Y, Bhutta Z, Jonas JB, Murray CJL.

JAMA. 2018 Apr 10;319(14):1444-1472. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.0158.

PMID: 29634829

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2678018

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Several studies have measured health outcomes in the United States, but none have provided a comprehensive assessment of patterns of health by state.

OBJECTIVE:

To use the results of the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) to report trends in the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors at the state level from 1990 to 2016.

DESIGN AND SETTING:

A systematic analysis of published studies and available data sources estimates the burden of disease by age, sex, geography, and year.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Prevalence, incidence, mortality, life expectancy, healthy life expectancy (HALE), years of life lost (YLLs) due to premature mortality, years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 causes and 84 risk factors with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) were computed.

RESULTS:

Between 1990 and 2016, overall death rates in the United States declined from 745.2 (95% UI, 740.6 to 749.8) per 100 000 persons to 578.0 (95% UI, 569.4 to 587.1) per 100 000 persons. The probability of death among adults aged 20 to 55 years declined in 31 states and Washington, DC from 1990 to 2016. In 2016, Hawaii had the highest life expectancy at birth (81.3 years) and Mississippi had the lowest (74.7 years), a 6.6-year difference. Minnesota had the highest HALE at birth (70.3 years), and West Virginia had the lowest (63.8 years), a 6.5-year difference. The leading causes of DALYs in the United States for 1990 and 2016 were ischemic heart disease and lung cancer, while the third leading cause in 1990 was low back pain, and the third leading cause in 2016 was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Opioid use disorders moved from the 11th leading cause of DALYs in 1990 to the 7th leading cause in 2016, representing a 74.5% (95% UI, 42.8% to 93.9%) change. In 2016, each of the following 6 risks individually accounted for more than 5% of risk-attributable DALYs: tobacco consumption, high body mass index (BMI), poor diet, alcohol and drug use, high fasting plasma glucose, and high blood pressure. Across all US states, the top risk factors in terms of attributable DALYs were due to 1 of the 3 following causes: tobacco consumption (32 states), high BMI (10 states), or alcohol and drug use (8 states).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

There are wide differences in the burden of disease at the state level. Specific diseases and risk factors, such as drug use disorders, high BMI, poor diet, high fasting plasma glucose level, and alcohol use disorders are increasing and warrant increased attention. These data can be used to inform national health priorities for research, clinical care, and policy.

 

Interactions of coffee consumption and postmenopausal hormone use in relation to breast cancer risk in UK Biobank.

Yaghjyan L, Rich S, Mao L, Mai V, Egan KM.

Cancer Causes Control. 2018 Apr 12. doi: 10.1007/s10552-018-1028-x. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29651651

Abstract

PURPOSE:

We investigated the association of coffee consumption with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, overall and by the status of postmenopausal hormone therapy (PMH).

METHODS:

This study included 126,182 postmenopausal women (2,636 with breast cancer and 123,546 without) from UK Biobank. Cancer diagnoses were ascertained through the linkage to the UK National Health Service Central Registers. Information on breast cancer risk factors and coffee consumption was collected at baseline and updated during follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate associations between coffee consumption and breast cancer, overall and in stratified analyses by woman's PMH status (none, past, current).

RESULTS:

In the overall analysis, coffee consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk (Hazard Ratio {HR} 1.00, 95% CI 0.91-1.11 for 2-3 cups/day, and HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.87-1.10 for ≥ 4 cups/day, p-trend = 0.69). Women with no PMH history who consumed ≥ 4 cups/day had a 16% reduced risk of breast cancer as compared to women who consumed < 7 cups/week (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71-1.00). Among women with past PMH, those consuming ≥ 4 cups/day had a 22% greater risk of breast cancer than women consuming < 7 cups/week (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.47). No association was found among current PMH users. We found no significant interaction between PMH and coffee consumption (p = 0.24).

CONCLUSIONS:

Coffee consumption might be associated with increased breast cancer risk in women who used hormones in the past. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and elucidate potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed associations.

KEYWORDS:

Breast cancer risk; Coffee intake; Postmenopausal hormones; UK Biobank

 

Long-term Care Status in Centenarians and Younger Cohorts of Oldest Old in the Last 6 Years of Life: Trajectories and Potential Mechanisms.

Gellert P, Eggert S, Zwillich C, Hörter S, Kuhlmey A, Dräger D.

J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2018 Apr 13. pii: S1525-8610(18)30098-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2018.02.010. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29656837

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

A large proportion of the oldest old and centenarians live in long-term care facilities. Although there may be distinct care patterns in centenarians compared with other cohorts of oldest old, the exact development concerning prevalence, length of stay, and factors that are associated with long-term care status in the last years before death is unknown.

DESIGN:

Longitudinal analyses of health insurance data across 6 years before death.

SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:

In all, 1398 institutionalized and noninstitutionalized oldest old [deceased at 80-89 (octogenarians), 90-99 (nonagenarians), or over 100 years of age (centenarians)] from Germany were included. Long-term care status and transition from home care into long-term care over 6 years (34,740 person-quarters).

MEASUREMENTS:

Dementia, musculoskeletal diseases, multimorbidity, hospital admission, gender, and age at death were derived from administrative data and analyzed using binary generalized estimating equations.

RESULTS:

Although the initial level of long-term care (6 years before death) was higher among centenarians (65.1% vs 53.6% in nonagenarians; 36.2% in octogenarians), the rate of increase was stronger in the younger cohorts. Distinguishing between long-term care escapers, delayers, and survivors, the proportion of those who escaped, delayed, or survived the entire 6 years of observation in long-term care was 33.4%/40.4%/26.2% in centenarians, 45.0%/45.1%/9.9% in nonagenarians, and 62.7%/33.7%/3.6% in octogenarians. Age, hospital admissions, and dementia were positively associated with being in long-term care, whereas musculoskeletal disorders were negatively associated with long-term care. The association with dementia was significantly weaker in centenarians.

CONCLUSIONS:

For centenarians, although they are more often in long-term care, the transition rate to long-term care progressed more slowly than the rates of the younger comparison cohorts of oldest old. The high proportion of long stays of centenarians in long-term care facilities require different concepts of long-term care.

KEYWORDS:

Centenarians; nursing home

 

Coffee and tea drinking in relation to risk of hip fracture in the Singapore Chinese Health Study.

Dai Z, Jin A, Soh AZ, Ang LW, Yuan JM, Koh WP.

Bone. 2018 Apr 13. pii: S8756-3282(18)30156-X. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2018.04.010. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29660426

Abstract

Meta-analyses of studies conducted among Western populations suggest that coffee consumption does not affect osteoporotic fracture risk. However, experimental studies have shown that the effect of caffeine on bone health may depend on dosage. We examined the associations between consumption of coffee, tea and caffeine and risk of hip fracture in an Asian cohort. In a population-based prospective cohort of 63,257 Chinese men and women aged 45-74 years in Singapore, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess habitual consumption of coffee and tea at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for risk of hip fracture with adjustment for potential confounders. During a mean follow-up of 16.7 years, 2502 incident hip fracture cases were identified. Compared to coffee drinkers <1 cup/week, those who drank ≥4 cups/day had a statistically significant higher risk to develop hip fractures, the HR (95% CI) was 1.32 (1.07, 1.63) in the whole cohort analysis, 1.46 (1.01, 2.10) for men and 1.33 (1.02, 1.72) for women. Among postmenopausal women, compared to those who drank coffee <1 cup/week, drinking 2-3 cups/day was associated with the lowest risk [hr: 0.88 (0.76, 1.01)] and drinking ≥4 cups/d was associated with the highest risk [hr: 1.31 (1.00, 1.71)]. Similar associations with caffeine intake were found among postmenopausal women. Restricted spline analyses suggested a non-linear association between coffee/caffeine consumption and hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women (p for non-linearity ≤ 0.05). No association was found with tea consumption in either sex. These data suggest that drinking coffee ≥4 cups/day is associated with a higher hip fracture risk, while a moderate intake may alleviate risk in postmenopausal women. Future studies should corroborate these results to determine levels of optimal coffee consumption in relation to bone health.

KEYWORDS:

Caffeine; Chinese; Coffee; Hip fracture; Tea

 

Impact of Early High-protein Diet on Neurofunctional Recovery in Rats with Ischemic Stroke.

Ji M, Li S, Dong Q, Hu W.

Med Sci Monit. 2018 Apr 14;24:2235-2243.

PMID: 29654641

Abstract

BACKGROUND Ischemic stroke, featuring high incidence, morbidity, and mortality, is one of the three major diseases troubling human beings. The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of early high-protein diet on neurofunctional recovery in rats with ischemic stroke as well as their cerebral infarct areas and molecular expressions of oxidative stress. MATERIAL AND METHODS The middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) was established, and 48 adult, male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats of clean grade aged seven to eight months (250-280 g body weight) were randomized into four groups: the MCAO group with high-protein diet (MH), the MCAO group with standard-protein diet (MS), the sham group with high-protein diet (SH), and the sham group with standard-protein diet (SS). High-protein diet intervention started on the first day of the surgery, and the rats' body weights and their neurological deficit scores were measured on each postoperative day while the scores of motors coordination and balance ability were recorded every other day. In addition, their cerebral infant areas and the molecular expressions of oxidative stress injuries were detected as well. RESULTS Compared to the MS group, the rats in the MH group gained faster weight growth (p<0.05), presented significantly lower neurological impairment scores (p<0.05), remarkably improved motor coordination and balance ability (p<0.05) as well as showed smaller cerebral infarct areas (p<0.05), increased expression of SOD (superoxide dismutase), and reduced expressions of MDA (malondialdehyde) and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase). However, there was no significant difference between the SS group and the SH group (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS Early high-protein diet facilitates the recovery of body weights and neurological functions as well the reduction of the cerebral infarct areas of rats, thus alleviating ischemic stroke-caused oxidative stress injuries.

Edited by AlPater

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Nut consumption and incidence of seven cardiovascular diseases.

Larsson SC, Drca N, Björck M, Bäck M, Wolk A.

Heart. 2018 Apr 16. pii: heartjnl-2017-312819. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2017-312819. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29661934

http://heart.bmj.com/content/early/2018/03/21/heartjnl-2017-312819.long

http://heart.bmj.com/content/heartjnl/early/2018/03/21/heartjnl-2017-312819.full.pdf

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Nut consumption has been found to be inversely associated with cardiovascular disease mortality, but the association between nut consumption and incidence of specific cardiovascular diseases is unclear. We examined the association between nut consumption and incidence of seven cardiovascular diseases.

METHODS:

This prospective study included 61 364 Swedish adults who had completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire and were followed up for 17 years through linkage with the Swedish National Patient and Death Registers.

RESULTS:

Nut consumption was inversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and abdominal aortic aneurysm in the age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analysis. However, adjustment for multiple risk factors attenuated these associations and only a linear, dose-response, association with atrial fibrillation (ptrend=0.004) and a non-linear association (pnon-linearity=0.003) with heart failure remained. Compared with no consumption of nuts, the multivariable HRs (95% CI) of atrial fibrillation across categories of nut consumption were 0.97 (0.93 to 1.02) for 1-3 times/month, 0.88 (0.79 to 0.99) for 1-2 times/week and 0.82 (0.68 to 0.99) for ≥3 times/week. For heart failure, the corresponding HRs (95% CI) were 0.87 (0.80 to 0.94), 0.80 (0.67 to 0.97) and 0.98 (0.76 to 1.27). Nut consumption was not associated with risk of aortic valve stenosis, ischaemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings suggest that nut consumption or factors associated with this nutritional behaviour may play a role in reducing the risk of atrial fibrillation and possibly heart failure.

KEYWORDS:

acute myocardial infarction; aortic aneurysm; aortic stenosis; atrial fibrillation; heart failure

 

25-Hydroxyvitamin D Threshold for the Effects of Vitamin D Supplements on Bone Density Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Macdonald HM, Reid IR, Gamble GD, Fraser WD, Tang JC, Wood AD.

J Bone Miner Res. 2018 Apr 17. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.3442. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29665087

Abstract

Most trials of vitamin D supplementation have shown no benefits on bone density (BMD), though severe vitamin D deficiency causes osteomalacia which is associated with profound BMD deficits. Recently, the ViDA-BMD study from New Zealand demonstrated a threshold of baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D (30 nmol/L) below which vitamin D supplementation did benefit BMD. We have now re-examined data from a similar trial in Aberdeen to determine whether a baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D threshold of 30 nmol/L is also observed in that database. The Aberdeen study recruited 305 postmenopausal women in late winter and randomized them to receive placebo, vitamin D 400 IU/day or vitamin D 1000 IU/day over one year. As previously reported, BMD loss at the hip was reduced by vitamin D 1000 IU/day only, and there was no significant treatment effect of either dose at the lumbar spine. In the present analysis, when the trial participants were grouped according to whether their baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D was ≤30 nmol/L or above this threshold, significant treatment effects were apparent at both the spine and hip in those with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≤30 nmol/L, but no significant effects were apparent in those with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D above this level. There was evidence of a similar threshold for effects on parathyroid hormone, but no groups showed changes in bone turnover markers during the study. It is concluded that vitamin D supplements only increase bone density in adults with nadir 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≤30 nmol/L. This moves us further towards a trial-based definition of vitamin D deficiency in adults with adequate calcium intakes, and suggests that supplement use should be targeted accordingly. Future trials of vitamin D supplementation should focus on individuals with 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in this range.

KEYWORDS:

24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; DXA; PTH; biochemical markers of bone turnover; nutrition; osteoporosis; vitamin D; vitamin D metabolites

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Soy product consumption and the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Namazi N, Saneei P, Larijani B, Esmaillzadeh A.

Food Funct. 2018 Apr 18. doi: 10.1039/c7fo01622k. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 29666853

Abstract

Currently, the association of soy intake with total- and cause-specific mortality is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to systematically review cohort studies on the association between the consumption of soy products and mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge and Embase electronic databases up to October 2016. Prospective cohort studies that examined the association of soy products with the risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality using the relative risk (RR) or Hazard Ratio (HR) with 95% CIs were considered. Random-effect models were used to pool the study results and heterogeneity was examined using the I2 index and Q test. Finally, 7 studies were included for the meta-analysis; three studies reported the risk of all-cause mortality. Four studies assessed the risk of mortality from CVD and cancer. In total, 39 250 deaths were reported among 627 209 participants in a 7 to 18-year follow-up. A high consumption of soy products was not significantly associated with a lower risk of mortality from all-causes (HR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.90, 1.02, I2: 38.5%, and Pheterogeneity = 0.14), CVD (HR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.82, 1.10, I2: 49.9%, and Pheterogeneity = 0.07), and cancer (HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.05, I2: 0%, and Pheterogeneity = 0.75). These findings indicated no significant association between a high intake of soy products and all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between the types of soy products and the risk of mortality.

 

Dietary Glycemic Load, Glycemic Index, and Carbohydrate Intake on the Risk of Lung Cancer among Men and Women in Shanghai.

Sun JW, Zheng W, Li HL, Gao J, Yang G, Gao YT, Rothman N, Lan Q, Shu XO, Xiang YB.

Nutr Cancer. 2018 Apr 18:1-7. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2018.1460675. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29668313

Abstract

To investigate the potential influence of dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, or carbohydrate intake and lung cancer risk in Shanghai. We prospectively investigated the associations among 130,858 participants in the Shanghai Women's and Men's Health Studies. Diet was assessed using validated food-frequency questionnaires. Lung cancer cases were ascertained through annual record linkage and every 2-3 years in-home visits. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After excluding the first 2 years of observation, 1312 participants (including 649 women and 663 men) developed lung cancer during an average follow-up of 14.8 (SD: 2.0) years for SWHS and 9.3 (SD: 1.6) years for SMHS. In multivariable analysis, no statistically significant associations were observed between glycemic index, glycemic load, and carbohydrate intake and lung cancer risk for either men or women. Similar results were observed among never smokers, and participants without history of lung disease, diabetes, or hypertension. Stratification by body mass index or menopause status also did not alter the findings. Our studies, conducted in populations who habitually have high-carbohydrate diets, provide no evidence that dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, or carbohydrate intake is associated with lung cancer risk.

 

Relationship between Clinic and Ambulatory Blood-Pressure Measurements and Mortality.

Banegas JR, Ruilope LM, de la Sierra A, Vinyoles E, Gorostidi M, de la Cruz JJ, Ruiz-Hurtado G, Segura J, Rodríguez-Artalejo F, Williams B.

N Engl J Med. 2018 Apr 19;378(16):1509-1520. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1712231.

PMID: 29669232

Abstract

Background Evidence for the influence of ambulatory blood pressure on prognosis derives mainly from population-based studies and a few relatively small clinical investigations. This study examined the associations of blood pressure measured in the clinic (clinic blood pressure) and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a large cohort of patients in primary care. Methods We analyzed data from a registry-based, multicenter, national cohort that included 63,910 adults recruited from 2004 through 2014 in Spain. Clinic and 24-hour ambulatory blood-pressure data were examined in the following categories: sustained hypertension (elevated clinic and elevated 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure), "white-coat" hypertension (elevated clinic and normal 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure), masked hypertension (normal clinic and elevated 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure), and normotension (normal clinic and normal 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure). Analyses were conducted with Cox regression models, adjusted for clinic and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressures and for confounders. Results During a median follow-up of 4.7 years, 3808 patients died from any cause, and 1295 of these patients died from cardiovascular causes. In a model that included both 24-hour and clinic measurements, 24-hour systolic pressure was more strongly associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.58 per 1-SD increase in pressure; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56 to 1.60, after adjustment for clinic blood pressure) than the clinic systolic pressure (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.04, after adjustment for 24-hour blood pressure). Corresponding hazard ratios per 1-SD increase in pressure were 1.55 (95% CI, 1.53 to 1.57, after adjustment for clinic and daytime blood pressures) for nighttime ambulatory systolic pressure and 1.54 (95% CI, 1.52 to 1.56, after adjustment for clinic and nighttime blood pressures) for daytime ambulatory systolic pressure. These relationships were consistent across subgroups of age, sex, and status with respect to obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and antihypertensive treatment. Masked hypertension was more strongly associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 2.83; 95% CI, 2.12 to 3.79) than sustained hypertension (hazard ratio, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.41 to 2.31) or white-coat hypertension (hazard ratio, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.38 to 2.32). Results for cardiovascular mortality were similar to those for all-cause mortality. Conclusions Ambulatory blood-pressure measurements were a stronger predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality than clinic blood-pressure measurements. White-coat hypertension was not benign, and masked hypertension was associated with a greater risk of death than sustained hypertension.

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HEALTH

Scientists Have Discovered A Food Supplement Capable Of Reversing AgingEmy Torres

EMY TORRES

MARCH 30, 2018

https://www.thetalkingdemocrat.com/2018/03/scientists-have-discovered-a-food-supplement-capable-of-reversing-aging/

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Chronic nicotinamide riboside supplementation is well-tolerated and elevates NAD<sup>+</sup> in healthy middle-aged and older adults.

Martens CR, Denman BA, Mazzo MR, Armstrong ML, Reisdorph N, McQueen MB, Chonchol M, Seals DR.

Nat Commun. 2018 Mar 29;9(1):1286. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03421-7.

PMID: 29599478 Free PMC Article

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-03421-7

Abstract

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) has emerged as a critical co-substrate for enzymes involved in the beneficial effects of regular calorie restriction on healthspan. As such, the use of NAD+ precursors to augment NAD+ bioavailability has been proposed as a strategy for improving cardiovascular and other physiological functions with aging in humans. Here we provide the evidence in a 2 × 6-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial that chronic supplementation with the NAD+ precursor vitamin, nicotinamide riboside (NR), is well tolerated and effectively stimulates NAD+ metabolism in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Our results also provide initial insight into the effects of chronic NR supplementation on physiological function in humans, and suggest that, in particular, future clinical trials should further assess the potential benefits of NR for reducing blood pressure and arterial stiffness in this group.

 

Physical activity and cause-specific mortality: the Rotterdam Study.

Koolhaas CM, Dhana K, Schoufour JD, Lahousse L, van Rooij FJA, Ikram MA, Brusselle G, Tiemeier H, Franco OH.

Int J Epidemiol. 2018 Apr 16. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyy058. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29672692

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Physical activity (PA) is associated with lower risk for all-cause mortality. However, in elderly people, it remains unknown which types of PA are associated with mortality and whether the association between PA and mortality differs by cause of death.

METHODS:

We assessed the association of total PA, walking, cycling, domestic work, sports and gardening with all-cause mortality, and the association of total PA with cause-specific mortality, using Cox proportional hazard models among 7225 older adults (mean age: 70 years) from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study. Deaths were classified as due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer, infections, external causes, dementia, chronic lung diseases or other causes. Activities were categorized into tertiles (lowest tertile as reference). To account for the possibility of reverse causation, we excluded the first 5 and 10 years of follow-up.

RESULTS:

Over a median of 13.1 years of follow-up (interquartile range: 8.4-14.6 years), 3261 participants died. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) associated with high total PA compared with low were 0.69 (0.63, 0.75), 0.69 (0.58, 0.81), 0.44 (0.27, 0.71), 0.47 (0.32, 0.71) and 0.56 (0.46, 0.69) for mortality from all causes, CVDs, chronic lung diseases, infections and other causes, respectively. With longer exclusion times, the strength of these associations was attenuated. All PA types were associated with lower all-cause mortality risk.

CONCLUSIONS:

Engagement in higher PA levels was associated with lower risk of mortality from CVDs, chronic lung diseases, infections and other causes. Participating in any PA might reduce mortality risk in older adults.

 

Association between pre-pregnancy consumption of meat, iron intake, and the risk of gestational diabetes: the SUN project.

Marí-Sanchis A, Díaz-Jurado G, Basterra-Gortari FJ, de la Fuente-Arrillaga C, Martínez-González MA, Bes-Rastrollo M.

Eur J Nutr. 2018 Apr;57(3):939-949. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1377-3. Epub 2017 Mar 11.

PMID: 28285431

Abstract

PURPOSE:

We assessed the association of total meat, processed, and unprocessed red meat and iron intake with the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant women.

METHODS:

We conducted a prospective study among 3298 disease-free Spanish women participants of the SUN cohort who reported at least one pregnancy between December 1999 and March 2012. Meat consumption and iron intake were assessed at baseline through a validated, 136-item semi-quantitative, food frequency questionnaire. We categorized total, red, and processed meat consumption and iron intake into quartiles. Logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounders.

RESULTS:

We identified 172 incident cases of GDM. In the fully adjusted analysis, total meat consumption was significantly associated with a higher risk of GDM [OR = 1.67 (95% CI 1.06-2.63, p-trend 0.010)] for the highest versus the lowest quartile of consumption. The observed associations were particularly strong for red meat consumption [OR = 2.37 (95% CI 1.49-3.78, p-trend < 0.001)] and processed meat consumption [OR = 2.01 (95% CI 1.26-3.21, p-trend 0.003)]. Heme iron intake was also directly associated with GDM [OR = 2.21 (95% CI 1.37-3.58, p-trend 0.003)], although the association was attenuated and lost its statistical significance when we adjusted for red meat consumption [OR = 1.57 (95% CI 0.91-2.70, p-trend 0.213)]. No association was observed for non-heme and total iron intake, including supplements.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our overall findings suggest that higher pre-pregnancy consumption of total meat, especially red and processed meat, and heme iron intake, are significantly associated with an increased GDM risk in a Mediterranean cohort of university graduates.

KEYWORDS:

Gestational diabetes mellitus; Heme iron intake; Mediterranean population; Red and processed meat; Total meat

 

Dietary blueberry improves cognition among older adults in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Miller MG, Hamilton DA, Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B.

Eur J Nutr. 2018 Apr;57(3):1169-1180. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1400-8. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

PMID: 28283823

Abstract

PURPOSE:

As populations shift to include a larger proportion of older adults, the necessity of research targeting older populations is becoming increasingly apparent. Dietary interventions with blueberry have been associated with positive outcomes in cell and rodent models of aging. We hypothesized that dietary blueberry would improve mobility and cognition among older adults.

METHODS:

In this study, 13 men and 24 women, between the ages of 60 and 75 years, were recruited into a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which they consumed either freeze-dried blueberry (24 g/day, equivalent to 1 cup of fresh blueberries) or a blueberry placebo for 90 days. Participants completed a battery of balance, gait, and cognitive tests at baseline and again at 45 and 90 days of intervention.

RESULTS:

Significant supplement group by study visit interactions were observed on tests of executive function. Participants in the blueberry group showed significantly fewer repetition errors in the California Verbal Learning test (p = 0.031, ηp2 = 0.126) and reduced switch cost on a task-switching test (p = 0.033, ηp2 = 0.09) across study visits, relative to controls. However, no improvement in gait or balance was observed.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings show that the addition of easily achievable quantities of blueberry to the diets of older adults can improve some aspects of cognition.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Blueberry; Cognition; Gait; Postural Sway

 

Accumulation of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity and All-Cause Mortality.

Young DR, Haskell WL.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Mar 22;7(6). pii: e008929. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.118.008929. No abstract available.

PMID: 29567765 Free Article

KEYWORDS:

Editorials; epidemiology; exercise

http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/7/6/e008929

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Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity and All-Cause Mortality: Do Bouts Matter?

Saint-Maurice PF, Troiano RP, Matthews CE, Kraus WE.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Mar 22;7(6). pii: e007678. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.007678.

PMID: 29567764 Free Article

http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/7/6/e007678.long

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends that adults accumulate moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in bouts of ≥10 minutes for substantial health benefits. To what extent the same amount of MVPA accumulated in bouts versus sporadically reduces mortality risk remains unclear.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 and death records available through 2011 (follow-up period of ≈6.6 years; 700 deaths) to examine the associations between objectively measured physical activity accumulated with and without a bout criteria and all-cause mortality in a representative sample of US adults 40 years and older (n=4840). Physical activity data were processed to generate minutes per day of total and bouted MVPA. Bouted MVPA was defined as MVPA accumulated in bouts of a minimum duration of either 5 or 10 minutes allowing for 1- to 2-minute interruptions. Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality associated with total and bouted MVPA were similar and ranged from 0.24 for the third quartile of total to 0.44 for the second quartile of 10-minute bouts. The examination of jointly classified quartiles of total MVPA and tertiles of proportion of bouted activity revealed that greater amounts of bouted MVPA did not result in additional risk reductions for mortality.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results provide evidence that mortality risk reductions associated with MVPA are independent of how activity is accumulated and can impact the development of physical activity guidelines and inform clinical practice.

KEYWORDS:

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; accelerometer; activity bouts; adults; epidemiology; exercise

 

Association of Atrial Fibrillation With Cognitive Decline and Dementia Over 20 Years: The ARIC-NCS (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study).

Chen LY, Norby FL, Gottesman RF, Mosley TH, Soliman EZ, Agarwal SK, Loehr LR, Folsom AR, Coresh J, Alonso A.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Mar 7;7(6). pii: e007301. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.007301.

PMID: 29514809 Free Article

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Previous studies have reported that atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with cognitive decline and dementia. These studies, however, had limited follow-up, were based mostly on white and highly selected populations, and did not account for attrition. We evaluated the association of incident AF with 20-year change in cognitive performance (accounting for attrition) and incident dementia in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

We analyzed data from 12 515 participants (mean age, 56.9 [sD, 5.7] years in 1990-1992; 56% women and 24% black) from 1990 to 1992 through 2011 to 2013. Incident AF was ascertained from study ECGs and hospital discharge codes. Cognitive tests were performed in 1990 to 1992, 1996 to 1998, and 2011 to 2013. Incident dementia was clinician adjudicated. We used generalized estimating equations and Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association of time-dependent AF with change in Z scores of cognitive tests and incident dementia, respectively. During 20 years, 2106 participants developed AF and 1157 participants developed dementia. After accounting for cardiovascular risk factors, including ischemic stroke, the average decline over 20 years in global cognitive Z score was 0.115 (95% confidence interval, 0.014-0.215) greater in participants with AF than in those without AF. Further adjustment for attrition by multiple imputation by chained equations strengthened the association. In addition, incident AF was associated with an increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.45), after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, including ischemic stroke.

CONCLUSIONS:

AF is associated with greater cognitive decline and increased risk of dementia, independent of ischemic stroke. Because cognitive decline is a precursor to dementia, our findings prompt further investigation to identify specific treatments for AF that will delay the trajectory of cognitive decline and, thus, prevent dementia in patients with AF.

KEYWORDS:

atrial fibrillation; cognition; cohort study; dementia; epidemiology

 

Sesamin extends lifespan through pathways related to dietary restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Nakatani Y, Yaguchi Y, Komura T, Nakadai M, Terao K, Kage-Nakadai E, Nishikawa Y.

Eur J Nutr. 2018 Apr;57(3):1137-1146. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1396-0. Epub 2017 Feb 26.

PMID: 28239780

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Sesamin, a polyphenolic compound found in sesame seeds, has been reported to exert a variety of beneficial health effects. We have previously reported that sesamin increases the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the longevity effect of sesamin in C. elegans.

METHODS:

Starting from three days of age, Caenorhabditis elegans animals were fed a standard diet alone or supplemented with sesamin. A C. elegans genome array was used to perform a comprehensive expression analysis. Genes that showed differential expression were validated using real-time PCR. Mutant or RNAi-treated animals were fed sesamin, and the lifespan was determined to identify the genes involved in the longevity effects of sesamin.

RESULTS:

The microarray analysis revealed that endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response-related genes, which have been reported to show decreased expression under conditions of SIR-2.1/Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) overexpression, were downregulated in animals supplemented with sesamin. Sesamin failed to extend the lifespan of sir-2.1 knockdown animals and of sir-2.1 loss-of-function mutants. Sesamin was also ineffective in bec-1 RNAi-treated animals; bec-1 is a key regulator of autophagy, and is necessary for longevity induced by sir-2.1 overexpression. Furthermore, the heterozygotic mutation of daf-15, which encodes the target of rapamycin (TOR)-binding partner Raptor, abolished lifespan extension by sesamin. Moreover, sesamin did not prolong the lifespan of loss-of-function mutants of aak-2, which encodes the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK).

CONCLUSIONS:

Sesamin extends the lifespan of C. elegans through several dietary restriction-related signaling pathways, including processes requiring SIRT1, TOR, and AMPK.

KEYWORDS:

Caenorhabditis elegans; Dietary restriction; Lifespan; Sesamin

 

Comparative transcriptomics across 14 Drosophila species reveals signatures of longevity.

Ma S, Avanesov AS, Porter E, Lee BC, Mariotti M, Zemskaya N, Guigo R, Moskalev AA, Gladyshev VN.

Aging Cell. 2018 Apr 19:e12740. doi: 10.1111/acel.12740. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29671950

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/acel.12740

Abstract

Lifespan varies dramatically among species, but the biological basis is not well understood. Previous studies in model organisms revealed the importance of nutrient sensing, mTOR, NAD/sirtuins, and insulin/IGF1 signaling in lifespan control. By studying life-history traits and transcriptomes of 14 Drosophila species differing more than sixfold in lifespan, we explored expression divergence and identified genes and processes that correlate with longevity. These longevity signatures suggested that longer-lived flies upregulate fatty acid metabolism, downregulate neuronal system development and activin signaling, and alter dynamics of RNA splicing. Interestingly, these gene expression patterns resembled those of flies under dietary restriction and several other lifespan-extending interventions, although on the individual gene level, there was no significant overlap with genes previously reported to have lifespan-extension effects. We experimentally tested the lifespan regulation potential of several candidate genes and found no consistent effects, suggesting that individual genes generally do not explain the observed longevity patterns. Instead, it appears that lifespan regulation across species is modulated by complex relationships at the system level represented by global gene expression.

KEYWORDS:

Drosophila; aging; gene expression; lifespan

 

Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption: combined analysis of individual-participant data for 599 912 current drinkers in 83 prospective studies.

Wood AM, Kaptoge S, Butterworth AS, Willeit P, Warnakula S, Bolton T, Paige E, Paul DS, Sweeting M, Burgess S, Bell S, Astle W, Stevens D, Koulman A, Selmer RM, Verschuren WMM, Sato S, Njølstad I, Woodward M, Salomaa V, Nordestgaard BG, Yeap BB, Fletcher A, Melander O, Kuller LH, Balkau B, Marmot M, Koenig W, Casiglia E, Cooper C, Arndt V, Franco OH, Wennberg P, Gallacher J, de la Cámara AG, Völzke H, Dahm CC, Dale CE, Bergmann MM, Crespo CJ, van der Schouw YT, Kaaks R, Simons LA, Lagiou P, Schoufour JD, Boer JMA, Key TJ, Rodriguez B, Moreno-Iribas C, Davidson KW, Taylor JO, Sacerdote C, Wallace RB, Quiros JR, Tumino R, Blazer DG 2nd, Linneberg A, Daimon M, Panico S, Howard B, Skeie G, Strandberg T, Weiderpass E, Nietert PJ, Psaty BM, Kromhout D, Salamanca-Fernandez E, Kiechl S, Krumholz HM, Grioni S, Palli D, Huerta JM, Price J, Sundström J, Arriola L, Arima H, Travis RC, Panagiotakos DB, Karakatsani A, Trichopoulou A, Kühn T, Grobbee DE, Barrett-Connor E, van Schoor N, Boeing H, Overvad K, Kauhanen J, Wareham N, Langenberg C, Forouhi N, Wennberg M, Després JP, Cushman M, Cooper JA, Rodriguez CJ, Sakurai M, Shaw JE, Knuiman M, Voortman T, Meisinger C, Tjønneland A, Brenner H, Palmieri L, Dallongeville J, Brunner EJ, Assmann G, Trevisan M, Gillum RF, Ford I, Sattar N, Lazo M, Thompson SG, Ferrari P, Leon DA, Smith GD, Peto R, Jackson R, Banks E, Di Angelantonio E, Danesh J; Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration/EPIC-CVD/UK Biobank Alcohol Study Group.

Lancet. 2018 Apr 14;391(10129):1513-1523. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30134-X.

PMID: 29676281

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(18)30134-X/fulltext

http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140-6736(18)30134-X.pdf

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without previous cardiovascular disease.

METHODS:

We did a combined analysis of individual-participant data from three large-scale data sources in 19 high-income countries (the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD, and the UK Biobank). We characterised dose-response associations and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) per 100 g per week of alcohol (12·5 units per week) across 83 prospective studies, adjusting at least for study or centre, age, sex, smoking, and diabetes. To be eligible for the analysis, participants had to have information recorded about their alcohol consumption amount and status (ie, non-drinker vs current drinker), plus age, sex, history of diabetes and smoking status, at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline, and no baseline history of cardiovascular disease. The main analyses focused on current drinkers, whose baseline alcohol consumption was categorised into eight predefined groups according to the amount in grams consumed per week. We assessed alcohol consumption in relation to all-cause mortality, total cardiovascular disease, and several cardiovascular disease subtypes. We corrected HRs for estimated long-term variability in alcohol consumption using 152 640 serial alcohol assessments obtained some years apart (median interval 5·6 years [5th-95th percentile 1·04-13·5]) from 71 011 participants from 37 studies.

FINDINGS:

In the 599 912 current drinkers included in the analysis, we recorded 40 310 deaths and 39 018 incident cardiovascular disease events during 5·4 million person-years of follow-up. For all-cause mortality, we recorded a positive and curvilinear association with the level of alcohol consumption, with the minimum mortality risk around or below 100 g per week. Alcohol consumption was roughly linearly associated with a higher risk of stroke (HR per 100 g per week higher consumption 1·14, 95% CI, 1·10-1·17), coronary disease excluding myocardial infarction (1·06, 1·00-1·11), heart failure (1·09, 1·03-1·15), fatal hypertensive disease (1·24, 1·15-1·33); and fatal aortic aneurysm (1·15, 1·03-1·28). By contrast, increased alcohol consumption was log-linearly associated with a lower risk of myocardial infarction (HR 0·94, 0·91-0·97). In comparison to those who reported drinking >0-≤100 g per week, those who reported drinking >100-≤200 g per week, >200-≤350 g per week, or >350 g per week had lower life expectancy at age 40 years of approximately 6 months, 1-2 years, or 4-5 years, respectively.

INTERPRETATION:

In current drinkers of alcohol in high-income countries, the threshold for lowest risk of all-cause mortality was about 100 g/week. For cardiovascular disease subtypes other than myocardial infarction, there were no clear risk thresholds below which lower alcohol consumption stopped being associated with lower dis

 

An epigenetic biomarker of aging for lifespan and healthspan.

Levine ME, Lu AT, Quach A, Chen BH, Assimes TL, Bandinelli S, Hou L, Baccarelli AA, Stewart JD, Li Y, Whitsel EA, Wilson JG, Reiner AP, Aviv A, Lohman K, Liu Y, Ferrucci L, Horvath S.

Aging (Albany NY). 2018 Apr 18. doi: 10.18632/aging.101414. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29676998

Abstract

Identifying reliable biomarkers of aging is a major goal in geroscience. While the first generation of epigenetic biomarkers of aging were developed using chronological age as a surrogate for biological age, we hypothesized that incorporation of composite clinical measures of phenotypic age that capture differences in lifespan and healthspan may identify novel CpGs and facilitate the development of a more powerful epigenetic biomarker of aging. Using an innovative two-step process, we develop a new epigenetic biomarker of aging, DNAm PhenoAge, that strongly outperforms previous measures in regards to predictions for a variety of aging outcomes, including all-cause mortality, cancers, healthspan, physical functioning, and Alzheimer's disease. While this biomarker was developed using data from whole blood, it correlates strongly with age in every tissue and cell tested. Based on an in-depth transcriptional analysis in sorted cells, we find that increased epigenetic, relative to chronological age, is associated with increased activation of pro-inflammatory and interferon pathways, and decreased activation of transcriptional/translational machinery, DNA damage response, and mitochondrial signatures. Overall, this single epigenetic biomarker of aging is able to capture risks for an array of diverse outcomes across multiple tissues and cells, and provide insight into important pathways in aging.

KEYWORDS:

Atp8b1 mutant; aging; gene profiling; lungs; transcriptome

 

Vitamin D, Calcium, or Combined Supplementation for the Primary Prevention of Fractures in Community-Dwelling Adults: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

Kahwati LC, Weber RP, Pan H, Gourlay M, LeBlanc E, Coker-Schwimmer M, Viswanathan M.

JAMA. 2018 Apr 17;319(15):1600-1612. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.21640.

PMID: 29677308

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Osteoporotic fractures result in significant morbidity and mortality.

OBJECTIVE:

To update the evidence for benefits and harms of vitamin D, calcium, or combined supplementation for the primary prevention of fractures in community-dwelling adults to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force.

DATA SOURCES:

PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and trial registries through March 21, 2017; references; and experts. Surveillance continued through February 28, 2018.

STUDY SELECTION:

English-language randomized clinical trials (RCTs) or observational studies of supplementation with vitamin D, calcium, or both among adult populations; studies of populations that were institutionalized or had known vitamin D deficiency, osteoporosis, or prior fracture were excluded.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:

Dual, independent review of titles/abstracts and full-text articles and study quality rating using predefined criteria. Random-effects meta-analysis used when at least 3 similar studies were available.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Incident fracture, mortality, kidney stones, cardiovascular events, and cancer.

RESULTS:

Eleven RCTs (N = 51 419) in adults 50 years and older conducted over 2 to 7 years were included. Compared with placebo, supplementation with vitamin D decreased total fracture incidence (1 RCT [n = 2686]; absolute risk difference [ARD], -2.26% [95% CI, -4.53% to 0.00%]) but had no significant association with hip fracture (3 RCTs [n = 5496]; pooled ARD, -0.01% [95% CI, -0.80% to 0.78%]). Supplementation using vitamin D with calcium had no effect on total fracture incidence (1 RCT [n = 36 282]; ARD, -0.35% [95% CI, -1.02% to 0.31%]) or hip fracture incidence (2 RCTs [n = 36 727]; ARD from the larger trial, -0.14% [95% CI, -0.34% to 0.07%]). The evidence for calcium alone was limited, with only 2 studies (n = 339 total) and very imprecise results. Supplementation with vitamin D alone or with calcium had no significant effect on all-cause mortality or incident cardiovascular disease; ARDs ranged from -1.93% to 1.79%, with CIs consistent with no significant differences. Supplementation using vitamin D with calcium was associated with an increased incidence of kidney stones (3 RCTs [n = 39 213]; pooled ARD, 0.33% [95% CI, 0.06% to 0.60%]), but supplementation with calcium alone was not associated with an increased risk (3 RCTs [n = 1259]; pooled ARD, 0.00% [95% CI, -0.87% to 0.87%]). Supplementation with vitamin D and calcium was not associated with an increase in cancer incidence (3 RCTs [n = 39 213]; pooled ARD, -1.48% [95% CI, -3.32% to 0.35%]).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Vitamin D supplementation alone or with calcium was not associated with reduced fracture incidence among community-dwelling adults without known vitamin D deficiency, osteoporosis, or prior fracture. Vitamin D with calcium was associated with an increase in the incidence of kidney stones.

 

The protective effect of muesli consumption on diabetes risk: Results from 12 years of follow-up in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

Quatela A, Callister R, Patterson AJ, McEvoy M, MacDonald-Wicks LK.

Nutr Res. 2018 Mar;51:12-20. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2017.12.007. Epub 2017 Dec 24.

PMID: 29673540

Abstract

Diabetes affects 9.8% of Australian women. Breakfast cereal consumption is potentially protective against diabetes. This study investigated the effects of breakfast cereal consumption on the 12-year risk of developing diabetes among mid-aged participants of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH). It was hypothesized that any breakfast cereal and higher-fiber breakfast cereals would be protective against the risk of developing diabetes. Data from Survey 3 (S3) to Survey 7 (S7) inclusive, from the 1946-51 ALSWH cohort were analyzed. Dietary data were obtained at S3 and the outcome was incident diabetes between S4-S7. Women were excluded if: they reported existing diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance at S3; dietary data were incomplete; or daily energy intake was <4,500 or >20,000 kJ. Logistic regression with discrete time survival analyses investigated the association between breakfast cereal intake and incident diabetes. Models were adjusted for income, BMI, smoking, physical activity, education, and dietary intakes and included a measure of time. There were 637 incident cases of diabetes. Breakfast cereal intake per se was not associated with incident diabetes (OR: 1.00; P = .98). Muesli consumption on its own (OR: 0.74; P = .00) or as a part of oats-based cereal (OR: 0.84; P = .047) was significantly associated with a decrease in the odds of developing diabetes. No other breakfast cereals were significantly associated with diabetes risk. Among mid-aged Australian women, muesli consumption was associated with a reduction in diabetes risk. This effect may be due to a particular profile of muesli eaters, but the relationship warrants further investigation.

KEYWORDS:

Breakfast; Diabetes Mellitus; Edible Grain; Longitudinal Studies; Risk

 

Consumption of Sugars, Sugary Foods and Sugary Beverages in Relation to Adiposity-Related Cancer Risk in the Framingham Offspring Cohort (1991-2013).

Makarem N, Bandera EV, Lin Y, Jacques P, Hayes RB, Parekh N.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2018 Apr 19. pii: canprevres.0218.2017. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-17-0218. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29674390

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Higher sugar consumption may increase cancer risk by promoting insulin-glucose dysregulation, oxidative stress, hormonal imbalances, and excess adiposity. This prospective study investigates the association between dietary sugars(fructose and sucrose) and sugary foods and beverages in relation to combined and site-specific (breast, prostate, colorectal) adiposity-associated cancers.

METHODS:

The analytic sample consisted of 3,184 adults, aged 26-84y, from the Framingham Offspring cohort. Diet data was first collected between 1991-1995 using a food frequency questionnaire. Intakes of fructose, sucrose, sugary foods and sugary beverages (fruit juice and sugar-sweetened beverages) were derived. Participants were followed up until 2013 to ascertain cancer incidence; 565 doctor-diagnosed adiposity-related cancers, including 124 breast, 157 prostate and 68 colorectal cancers occurred. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate associations. Tests for interaction with BMI and waist circumference were conducted.

RESULTS:

No associations were observed between fructose, sucrose, sugary food consumption and combined incidence of adiposity-related cancers or the examined site-specific cancers. While total consumption of sugary beverages was not associated with site-specific cancer risk, higher intakes of fruit juice were associated with 58% increased prostate cancer risk(HR:1.58;95%CI:1.04-2.41) in multivariable-adjusted models. In exploratory stratified analyses, higher sugary beverage intakes increased overall adiposity-related cancer risk by 59% in participants with excessive central adiposity(HR:1.59;95%CI:1.01-2.50)(p-trend=0.057).

CONCLUSIONS:

In this cohort of American adults, higher sugary beverage consumption was associated with increased cancer risk among participants with central adiposity.

IMPACT:

These analyses suggest that avoiding sugary beverages represents a simple dietary modification that may be used as an effective cancer control strategy.

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World's oldest person dead at age 117

Japan's Nabi Tajima was last known person born in 19th century

The Associated Press · Posted: Apr 21, 2018

http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/nabi-tajima-worlds-oldest-person-woman-dead-117-1.4630395

 

Decaffeinated coffee improves insulin sensitivity in healthy men.

Reis CEG, Paiva CLRDS, Amato AA, Lofrano-Porto A, Wassell S, Bluck LJC, Dórea JG, da Costa THM.

Br J Nutr. 2018 May;119(9):1029-1038. doi: 10.1017/S000711451800034X. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

PMID: 29514721

Abstract

Epidemiological studies have found coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, the aim of this randomised, cross-over single-blind study was to investigate the effects of regular coffee, regular coffee with sugar and decaffeinated coffee consumption on glucose metabolism and incretin hormones. Seventeen healthy men participated in five trials each, during which they consumed coffee (decaffeinated, regular (containing caffeine) or regular with sugar) or water (with or without sugar). After 1 h of each intervention, they received an oral glucose tolerance test with one intravenous dose of [1-13C]glucose. The Oral Dose Intravenous Label Experiment was applied and glucose and insulin levels were interpreted using a stable isotope two-compartment minimal model. A mixed-model procedure (PROC MIXED), with subject as random effect and time as repeated measure, was used to compare the effects of the beverages on glucose metabolism and incretin parameters (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)). Insulin sensitivity was higher with decaffeinated coffee than with water (P<0·05). Regular coffee with sugar did not significantly affect glucose, insulin, C-peptide and incretin hormones, compared with water with sugar. Glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1 and GIP levels were not statistically different after regular and decaffeinated coffee compared with water. Our findings demonstrated that the consumption of decaffeinated coffee improves insulin sensitivity without changing incretin hormones levels. There was no short-term adverse effect on glucose homoeostasis, after an oral glucose challenge, attributable to the consumption of regular coffee with sugar.

KEYWORDS:

GIP glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide; GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1; ODILE Oral Dose Intravenous Label Experiment; Sg glucose effectiveness; Si insulin sensitivity; T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus; Glucose; Insulin sensitivity assessment; Intestinal cytokines; Stable isotopes

 

Healthy Plant-Based Diets Are Associated with Lower Risk of All-Cause Mortality in US Adults.

Kim H, Caulfield LE, Rebholz CM.

J Nutr. 2018 Apr 1;148(4):624-631. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxy019.

PMID: 29659968

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Plant-based diets, often referred to as vegetarian diets, are associated with health benefits. However, the association with mortality is less clear.

OBJECTIVE:

We investigated associations between plant-based diet indexes and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in a nationally representative sample of US adults.

METHODS:

Analyses were based on 11,879 participants (20-80 y of age) from NHANES III (1988-1994) linked to data on all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality through 2011. We constructed an overall plant-based diet index (PDI), which assigns positive scores for plant foods and negative scores for animal foods, on the basis of a food-frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. We also constructed a healthful PDI (hPDI), in which only healthy plant foods received positive scores, and a less-healthful (unhealthy) PDI (uPDI), in which only less-healthful plant foods received positive scores. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between plant-based diet consumption in 1988-1994 and subsequent mortality. We tested for effect modification by sex.

RESULTS:

In the overall sample, PDI and uPDI were not associated with all-cause or cardiovascular disease mortality after controlling for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviors. However, among those with an hPDI score above the median, a 10-unit increase in hPDI was associated with a 5% lower risk in all-cause mortality in the overall study population (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.98) and among women (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.99), but not among men (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.01). There was no effect modification by sex (P-interaction > 0.10).

CONCLUSIONS:

A nonlinear association between hPDI and all-cause mortality was observed. Healthy plant-based diet scores above the median were associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality in US adults. Future research exploring the impact of quality of plant-based diets on long-term health outcomes is necessary.

 

Aspartame Consumption for 12 Weeks Does Not Affect Glycemia, Appetite, or Body Weight of Healthy, Lean Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Higgins KA, Considine RV, Mattes RD.

J Nutr. 2018 Apr 1;148(4):650-657. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxy021.

PMID: 29659969

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Low-calorie sweeteners are often used to moderate energy intake and postprandial glycemia, but some evidence indicates that they may exacerbate these aims.

OBJECTIVE:

The trial's primary aim was to assess the effect of daily aspartame ingestion for 12 wk on glycemia. Effects on appetite and body weight were secondary aims.

METHODS:

One hundred lean [body mass index (kg/m2): 18-25] adults aged 18-60 y were randomly assigned to consume 0, 350, or 1050 mg aspartame/d (ASP groups) in a beverage for 12 wk in a parallel-arm design. At baseline, body weight and composition were determined, a 240-min oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was administered, and measurements were made of appetite and selected hormones. Participants also collected a 24-h urine sample. During the intervention, the 0-mg/d ASP group consumed capsules containing 680 mg dextrose and 80 mg para-amino benzoic acid. For the 350-mg/d ASP group, the beverage contained 350 mg aspartame and the 1050-mg/d ASP group consumed the same beverage plus capsules containing 680 mg dextrose and 700 mg aspartame. Body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and waist circumference were measured weekly. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, participants collected 24-h urine samples and kept appetite logs. Baseline measurements were repeated at week 12.

RESULTS:

With the exception of the baseline OGTT glucose concentration at 60 min (and resulting area under the curve value), there were no group differences for glucose, insulin, resting leptin, glucagon-like peptide 1, or gastric inhibitory peptide at baseline or week 12. There also were no effects of aspartame ingestion on appetite, body weight, or body composition. Compliance with the beverage intervention was ∼95%.

CONCLUSIONS:

Aspartame ingested at 2 doses for 12 wk had no effect on glycemia, appetite, or body weight among healthy, lean adults. These data do not support the view that aspartame is problematic for the management of glycemia, appetite, or body weight.

 

Green leafy and cruciferous vegetable consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from the Singapore Chinese Health Study and meta-analysis.

Chen GC, Koh WP, Yuan JM, Qin LQ, van Dam RM.

Br J Nutr. 2018 May;119(9):1057-1067. doi: 10.1017/S0007114518000119. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

PMID: 29457582

Abstract

Several previous prospective studies suggest that consumption of green leafy and cruciferous vegetables may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated the association between consumption of different types of vegetables in relation to T2D risk in an Asian Population. We included 45 411 participants (age range: 45-74 years) of the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS) free of diabetes, cancer or CVD at baseline (1993-1998). Dietary information was collected using a validated FFQ. Physician-diagnosed incident diabetes was reported at follow-up I (1999-2004) and II (2006-2010) interviews. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95 % CI of T2D risk. An updated meta-analysis was also conducted to summarise results for green leafy and cruciferous vegetables. During 494 741 person-years of follow-up, 5207 incident T2D occurred. After adjustment for potential confounders, neither total vegetables (top v. bottom quintile HR=1·08; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·18, P trend=0·66) nor specific vegetables including dark green leafy vegetables (HR=1·05; 95 % CI 0·96, 1·15, P trend=0·21) and cruciferous vegetables (HR=0·97; 95 % CI 0·88, 1·06, P trend=0·29) were substantially associated with risk of T2D. A meta-analysis (eleven studies with 754 729 participants and 58 297 cases) including the SCHS and all previous prospective studies suggested borderline significant inverse associations between green leafy (summary relative risk (RR)=0·91; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·00) and cruciferous vegetable consumption (RR=0·87; 95 % CI 0·76, 1·00) and T2D risk, with moderate-to-high heterogeneity. In conclusion, green leafy or cruciferous vegetable consumption was not substantially associated with risk of T2D in an Asian population. Meta-analysis of available cohort data indicated that evidence for a beneficial effect of green leafy or cruciferous vegetable consumption on T2D risk is not convincing.

KEYWORDS:

HR hazard ratio; RR relative risk; SCHS Singapore Chinese Health Study; SWHS Shanghai Women’s Health Study; T2D type 2 diabetes; Cohort studies; Diets; Meta-analyses; Type 2 diabetes; Vegetables

 

Longitudinal Association between Periodontitis and Development of Diabetes Running title: Periodontitis and Diabetes Development.

Joshipura KJ, Muñoz-Torres FJ, Dye BA, Leroux BG, Ramírez-Vick M, Pérez CM.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2018 Apr 18. pii: S0168-8227(17)31748-5. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2018.04.028. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29679620

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Clinical trials have shown very modest short-term improvements in glycemic control among participants with diabetes after periodontitis treatment. Few longitudinal studies suggest that periodontitis may be related to prediabetes/diabetes risk.

METHODS:

We evaluated 1,206 diabetes free participants in the San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (SOALS) and 941 with complete 3-year follow-up data were included. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) methods were used to assess periodontitis. Diabetes and prediabetes were classified using American Diabetes Association cutoffs for fasting and 2-hour post-load glucose and HbA1c. We used Poisson regression adjusting for baseline age, gender, smoking, education, family history of diabetes, physical activity, waist circumference, and alcohol intake.

RESULTS:

Over the 3-year follow-up, 69 (7.3%) of the 941 individuals developed type 2 diabetes, and 142 (34.9%) of the 407 with normal glycemia at baseline developed prediabetes. In multivariable models, greater mean pocket depth and mean attachment loss at baseline were associated with lower risk of developing prediabetes/diabetes over the follow-up (IRR=0.81; 95% CI: 0.67-0.99, and IRR=0.86; 95% CI: 0.74-0.99, respectively). Increase in periodontal attachment loss from baseline to follow-up was associated with higher prediabetes/diabetes risk (multivariate IRR=1.25; 95% CI: 1.09-1.42), and increase in pocket depth was associated with >20% fasting glucose increase (multivariate IRR=1.43; 95% CI: 1.14-1.79). The inverse associations persisted after additionally adjusting for baseline income, sugar-sweetened beverages, number of teeth, oral hygiene, glycemia, or previous periodontal therapy.

CONCLUSIONS:

There is no association between periodontitis and risk of prediabetes/diabetes in this longitudinal study.

KEYWORDS:

Periodontal research; diabetes; gingivitis; insulin resistance; prediabetes; prospective cohort study

 

Increasing water intake influences hunger and food preference, but does not reliably suppress energy intake in adults.

McKay NJ, Belous IV, Temple JL.

Physiol Behav. 2018 Apr 17. pii: S0031-9384(18)30205-1. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.04.024. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29678599

Abstract

Increasing water intake is often purported to reduce energy intake, and is recommended as a weight loss strategy. The few experimental studies that have been conducted to verify these claims have examined the impact of a single pre-load of water before a meal. Although correlational data indicate a relationship between hydration, energy intake, and weight status, there is very little experimental research in this area. The current studies examined the hypothesis that elevated hydration, through increased water intake, would suppress energy intake. In Experiment 1, participants (n = 49) were asked to consume either one, two, or three 500 ml bottles of water throughout the morning before a lunch buffet in the laboratory. When participants categorized as normal weight drank three bottles of water they consumed less energy at lunch, but there was no effect on participants categorized as overweight or obese. In addition, increased water intake suppressed liking of food items in all participants and hunger in females. A follow-up study (n = 45) was conducted to test if four bottles of water throughout the morning would result in a similar energy suppression in participants categorized as overweight or obese. Surprisingly, in the second experiment, there was no effect of water intake on energy intake at lunch in any of the conditions. There was, however, a similar suppression of hunger and food liking. In conclusion, increasing water intake throughout the morning only suppressed energy intake in individuals categorized as normal weight under certain circumstances, and had no effect on individuals categorized as overweight/obese.

KEYWORDS:

Energy intake; Food intake; Hunger; Hydration; Water intake

 

The influence of participation on mortality in very old age among community-living people in Sweden.

Haak M, Löfqvist C, Ullén S, Horstmann V, Iwarsson S.

Aging Clin Exp Res. 2018 Apr 20. doi: 10.1007/s40520-018-0947-4. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29679295

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Participation in everyday life and society is generally seen as essential for health-related outcomes and acknowledged to affect older people's well-being.

AIMS:

To investigate if aspects of performance- and togetherness-related participation influence on mortality among very old single living people in Sweden.

METHODS:

ENABLE-AGE Survey Study data involving single-living participants in Sweden (N = 314, aged 81-91 years), followed over 10 years were used. Multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for demographic and health-related variables were used to analyse specific items influencing mortality.

RESULTS:

Participation in performance- or togetherness-oriented activities was found to significantly influence mortality [hr 0.62 (0.44-0.88), P value 0.006, and HR 0.72 (0.53-0.97), P value 0.031, respectively]. Talking to neighbours and following local politics had a protective effect on mortality, speaking to relatives on the phone (CI 1.10-2.02) and performing leisure activities together with others (CI 1.10-2.00) had the opposite influence. That is, those performing the latter activities were significantly more likely to die earlier.

DISCUSSION:

The main contribution of this study is the facet of the results showing that aspects of performance- and togetherness-related participation have a protective effect on mortality in very old age. This is important knowledge for designing health promotion and preventive efforts for the ageing population. Moreover, it constitutes a contribution to the development of instruments capturing aspects of participation influencing on mortality.

CONCLUSION:

In the development of health promotion and preventive efforts the inclusion of participation facets could be considered in favour of potential positive influences on longevity.

KEYWORDS:

Activities of daily living; Leisure activity; Longitudinal design; Physical activity; Social engagement

 

A window into extreme longevity; the circulating metabolomic signature of the naked mole-rat, a mammal that shows negligible senescence.

Lewis KN, Rubinstein ND, Buffenstein R.

Geroscience. 2018 Apr 20. doi: 10.1007/s11357-018-0014-2. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29679203

Abstract

Mouse-sized naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber), unlike other mammals, do not conform to Gompertzian laws of age-related mortality; adults show no age-related change in mortality risk. Moreover, we observe negligible hallmarks of aging with well-maintained physiological and molecular functions, commonly altered with age in other species. We questioned whether naked mole-rats, living an order of magnitude longer than laboratory mice, exhibit different plasma metabolite profiles, which could then highlight novel mechanisms or targets involved in disease and longevity. Using a comprehensive, unbiased metabolomics screen, we observe striking inter-species differences in amino acid, peptide, and lipid metabolites. Low circulating levels of specific amino acids, particularly those linked to the methionine pathway, resemble those observed during the fasting period at late torpor in hibernating ground squirrels and those seen in longer-lived methionine-restricted rats. These data also concur with metabolome reports on long-lived mutant mice, including the Ames dwarf mice and calorically restricted mice, as well as fruit flies, and even show similarities to circulating metabolite differences observed in young human adults when compared to older humans. During evolution, some of these beneficial nutrient/stress response pathways may have been positively selected in the naked mole-rat. These observations suggest that interventions that modify the aging metabolomic profile to a more youthful one may enable people to lead healthier and longer lives.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Amino acid profile; Hibernation; Metabolomics; Methionine pathway; Methionine restriction; Naked mole-rat; Plasma; Torpor

 

Cruciferous and Total Vegetable Intakes Are Inversely Associated With Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Older Adult Women.

Blekkenhorst LC, Bondonno CP, Lewis JR, Woodman RJ, Devine A, Bondonno NP, Lim WH, Zhu K, Beilin LJ, Thompson PL, Prince RL, Hodgson JM.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Apr 4;7(8). pii: e008391. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.008391.

PMID: 29618474 Free Article

http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/7/8/e008391

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Dietary patterns rich in fruits and vegetables are considered to reduce atherosclerotic disease presentation and are reported to be inversely associated with subclinical measures of atherosclerosis, such as carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque. However, the effect of vegetable intake alone, and relationships to specific types of vegetables containing different phytochemical profiles, is important. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of total vegetable intake and specific vegetables grouped according to phytochemical constituents with common carotid artery IMT (CCA-IMT) and carotid plaque severity in a cohort of older adult women (aged ≥70 years).

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Total vegetable intake was calculated at baseline (1998) using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vegetable types included cruciferous, allium, yellow/orange/red, leafy green, and legumes. In 2001, CCA-IMT (n=954) and carotid focal plaque (n=968) were assessed using high-resolution B-mode carotid ultrasonography. Mean (SD) total vegetable intake was 199.9 (78.0) g/d. Women consuming ≥3 servings of vegetables each day had ≈4.6% to 5.0% lower mean CCA-IMT (P=0.014) and maximum CCA-IMT (P=0.004) compared with participants consuming <2 servings of vegetables. For each 10 g/d higher in cruciferous vegetable intake, there was an associated 0.006 mm (0.8%) lower mean CCA-IMT (P<0.01) and 0.007 mm (0.8%) lower maximum CCA-IMT (P<0.01). Other vegetable types were not associated with CCA-IMT (P>0.05). No associations were observed between vegetables and plaque severity (P>0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Increasing vegetables in the diet with a focus on consuming cruciferous vegetables may have benefits for the prevention of subclinical atherosclerosis in older adult women.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:

URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au. Unique identifier: ACTRN12615000750583.

KEYWORDS:

atherosclerosis; carotid intima‐media thickness; carotid plaque; cruciferous; vegetables

 

Heart Rate Recovery 10 Seconds After Cessation of Exercise Predicts Death.

van de Vegte YJ, van der Harst P, Verweij N.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Apr 5;7(8). pii: e008341. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.008341.

PMID: 29622586 Free Article

http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/7/8/e008341

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Heart rate recovery (HRR) is commonly defined as the decrease of heart rate at 1 minute after cessation of exercise and is an important predictor of all-cause mortality and death associated with coronary artery disease. However, HRR at earlier time intervals after cessation has not been well evaluated and might better reflect PNS reactivation. We hypothesize that early HRR indices within the first minute is better associated with all-cause and coronary artery disease mortality compared with HRR at 1 minute.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

The prognostic value of HRR at 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 seconds after cessation of exercise was investigated in 40 727 selected UK Biobank participants (mean age 56 years, 45% male) free from cardiovascular disease. During a median follow-up period of 6 years, 536 participants died (including 39 of coronary artery disease). In multivariable analyses, including adjustments for aerobic exercise capacity, cardiovascular risk factors, and factors associated with mortality in general, only HRR at 10 seconds remained predictive of both all-cause and coronary artery disease mortality. Effects of HRR were larger and more significant when measured early after exercise cessation. Moreover, the association of change in heart rate between 10 seconds and 1 minute after exercise cessation with mortality was dependent on HRR at 10 seconds.

CONCLUSIONS:

We provide evidence that decreased HRR at 10 seconds after cessation of exercise is a superior predictor of outcome compared with HRR at later time intervals. This observation might have important implications for the future reporting and interpretation of exercise tests.

KEYWORDS:

autonomic nervous system; exercise testing; heart rate recovery; mortality

 

Plasma Concentrations and Dietary Intakes of Choline and Betaine in Association With Atrial Fibrillation Risk: Results From 3 Prospective Cohorts With Different Health Profiles.

Zuo H, Svingen GFT, Tell GS, Ueland PM, Vollset SE, Pedersen ER, Ulvik A, Meyer K, Nordrehaug JE, Nilsen DWT, Bønaa KH, Nygård O.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Apr 12;7(8). pii: e008190. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.008190.

PMID: 29650710 Free Article

http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/7/8/e008190

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although choline metabolism has been associated with atherosclerotic heart disease, less research attention has been paid to the associations of choline and its oxidative metabolite betaine with cardiac arrhythmias.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

We evaluated associations of plasma concentrations and dietary intakes of choline and betaine with long-term atrial fibrillation (AF) risk in a community-based cohort, HUSK ([the Hordaland Health Study] n=6949), and validated the findings in 2 patient cohorts: the Western Norway Coronary Angiography Cohort (n=4164) and the NORVIT (Norwegian B-Vitamin) Trial (n=3733). Information on AF was obtained from the CVDNOR (Cardiovascular Disease in Norway) project. In HUSK, WECAC (Western Norway Coronary Angiography Cohort), and NORVIT, 552, 411, and 663 AF cases were identified during a median follow-up time of 10.9, 7.3, and, 8.7 years, respectively. Plasma concentrations of choline and betaine were significantly positively associated with later AF risk after multivariable adjustments in HUSK. Such associations were independently replicated in the 2 external prospective patient cohorts. The pooled hazard ratio was 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.19, P<0.001) and 1.16 (95% confidence interval 1.10-1.22, P<0.001) per SD increment for log-transformed choline and betaine, respectively. Moreover, dietary intake of choline was marginally associated with AF risk (pooled hazard ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.66, fifth versus first quintile), whereas no significant association was observed between dietary betaine and AF risk.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings indicate that plasma concentrations as well as dietary intake of choline, but not betaine, are associated with subsequent risk of AF, suggesting a potential role of choline metabolism in the pathogenesis of AF.

KEYWORDS:

atrial fibrillation; betaine; choline; cohort studies; the CVDNOR project

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Longitudinal change in blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular disease mortality in a Chinese cohort.

Fan JH, Wang JB, Wang SM, Abnet CC, Qiao YL, Taylor PR.

Heart. 2018 Apr 24. pii: heartjnl-2017-312850. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2017-312850. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29691288

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A number of studies have demonstrated a J-shaped curve between blood pressure (BP) and all-cause mortality, but few studies have used longitudinal change in BP to study mortality in the Chinese population.

METHODS:

We performed a 30-year follow-up study to examine the association between BP (at baseline and longitudinal change) and risk of mortality in the Linxian General Population Trial Cohort. At baseline, a total of 29 584 healthy adults were enrolled in the Linxian General Population Trial in 1985 and followed through to the end of 2014. The final analysis was restricted to 29 439 participants (55% women) after exclusion of outliers. We also examined the potential effects of BP trajectory patterns during the period of 1985-1999 on sequent risk of mortality. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs.

RESULTS:

Compared with participants with normal BP, patients with prehypertension, stage 1, stage 2 or stage 3 hypertension had an increased risk of all-cause mortality, with HRs of 1.09 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.14), 1.34 (95% CI 1.28 to 1.40), 1.69 (95% CI 1.60 to 1.79) and 2.14 (95% CI 2.01 to 2.28), respectively. Relative to stable BP of normotension, having a rise in BP from normotension to hypertension or from prehypertension to hypertension both conferred an increased risk of total and cardiovascular disease and stroke mortality (total: HRs 1.22 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.34) and 1.36 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.51); cardiovascular disease: HRs 1.42 (95% CI 1.17 to 1.73) and 1.55 (95% CI 1.24 to 1.93); stroke: HRs 2.29 (95% CI 1.88 to 2.80) and 2.61 (95% CI 2.11 to 3.24), respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings emphasise that development of incident hypertension in middle age could increase the risk of total, cardiovascular disease and stroke mortality, and suggest that current BP targets could be revised.

KEYWORDS:

epidemiology; heart disease; hypertension; stroke

 

Effect of Protein Supplementation During Diet-Induced Weight Loss on Muscle Mass and Strength: A Randomized Controlled Study.

Smith GI, Commean PK, Reeds DN, Klein S, Mittendorfer B.

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2018 May;26(5):854-861. doi: 10.1002/oby.22169.

PMID: 29687650

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

High protein (particularly leucine-rich whey protein) intake is recommended to mitigate the adverse effect of weight loss on muscle mass. The effectiveness of this approach is unknown.

METHODS:

Seventy middle-aged (50-65 years old) postmenopausal women with obesity were randomized to (1) weight maintenance (WM), (2) weight loss and the recommended daily allowance for protein (0.8 g/kg/d) (WL group), or (3) weight loss plus whey protein supplementation (total protein: 1.2 g/kg/d) (WL-PS group). Thigh muscle volume and strength were assessed at baseline and after 5% and 10% weight loss in the weight-loss groups and after matched time periods (∼3 and 6 months, respectively) in the WM group.

RESULTS:

A 5% weight loss caused a greater decrease in thigh muscle volume in the WL group than the WL-PS group (4.7% ± 0.7% vs. 2.8% ± 0.8%, respectively; P < 0.05). After 10% weight loss, there was no statistically significant difference in muscle mass loss in the two groups, and the total loss was small in both groups (5.5% ± 0.8% and 4.5% ± 0.7%, respectively). The dietary interventions did not affect muscle strength.

CONCLUSIONS:

Whey protein supplementation during diet-induced weight loss does not have clinically important therapeutic effects on muscle mass or strength in middle-aged postmenopausal women with obesity.

 

Caffeine intake reduces incident atrial fibrillation at a population level.

Casiglia E, Tikhonoff V, Albertini F, Gasparotti F, Mazza A, Montagnana M, Danese E, Benati M, Spinella P, Palatini P.

Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018 Jan 1:2047487318772945. doi: 10.1177/2047487318772945. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29692210

Abstract

Background The general belief is that caffeine increases the risk of hyperkinetic arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of chronic caffeine intake on incident atrial fibrillation in general population. Design and methods A population cohort of 1475 unselected men and women observed for 12 years and left free to intake food or beverages containing caffeine was studied. Subjects were stratified into tertiles of caffeine intake both in the whole cohort and after genotyping for the -163C > A polymorphism of the CYP1A2 gene, regulating caffeine metabolism. Results In the whole cohort, the 12-year incidence of atrial fibrillation was significantly lower in the third (2.2%) than in the first (10.2%) or second (5.7%) tertile of caffeine intake ( P < 0.001). The same trend was observed in all genotypes; the apparently steeper reduction of atrial fibrillation in slow caffeine metabolisers found at univariate analysis was proved wrong by multivariate Cox analysis. Age, chronic pulmonary disease, history of heart failure and of coronary artery disease, and systolic blood pressure - but not the genotype or the caffeine ×  CYP1A2 interaction term - were significant confounders of the association between incident atrial fibrillation and being in the third tertile of caffeine intake (hazard ratio 0.249, 95% confidence intervals 0.161-0.458, P < 0.01). Conclusions A higher caffeine intake (>165 mmol/day or > 320 mg/day) is associated with a lower incidence of atrial fibrillation in the 12-year epidemiological prospective setting based on the general population.

KEYWORDS:

Arrhythmias; CYP1A2; atrial fibrillation; caffeine; epidemiology; genetics; risk factors

 

Editors' note: Omitting obesity treatment leads to poor outcomes, even in those who appear to be metabolically healthy.

Atkinson RL, Macdonald IA.

Int J Obes (Lond). 2018 Mar;42(3):285. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2017.311. Epub 2017 Nov 30. No abstract available.

PMID: 29595196

https://www.nature.com/articles/ijo2017311?WT.ec_id=IJO-201803&spMailingID=56303668&spUserID=MTc2MzAyMjQ1OQS2&spJobID=1364712482&spReportId=MTM2NDcxMjQ4MgS2

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Journals should no longer accept 'obesity paradox' articles.

Peeters A.

Int J Obes (Lond). 2018 Mar;42(3):584-585. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2017.259. Epub 2017 Oct 13. No abstract available.

PMID: 29026215

 

 

Impact of three different plate colours on short-term satiety and energy intake: a randomized controlled trial.

Akyol A, Ayaz A, Inan-Eroglu E, Cetin C, Samur G.

Nutr J. 2018 Apr 21;17(1):46. doi: 10.1186/s12937-018-0350-1.

PMID: 29679981

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Plate colour was previously shown to alter the amount of food consumption due to its environmental effect on food intake. However, different studies have indicated that the effect of plate colour cannot be generalized. In light of this finding, the main objective of this study was to determine whether food consumption during an open buffet meal was different when using same-sized white, red or black plates.

METHODS:

This study was a crossover study conducted with 54 female participants aged 18-30 years with normal BMIs. On experimental days, participants ate a standard breakfast and were then randomly assigned to eat ad libitum lunch (pasta with tomato sauce and soft drinks) using white, red or black plates. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores on satiety outcomes were measured for all meals. Energy and macronutrient intake during lunch was recorded.

RESULTS:

The results showed that plate colour exerted a significant effect on food intake during the test days (p = 0.021). The average total energy intake with red (1102.16 ± 47.12 kcal, p = 0.05) and black plates (1113.19 ± 47.12 kcal, p = 0.034) was significantly increased when compared to that with white plates (945.72 ± 47.12 kcal). There were no differences between red and black plates (p = 0.985). Overall, mean VAS scores did not indicate a significant difference between the groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Plate colour may be a crucial determinant of energy intake.

KEYWORDS:

Colour; Energy intake; Food; Plate; Satiety response

 

Association of maternal omega-6 fatty acid intake with infant birth outcomes: Korean Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH).

Lee E, Kim H, Kim H, Ha EH, Chang N.

Nutr J. 2018 Apr 21;17(1):47. doi: 10.1186/s12937-018-0353-y.

PMID: 29679982

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Maternal fatty acids (FAs) intake has an effect on birth weight, birth length, and gestational age, as fetal development is entirely dependent on the maternal essential FA supply. This study aimed to identify the association between the maternal intake of FAs and birth outcomes among pregnant women who participated in the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) prospective cohort study in South Korea.

METHODS:

A total of 1407 pregnant women, aged 30.2 ± 3.7 years, at 12 to 28 weeks' gestation were recruited between August 2006 and December 2010. Their dietary intake during pregnancy was investigated by the 1-day 24-h dietary recall method. The pregnancy outcome data-namely infant's gestational age, birth weight, and birth length-were analyzed for their associations with their mothers' intake of FAs.

RESULTS:

When adjusted for confounding factors, multiple regression analysis revealed adverse effects on birth weight (P = 0.031) and birth length (P = 0.025) with high maternal intake of omega-6 FAs. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for the risk of being below the 10th percentile for birth weight was higher in the highest quintile (Q5) compared to the lowest quintile (Q1) of omega-6 FA intake levels (OR = 2.444; 95% CI = 1.038-5.751; P for trend = 0.010). Also, the OR for being above the 90th percentile of birth length was lower in the highest quintile (Q5) compared to that in the lowest quintile (Q1) of omega-6 FA intake (OR = 0.432; 95% CI = 0.211-0.884; P for trend = 0.020). However, the maternal intake of omega-3 FAs was not related to gestational age, birth weight, or birth length.

CONCLUSIONS:

A high maternal omega-6 FA intake was negatively associated with birth weight and birth length.

KEYWORDS:

Birth weight; Omega-6 fatty acids; Pregnancy outcome; Pregnant women

 

High Tomato and Tomato Product Consumption is Protective Against the Decline in Handgrip Strength Among Japanese Adults: The Oroshisho Study.

Ren Z, Huang C, Momma H, Cui Y, Niu K, Sugiyama S, Nanno M, Nagatomi R.

J Epidemiol. 2018 Apr 21. doi: 10.2188/jea.JE20170029. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29681560

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There is scarce epidemiological evidence regarding the relationships of the consumption of different types of vegetables or fruits with change in skeletal muscle strength. We prospectively examined the relationships among Japanese adults, using handgrip strength to assess skeletal muscle strength.

METHODS:

A 3-year study was carried out with 259 Japanese adults who were 22-68 years of age. The frequency of consumption of different types of vegetables or fruits were obtained using a validated self-administered dietary history questionnaire. Handgrip strength was measured with a handheld digital Smedley dynamometer.

RESULTS:

After adjustment for confounding factors, the mean change in handgrip strength in participants stratified according to the level of tomato and tomato product consumption at baseline were -3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.0 to -2.3) for <1 time/week, -2.7 (95% CI, -3.6 to -1.8) for 1 time/week, -1.6 (95% CI, -2.5 to -0.8) for 2-3 times/week, and -1.7 (95% CI, -2.8 to -0.7) for ≥4 times/week, (P for trend = 0.022). However, the significant relationships of consumption of other types of vegetables and different types of fruits with change in handgrip strength were not observed.

CONCLUSION:

Higher consumption of tomato and tomato product at baseline was significantly associated with reduced decline in handgrip strength among Japanese adults over a 3-year follow-up period. This study suggests that consumption of tomato and tomato product could be protective against the decline in skeletal muscle strength associated with aging.

KEYWORDS:

Japanese adults; consumption of tomato and tomato product; handgrip strength

 

Phosphate toxicity and tumorigenesis.

Brown RB, Razzaque MS.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2018 Apr 20. pii: S0304-419X(18)30042-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbcan.2018.04.007. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 29684520

Abstract

In this brief opinion article, we briefly summarized evidence that cellular phosphate burden from phosphate toxicity is a pathophysiological determinant of cancer cell growth. Tumor cells express more phosphate cotransporters and store more inorganic phosphate than normal cells, and dysregulated phosphate homeostasis is associated with the genesis of various human tumors. High dietary phosphate consumption causes the growth of lung and skin tumors in experimental animal models. Experimental studies show that excessive phosphate burden induces growth-promoting cell signaling, stimulates neovascularization, and is associated with chromosome instability and metastasis. Studies have also shown phosphate is a mitogenic factor that affects various tumor cell growth. Among epidemiological evidence linking phosphorus and tumor formation, the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study found that high dietary phosphorus levels were independently associated with lethal and high-grade prostate cancer. Further research is needed to determine how excessive dietary phosphate consumption influences initiation and promotion of tumorigenesis, and to elucidate prognostic benefits of reducing phosphate burden to decrease tumor cell growth and delay metastatic progression. The results of such studies could provide the basis for therapeutic modulation of phosphate metabolism for the improved patient outcome.

KEYWORDS:

Diet; FGF23; Klotho; Phosphate toxicity; Tumorigenesis

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Association between alcohol consumption and bone mineral density in elderly Korean men and women.

Cho Y, Choi S, Kim K, Lee G, Park SM.

Arch Osteoporos. 2018 Apr 25;13(1):46. doi: 10.1007/s11657-018-0462-4.

PMID: 29696513

Abstract

In this cross-sectional study based on Korean elderly men and women, heavy alcohol intake for men was related to low whole-body BMD and light alcohol intake for women was associated with high whole-body, lumbar, and total femur BMD.

PURPOSE:

Alcohol is a risk factor of osteoporosis but previous studies on its effect on bone health has been controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alcohol intake and bone mineral density in Korean elderly men and women.

METHODS:

Based on the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES), 2657 men and 2080 women 50 to 79 years of age were included. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Alcohol consumption was determined by self-administered questionnaires and classified into four groups according to sex: non-drinkers (0 g/day), light drinking (1-19 g/day men, 1-9 g/day women), moderate drinking (20-39 g/day men, 10-29 g/day women), and heavy drinking (≥ 40 g/day men, ≥ 20 g/day women). The adjusted mean values calculated by linear regression analysis for BMD were determined according to the amount of alcohol consumed.

RESULTS:

Light drinkers had the highest whole-body BMD for both men (mean 1.164, SD 0.047-1.281) and women (mean 1.046, SD 0.912-1.180). Among men, mean whole-body BMD for heavy drinkers was significantly lower than that among light drinkers (P = 0.031). Among women, BMD for light drinkers was significantly higher in the whole body, lumbar, and total femur than that for non-drinkers (P < 0.001, P = 0.026, P = 0.040, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:

Heavy alcohol intake may be associated with lower BMD in men while light alcohol intake may associate with higher BMD among women. Future longitudinal studies investigating the effect of alcohol consumption on bone mineral density are needed to validate the findings of this study.

KEYWORDS:

Alcohol; Bone; Korea; Men; Women

 

Quantitative association between body mass index and the risk of cancer: A global meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Fang X, Wei J, He X, Lian J, Han D, An P, Zhou T, Liu S, Wang F, Min J.

Int J Cancer. 2018 Apr 26. doi: 10.1002/ijc.31553. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29696630

Abstract

Numerous studies have suggested that excess body weight is associated with increased cancer risk. To examine this putative association, we performed a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis of cohort studies reporting body mass index (BMI) and the risk of 23 cancer types. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for cohort studies, yielding 325 articles with 1,525,052 cases. Strong positive associations were observed between BMI and endometrial cancer (RR: 1.48), esophageal adenocarcinoma (RR: 1.45), and kidney cancer (RR: 1.20); weaker associations (RR<1.20) were also found for several other cancer types. Interestingly, we found significant inverse associations between BMI and oral cavity (RR: 0.93), lung (RR: 0.91), premenopausal breast (RR: 0.95), and localized prostate (RR: 0.97) cancers. A male-specific association was found for colorectal cancer (P=0.023), and a female-specific association was found for cancer in brain (P=0.025) or kidney (P=0.035). With respect to geography, the strongest positive association was found for total cancer in North America (P=0.038). This comprehensive meta-analysis provides epidemiological evidence supporting the association between BMI and cancer risk. These findings can be used to drive public policies and to help guide personalized medicine in order to better manage body weight, thereby reducing the risk of developing obesity-related cancer.

KEYWORDS:

Body mass index; cancer; meta-analysis; obesity

 

Female reproductive history and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective analysis of 126,721 women.

Pandeya N, Huxley RR, Chung HF, Dobson AJ, Kuh D, Hardy R, Cade JE, Greenwood DC, Giles GG, Bruinsma F, Demakakos P, Simonsen MK, Adami HO, Weiderpass E, Mishra GD.

Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018 Apr 25. doi: 10.1111/dom.13336. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29696756

Abstract

AIMS:

Female reproductive history has been inconsistently associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. We examined the prospective associations between aspects of a woman's reproductive history and incident diabetes.

METHODS:

This study pooled 126,721 middle-aged women's individual data from eight cohort studies contributing to the International Collaboration for a Life Course Approach to Reproductive Health and Chronic Disease Events (InterLACE). Associations between age at menarche, age at first birth, parity and menopausal status with incident diabetes were examined using generalized linear mixed models with binomial distribution and robust variance. We stratified by body mass index (BMI) when there was evidence of a statistical interaction with BMI.

RESULTS:

Over a median follow-up of 9 years, 4,073 cases of diabetes were reported. Non-linear associations with diabetes were observed for age at menarche, parity and age at first birth. Compared with menarche at age 13, menarche at ≤10 years was associated with 18% increased risk of diabetes (Relative Risk [RR] 1.18, 95% Confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.02-1.37) after adjusting for BMI. After stratifying by BMI, the increase risk was only observed in women with BMI >25 kg/m2 . A U-shape relation was observed between parity and risk of diabetes. Compared with pre-/peri-menopausal women, women with a hysterectomy/oophorectomy had an increased risk of diabetes (RR 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.29).

CONCLUSIONS:

Several markers of a woman's reproductive history appear to be modestly associated with future risk of diabetes. Maintaining a normal weight in adult life may ameliorate any increase in risk conferred by early onset of menarche.

KEYWORDS:

age at first birth; age at menarche; hysterectomy; menopausal status; oophorectomy; parity; type 2 diabetes

 

Relationship between Homocysteine and Muscle Strength Decline: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

Vidoni ML, Pettee Gabriel K, Luo ST, Simonsick EM, Day RS.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018 Mar 14;73(4):546-551. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glx161.

PMID: 28958086

https://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/10161/15463/2017Vidoni_Gabriel_Luo_Simonsick_Day2017J_Gerontology_A.pdf;jsessionid=33E32A023310DA865C56BCA881EA8BC6?sequence=1

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Decreased muscle strength is strongly associated with future mobility limitations in older adults. Homocysteine is a risk factor for vascular disease and may exacerbate muscle strength decline. The present study aimed to examine the association between homocysteine levels and muscle strength in adults aged 50 years or older.

METHODS:

Data were from 1,101 participants of The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging between December 2004 and March 2015. Muscle strength was measured using grip strength. Mixed effects linear regression was used to estimate the association between homocysteine and muscle strength in men and women, separately.

RESULTS:

Total mean follow-up time was 4.7 ± 3.1 years, range from 0 to 10.1 years. Baseline mean grip strength was 39.9 kg for men and 25.5 kg for women. Grip strength declined over the follow-up time for both men and women. Among women, there was a significant inverse relationship between homocysteine and grip strength, where grip strength declined as a function of increasing homocysteine over time (β = -0.05, p = .031). Among men, an increase of 1 μmol/L in homocysteine was associated with -0.10 kg decrease in grip strength, though not significantly.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this study of healthy older adults aged 50 years or older, higher homocysteine was related to lower muscle strength in women. This is the first study to characterize the relationship over a long follow-up period. Future research should focus on assessing homocysteine as a marker of physical function decline and translating the relationship into clinical and public health practice.

 

The Relationship Between Dietary Macronutrients and Hepatic Telomere Length in Aging Mice

Rahul Gokarn, MD; Samantha Solon-Biet, PhD; Neil A Youngson, PhD; Devin Wahl, BSc; Victoria C Cogger, PhD ...

The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, Volume 73, Issue 4, 14 March 2018, Pages 446–449, https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glx186

Abstract

Macronutrients and dietary energy influence aging, age-related health, and life span. Reduction in telomere length has been proposed as one mechanism for aging. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of varying ratios of dietary macronutrients and energy on telomere length in older adult mice. C57Bl/6 mice were fed ad libitum their entire life on one of 25 diets varying in protein, carbohydrates, fat, and energy. Average telomere length ratio (ATLR) was measured by polymerase chain reaction in livers of a subset of 161 mice aged 15 months. There was a significant positive relationship between ATLR and carbohydrate intake and a negative relationship with protein intake, but no relationships with fat or energy intake. Analysis using the Geometric Framework and Generalized Additive Models confirmed that carbohydrate intake was positively associated with ATLR, while the longest ATLR was achieved by mice restricted to low protein, high carbohydrate diets. ATLR distribution across the diets was parallel to median life-span results previously published. ATLR was associated with blood levels of some amino acids (asparagine, glutamate, taurine) but not with blood levels of fatty acids, hepatic mitochondrial function, or nutrient sensing pathways. In conclusion, mice on low protein, high carbohydrate diets have the longest hepatic telomeres and longest life span.

 

A Young Blood Environment Decreases Aging of Senile Mice Kidneys.

Huang Q, Ning Y, Liu D, Zhang Y, Li D, Zhang Y, Yin Z, Fu B, Cai G, Sun X, Chen X.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018 Mar 14;73(4):421-428. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glx183.

PMID: 29040401

Abstract

Whether changes in internal body environment affect kidney aging remains unclear. Specifically, it is unknown whether transplanted kidneys from older donors recover from tissue damage after placement in younger recipients. In this study, a parabiosis animal model was established to investigate the effects of a young internal body environment on aged kidneys. The animals were divided into six groups: young (Ycon) and old control (Ocon) groups, isochronic youth-youth group (Y-IP), elderly-elderly group (O-IP), and heterochronic youth (Y-HP) and elderly (O-HP) groups. After parabiosis, tubule and interstitial tissue scores in the O-HP group were significantly lower than in the Ocon and O-IP groups. The expression of aging-related protein p16 and SA-β-gal in the O-HP group was significantly reduced compared with the Ocon and O-IP groups. Autophagy factors Atg5 and LC3BII were significantly upregulated, whereas the expression of the autophagic degradation marker (P62) was significantly downregulated in the O-HP group compared with the Ocon and O-IP groups. With the same comparison, the positive cells of TUNEL staining and the expression of IL-6 and IL-1β were significantly reduced, whereas the total/cleaved caspase-3 and total/pNF-κB were significantly increased in the O-HP group. The results demonstrated that a young blood environment significantly reduces kidney aging. These findings provide new evidence supporting an increase in the upper age limit for human kidney transplantation donors.

 

Longitudinal association between egg consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease: interaction with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Jang J, Shin MJ, Kim OY, Park K.

Nutr Diabetes. 2018 Apr 25;8(1):20. doi: 10.1038/s41387-018-0033-1.

PMID: 29695709

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41387-018-0033-1.pdf

How does light-intensity physical activity associate with adult cardiometabolic health and mortality? Systematic review with meta-analysis of experimental and observational studies.

Chastin SFM, De Craemer M, De Cocker K, Powell L, Van Cauwenberg J, Dall P, Hamer M, Stamatakis E.

Br J Sports Med. 2018 Apr 25. pii: bjsports-2017-097563. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2017-097563. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 29695511

Abstract

AIM:

To assess the relationship between time spent in light physical activity and cardiometabolic health and mortality in adults.

DESIGN:

Systematic review and meta-analysis.

DATA SOURCES:

Searches in Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL and three rounds of hand searches.

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES:

Experimental (including acute mechanistic studies and physical activity intervention programme) and observational studies (excluding case and case-control studies) conducted in adults (aged ≥18 years) published in English before February 2018 and reporting on the relationship between light physical activity (<3 metabolic equivalents) and cardiometabolic health outcomes or all-cause mortality.

STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS:

Study quality appraisal with QUALSYST tool and random effects inverse variance meta-analysis.

RESULTS:

Seventy-two studies were eligible including 27 experimental studies (and 45 observational studies). Mechanistic experimental studies showed that short but frequent bouts of light-intensity activity throughout the day reduced postprandial glucose (-17.5%; 95% CI -26.2 to -8.7) and insulin (-25.1%; 95% CI -31.8 to -18.3) levels compared with continuous sitting, but there was very limited evidence for it affecting other cardiometabolic markers including mortality. Three light physical activity programme intervention studies (n ranging from 12 to 58) reduced adiposity, improved blood pressure and lipidaemia; the programmes consisted of activity of >150 min/week for at least 12 weeks. Six out of eight prospective observational studies that were entered in the meta-analysis reported that more time spent in daily light activity reduced risk of all-cause mortality (pooled HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.62 to 0.83).

CONCLUSIONS:

Light-intensity physical activity could play a role in improving adult cardiometabolic health and reducing mortality risk. Frequent short bouts of light activity improve glycaemic control. Nevertheless, the modest volume of the prospective epidemiological evidence base and the moderate consistency between observational and laboratory evidence inhibits definitive conclusions.

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular; physical activity; public health; risk factor; sedentary

 

How a Genealogy Site Led to the Front Door of the Golden State Killer Suspect

By THOMAS FULLERAPRIL 26, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/26/us/golden-state-killer.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&clickSource=story-heading&module=first-column-region&region=top-news&WT.nav=top-news

 

Carnitine acetyltransferase in Agrp neurons is required for the homeostatic adaptation to restricted feeding in male mice.

Reichenbach A, Mequinion M, Bayliss JA, Lockie SH, Lemus MB, Mynatt RL, Stark R, Andrews ZB.

Endocrinology. 2018 Apr 24. doi: 10.1210/en.2018-00131. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29697769

Abstract

Behavioral adaptation to periods of food availability is crucial for survival and AgRP neurons have been associated with entrainment to temporal restricted feeding. We have previously shown that carnitine acetyltransferase (Crat) in AgRP neurons enables metabolic flexibility and appropriate nutrient partitioning. Here, we examined whether Crat is a component of a food entrainable oscillator (FEO) that help links behavior to food availability by restricting food availability to 3 hours per day during the light phase. AgRP Crat KO mice consumed less food, regained less body weight but maintained blood glucose levels during the 25-day restricted feeding protocol. Importantly, we observed no difference in meal latency, food anticipatory activity (FAA) or brown adipose tissue temperature during the first 13 days of restricted feeding. However, as the restricted feeding paradigm progressed we noticed an increased FAA in AgRP Crat KO mice. The delayed increase in FAA, which developed during the last 12 days of restricted feeding, corresponded with elevated plasma corticosterone and non-esterified fatty acids indicating it resulted from greater energy debt incurred by KO mice over the course of the experiment. These experiments highlight the importance of Crat in AgRP neurons to regulate feeding behavior and body weight gain during restricted feeding, but not synchronizing behavior to food availability. Thus, Crat within AgRP neurons forms a component of the homeostatic response to restricted feeding but is not likely to be a molecular component of FEO.

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Daily Patterns of Accelerometer Activity Predict Changes in Sleep, Cognition, and Mortality in Older Men.

Zeitzer JM, Blackwell T, Hoffman AR, Cummings S, Ancoli-Israel S, Stone K; Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study Research Group.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018 Apr 17;73(5):682-687. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glw250.

PMID: 28158467

https://watermark.silverchair.com/glw250.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAb0wggG5BgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggGqMIIBpgIBADCCAZ8GCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQMRQUD3fgFtr23pG7UAgEQgIIBcAW1QwXbrBtZQY8YzyFnlDQEP9ktJmHyFXWCfobffC7NdePRnyddqbxYMuA_BFGizNNSFdVxiEppe_IRb6Ltp3If9qIQEaA9xLhiuKMJ4uZ_qE3CYX9PEaXILyNF0zUR39ekNzpne_td5j3cnIoch-0_aKUI4rruM1IlQpbBAoDpphkjDoujPZlmbK35iS7XxXTmpl5j9FLL4E0QpVFnPMDGM16SgTdg9rSKQLFpsx6lHWT1l8xaY9aQ5BsrfCO-2r_IWD2ocaypWMeCLH74hfEG-6Ves-0Q1XMnkJoHBUjiqR_SIBDZHXGvfIJaC3SohXqSxN0tDMqZhmB4zhfPPFycGkEh9_lqCvIBM-WIDjLfPxfXpVCwyUHRh0PbV8A1oznqVA5fNzasM7p2qHSDzJA9-E7it7H4cBg7J9HR3L3-svb-MADDhgLm6c4Mdsi1KzTXuiAt4eVZ3EzX3EgJUmpO7PWinuHuVFUVunwWwmAv

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There is growing interest in the area of "wearable tech" and its relationship to health. A common element of many of these devices is a triaxial accelerometer that can yield continuous information on gross motor activity levels; how such data might predict changes in health is less clear.

METHODS:

We examined accelerometry data from 2,976 older men who were part of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. Using a shape-naive technique, functional principal component analysis, we examined the patterns of motor activity over the course of 4-7 days and determined whether these patterns were associated with changes in polysomnographic-determined sleep and cognitive function (Trail Making Test-Part B [Trails B], Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MS]), as well as mortality over 6.5-8 years of follow-up.

RESULTS:

In comparing baseline to 6.5 years later, multivariate modeling indicated that low daytime activity at baseline was associated with worsening of sleep efficiency (p < .05), more wake after sleep onset (p < .05), and a decrease in cognition (Trails B; p < .001), as well as a 1.6-fold higher rate of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 1.64 [1.34-2.00]). Earlier wake and bed times were associated with a decrease in cognition (3MS; p < .05). Having a late afternoon peak in activity was associated with a 1.4-fold higher rate of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 1.46 [1.21-1.77]). Those having a longer duration of their daytime activity with a bimodal activity pattern also had over a 1.4-fold higher rate of cardiovascular-related mortality (hazard ratio = 1.42 [1.02-1.98]).

CONCLUSIONS:

Patterns of daily activity may be useful as predictive biomarkers for changes in clinically relevant outcomes, including mortality and changes in sleep and cognition in older men.

 

Inverse Association Between Height-Increasing Alleles and Extreme Longevity in Japanese Women.

Tanisawa K, Hirose N, Arai Y, Shimokata H, Yamada Y, Kawai H, Kojima M, Obuchi S, Hirano H, Suzuki H, Fujiwara Y, Taniguchi Y, Shinkai S, Ihara K, Sugaya M, Higuchi M, Arai T, Mori S, Sawabe M, Sato N, Muramatsu M, Tanaka M.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018 Apr 17;73(5):588-595. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glx155.

PMID: 28958036

Abstract

Growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/insulin signaling is one of the most plausible biological pathways regulating aging and longevity. Previous studies have demonstrated that several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GH/IGF-1/insulin signaling-associated genes influence both longevity and adult height, suggesting the possibility of a shared genetic architecture between longevity and height. We therefore examined the relationship between 30 height-associated SNPs and extreme longevity in a Japanese population consisting of 428 centenarians and 4,026 younger controls. We confirmed that height-increasing genetic scores (HGSs) constructed based on 30 SNPs were significantly associated with height in the controls (p = 6.95 × 10-23). HGS was significantly and inversely associated with extreme longevity in women (p = .011), but not in men, although no SNPs were significantly associated with extreme longevity after Bonferroni correction. The odds ratio for extreme longevity in the lowest HGS group (≤27) and the second lowest HGS group (28-30) relative to the highest HGS group (≥37) was 1.71 (p = .056) and 1.69 (p = .034), respectively, for women. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated an inverse association between height-increasing alleles with extreme longevity in Japanese women, providing novel insight into the genetic architecture of longevity and aging.

 

Blood Lead Levels and Decreased Kidney Function in a Population-Based Cohort.

Harari F, Sallsten G, Christensson A, Petkovic M, Hedblad B, Forsgard N, Melander O, Nilsson PM, Borné Y, Engström G, Barregard L.

Am J Kidney Dis. 2018 Apr 23. pii: S0272-6386(18)30556-0. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2018.02.358. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29699886

https://www.ajkd.org/article/S0272-6386(18)30556-0/fulltext

https://www.ajkd.org/article/S0272-6386(18)30556-0/pdf

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Environmental lead exposure has been associated with decreased kidney function, but evidence from large prospective cohort studies examining low exposure levels is scarce. We assessed the association of low levels of lead exposure with kidney function and kidney disease.

STUDY DESIGN:

Prospective population-based cohort.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:

4,341 individuals aged 46 to 67 years enrolled into the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study-Cardiovascular Cohort (1991-1994) and 2,567 individuals subsequently followed up (2007-2012).

PREDICTOR:

Blood lead concentrations in quartiles (Q1-Q4) at baseline.

OUTCOMES:

Change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between the baseline and follow-up visit based on serum creatinine level alone or in combination with cystatin C level. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) incidence (185 cases) through 2013 detected using a national registry.

MEASUREMENTS:

Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models to assess associations between lead levels and eGFRs at baseline and follow-up and change in eGFRs over time. Cox regression was used to examine associations between lead levels and CKD incidence. Validation of 100 randomly selected CKD cases showed very good agreement between registry data and medical records and laboratory data.

RESULTS:

At baseline, 60% of study participants were women, mean age was 57 years, and median lead level was 25 (range, 1.5-258) μg/L. After a mean of 16 years of follow-up, eGFR decreased on average by 6mL/min/1.73m2 (based on creatinine) and 24mL/min/1.73m2 (based on a combined creatinine and cystatin C equation). eGFR change was higher in Q3 and Q4 of blood lead levels compared with Q1 (P for trend = 0.001). The HR for incident CKD in Q4 was 1.49 (95% CI, 1.07-2.08) compared with Q1 to Q3 combined.

LIMITATIONS:

Lead level measured only at baseline, moderate number of CKD cases, potential unmeasured confounding.

CONCLUSIONS:

Low-level lead exposure was associated with decreased kidney function and incident CKD. Our findings suggest lead nephrotoxicity even at low levels of exposure.

KEYWORDS:

Blood lead level; Pb; chronic kidney disease (CKD); cystatin C; environmental exposure; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); incident CKD; kidney function; lead exposure; nephrotoxin; serum creatinine

 

Metabolically Healthy Obesity, Transition to Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk.

Mongraw-Chaffin M, Foster MC, Anderson CAM, Burke GL, Haq N, Kalyani RR, Ouyang P, Sibley CT, Tracy R, Woodward M, Vaidya D.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 May 1;71(17):1857-1865. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.02.055.

PMID: 29699611

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Debate over the cardiometabolic risk associated with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) continues. Many studies have investigated this relationship by examining MHO at baseline with longitudinal follow-up, with inconsistent results.

OBJECTIVES:

The authors hypothesized that MHO at baseline is transient and that transition to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and duration of MetS explains heterogeneity in incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality.

METHODS:

Among 6,809 participants of the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) the authors used Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models to investigate the joint association of obesity (≥30 kg/m2) and MetS (International Diabetes Federation consensus definition) with CVD and mortality across a median of 12.2 years. We tested for interaction and conducted sensitivity analyses for a number of conditions.

RESULTS:

Compared with metabolically healthy normal weight, baseline MHO was not significantly associated with incident CVD; however, almost one-half of those participants developed MetS during follow-up (unstable MHO). Those who had unstable MHO had increased odds of CVD (odds ratio [OR]: 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14 to 2.25), compared with those with stable MHO or healthy normal weight. Dose response for duration of MetS was significantly and linearly associated with CVD (1 visit with MetS OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.27 to 2.07; 2 visits, OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.48 to 2.49; 3+ visits, OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.89 to 2.87; p value for trend <0.001) and MetS mediated approximately 62% (44% to 100%) of the relationship between obesity at any point during follow-up and CVD.

CONCLUSIONS:

Metabolically healthy obesity is not a stable or reliable indicator of future risk for CVD. Weight loss and lifestyle management for CVD risk factors should be recommended to all individuals with obesity.

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular disease; epidemiology; metabolic syndrome; metabolically healthy obesity; mortality; obesity

 

Dietary Fat Intake and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

Ruan Y, Tang J, Guo X, Li K, Li D.

Curr Alzheimer Res. 2018 Apr 27. doi: 10.2174/1567205015666180427142350. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29701155

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Epidemiological studies showed that dietary fat intake was associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia risk, however, the association remain inconsistent. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically examine the association of dietary fat intake with AD and dementia risk.

METHODS:

We have systematically searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library up to May 1st 2017. Prospective cohort studies were included if they reported on the association of dietary fat intake with AD and dementia risk. Multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) for the highest versus lowest category were pooled by using a random-effects model.

RESULTS:

A total of 8630 participants and 633 cases from four independent prospective cohort studies were included in the present meta-analysis. A higher dietary saturated fat intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of 39% and 105% for AD (RR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.94) and dementia (RR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.06, 3.98), respectively. Dose-response analysis indicated a 4 g/day increment of saturated fat intake was related to 15% higher risk of AD (RR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.31). However, there was no significant association found between dietary intake of total, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fat and AD or dementia risk.

CONCLUSIONS:

This meta-analysis provides significant evidence of positive association between higher saturated fat intake and AD and dementia risk.

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[This first paper has been discussed in the Forums elsewhere.]

Impact of Healthy Lifestyle Factors on Life Expectancies in the US Population.

Li Y, Pan A, Wang DD, Liu X, Dhana K, Franco OH, Kaptoge S, Di Angelantonio E, Stampfer M, Willett WC, Hu FB.

Circulation. 2018 Apr 30. pii: CIRCULATIONAHA.117.032047. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.032047. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29712712

http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/circulationaha/early/2018/04/25/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.032047.full.pdf

Abstract

Background -Americans have a shorter life expectancy compared with residents of almost all other high-income countries. We aim to estimate the impact of lifestyle factors on premature mortality and life expectancy in the US population. Methods -Using data from the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014; n=78 865) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2014, n=44 354), we defined 5 low-risk lifestyle factors as never smoking, body mass index of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2, ≥30 min/d of moderate to vigorous physical activity, moderate alcohol intake, and a high diet quality score (upper 40%), and estimated hazard ratios for the association of total lifestyle score (0-5 scale) with mortality. We used data from the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys; 2013-2014) to estimate the distribution of the lifestyle score and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WONDER database to derive the agespecific death rates of Americans. We applied the life table method to estimate life expectancy by levels of the lifestyle score. Results -During up to 34 years of follow-up, we documented 42 167 deaths. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for mortality in adults with 5 compared with zero low-risk factors were 0.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22-0.31) for all-cause mortality, 0.35 (95% CI, 0.27-0.45) for cancer mortality, and 0.18 (95% CI, 0.12-0.26) for cardiovascular disease mortality. The population-attributable risk of nonadherence to 5 low-risk factors was 60.7% (95% CI, 53.6-66.7) for all-cause mortality, 51.7% (95% CI, 37.1-62.9) for cancer mortality, and 71.7% (95% CI, 58.1-81.0) for cardiovascular disease mortality. We estimated that the life expectancy at age 50 years was 29.0 years (95% CI, 28.3-29.8) for women and 25.5 years (95% CI, 24.7-26.2) for men who adopted zero low-risk lifestyle factors. In contrast, for those who adopted all 5 low-risk factors, we projected a life expectancy at age 50 years of 43.1 years (95% CI, 41.3-44.9) for women and 37.6 years (95% CI, 35.8-39.4) for men. The projected life expectancy at age 50 years was on average 14.0 years (95% CI, 11.8-16.2) longer among female Americans with 5 lowrisk factors compared with those with zero low-risk factors; for men, the difference was 12.2 years (95% CI, 10.1-14.2). Conclusions -Adopting a healthy lifestyle could substantially reduce premature mortality and prolong life expectancy in US adults.

KEYWORDS:

healthy lifestyle; life expectancy; mortality, premature

 

Association patterns of urinary sodium, potassium, and their ratio with blood pressure across various levels of salt-diet regions in China.

Yin L, Deng G, Mente A, Sun Y, Liu X, Zhang X, Wang X, Wang Y, Bo J, Chen H, Liu X, Gao N, Bai X, Rangarajan S, Li W.

Sci Rep. 2018 Apr 30;8(1):6727. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-25097-1.

PMID: 29712960

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-25097-1

Abstract

We aim to evaluate the association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) with estimated urinary sodium (Na) and potassium(K) excretions, and their gram-to-gram Na/K ratio across various salt-diet regions during 2005-2009 in China. A prospective cohort study was conducted to recruit 46,285 participants in China. A single fasting morning urine specimen was collected to estimate 24-hour urinary Na and K excretion using Kawasaki formula. Means of estimated Na and K were 5.7 ± 1.7 and 2.1 ± 0.5 grams/day, respectively, and mean estimated Na/K ratio was 2.8 ± 0.8. Adjusted analyses showed 1.70 mmHg SBP and 0.49 mmHg DBP increase per 1-g increment of estimated Na, while 1.10 mmHg SBP and 0.91 mmHg DBP decrease for one-gram increase of K. A significant increase in SBP (4.33 mmHg) and DBP (1.54 mmHg) per 1 unit increase in Na/K ratio was observed. More changes of SBP (4.39 mmHg) and DBP (1.67 mmHg) per one-unit increase of Na/K ratio were observed in low-salt regions, though significant changes were also found in moderate- and heavy-salt regions (P for heterogeneity < 0.01). Conclusively, decreasing sodium combined with increasing potassium is likely to have a more beneficial effect than decreasing sodium alone, even if those were living in low-salt regions.

 

Dietary intake and age at natural menopause: results from the UK Women's Cohort Study.

Dunneram Y, Greenwood DC, Burley VJ, Cade JE.

J Epidemiol Community Health. 2018 Apr 30. pii: jech-2017-209887. doi: 10.1136/jech-2017-209887. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29712719

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Age at natural menopause is a matter of concern for women of reproductive age as both an early or late menopause may have implications for health outcomes.

METHODS:

Study participants were women aged 40-65 years who had experienced a natural menopause from the UK Women's Cohort Study between baseline and first follow-up. Natural menopause was defined as the permanent cessation of menstrual periods for at least 12 consecutive months. A food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate diet at baseline. Reproductive history of participants was also recorded. Regression modelling, adjusting for confounders, was used to assess associations between diet and age at natural menopause.

RESULTS:

During the 4-year follow-up period, 914 women experienced a natural menopause. A high intake of oily fish and fresh legumes were associated with delayed onset of natural menopause by 3.3 years per portion/day (99% CI 0.8 to 5.8) and 0.9 years per portion/day (99% CI 0.0 to 1.8), respectively. Refined pasta and rice was associated with earlier menopause (per portion/day: -1.5 years, 99% CI -2.8 to -0.2). A higher intake of vitamin B6 (per mg/day: 0.6 years, 99% CI 0.1 to 1.2) and zinc (per mg/day: 0.3 years, 99% CI -0.0 to 0.6) was also associated with later age at menopause. Stratification by age at baseline led to attenuated results.

CONCLUSION:

Our results suggest that some food groups (oily fish, fresh legumes, refined pasta and rice) and specific nutrients are individually predictive of age at natural menopause.

KEYWORDS:

UKWCS; diet; food groups; natural menopause; nutrients

 

The Relationship between Maternal Serum Vitamin D Levels and Infant Neurodevelopment and Anthropometry: A Prospective Observational Study.

Chi MZ, Zhu L, Zhang ZL, Jin FF, Shao HR, Zheng JY, Wu C, Hu GQ.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2018;64(2):161-167. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.64.161.

PMID: 29710034

Abstract

This study was designed to determine whether there is a relationship between serum vitamin D levels and neurodevelopment and anthropometry in Chinese infants. A prospective cohort study with 160 women who gave birth to 160 healthy full-term infants and who were followed up for 6 mo was done. It included 80 pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency, and the other 80 pregnant women were enrolled matching the age and delivery method with a 25(OH)D level of more than 50 nmol/L. There was a signicant intergroup difference in length, weight or head circumference at birth (p<0.05). Meanwhile, there was a signicant intergroup difference in cognitive development and achievement at 6 mo (p<0.001). In multivariate analyses, maternal 25(OH)D levels less than 50 nmol/L were independently associated with a higher tendency for a low Bayley mental score (MDI) at 6 mo (OR=2.77, 95% CI: 1.44-5.35, p=0.002), as well as Bayley motor score (PDI) (OR=2.08, 95% CI: 1.07-4.04, p=0.032). Thus we observed that maternal vitamin D was associated with infant neurodevelopment and anthropometry.

KEYWORDS:

behavior; infant development; pregnancy; vitamin D

 

Effect of magnesium supplementation on endothelial function: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Darooghegi Mofrad M, Djafarian K, Mozaffari H, Shab-Bidar S.

Atherosclerosis. 2018 Apr 14;273:98-105. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.04.020. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29709832

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Findings of past studies are inconsistent regarding the effects of magnesium (Mg) supplementation on endothelial function (EF). We performed this meta-analysis to examine the effects of magnesium supplementation on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) as markers of EF.

METHODS:

Literature searches of English publications in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were conducted up to November 2017. Results are reported as weighted mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random effects model (DerSimonian-Laird method). Cochrane's Q test and I-squared (I2) were used to determine heterogeneity among included studies. To determine potential sources of heterogeneity, subgroup analysis was conducted for pre-defined criteria. Funnel plot and Egger's regression test were used to assess publication bias.

RESULTS:

Seven RCTs with 306 participants were included. Mg supplementation significantly increased FMD (MD: 2.97; 95% CI: 0.23 to 5.70%, p = 0.033). Between studies heterogeneity was high and subgroup analysis could not identify the sources of heterogeneity. Magnesium supplementation had no significant effect on CIMT (MD: -0.13 mm; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.01; p = 0.077) with high heterogeneity. Mg dose, duration of treatment, healthy status, baseline CIMT and sample size were the potential sources of heterogeneity. Mg supplementation could decrease CIMT to a greater extent in hemodialysis (HD) patients; lower doses of Mg, higher sample size and follow up duration and subjects with higher baseline CIMT also reduced the heterogeneity to some degree (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Magnesium supplementation may improve endothelial function without affecting carotid intima media thickness.

KEYWORDS:

Endothelial function; Magnesium; meta-Analysis

 

Association Between Erectile Dysfunction and Subsequent Prostate Cancer Development: A Population-Based Cohort Study With Double Concurrent Comparison Groups.

Kok VC, Hsiao YH, Horng JT, Wang KL.

Am J Mens Health. 2018 Apr 1:1557988318772741. doi: 10.1177/1557988318772741. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29708021

Abstract

Recent studies indicate that erectile dysfunction (ED) and prostate cancer share common potential risk factors such as chronic inflammation, prostatitis, cigarette smoking, obesity, a high animal fat diet, sedentarism, and depression. There is great interest in knowing if ED is associated with prostate cancer. This study aimed to investigate if men afflicted with ED harbor an increased risk of prostate cancer, utilizing two concurrent comparison groups, constructed from the Taiwan NHIRD, with up to 8 years' follow-up. Among men with no preexisting prostate cancer, an ED group of 3,593 men ≥ 40 years of age and two non-ED comparison groups of 14,372 men from the general population, 1:4 matched by age and index date (GENPOP); and 3,594 men with clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), matched by similar criteria were assembled. A Cox model was constructed to calculate the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) after controlling for age, socioeconomic factors, and various medical comorbidities. During the 11,449 person-year follow-up for the ED group, 24 incident prostate cancer developed. During the 44,486 and 11,221 person-year follow-up for the GENPOP and the BPH group, respectively, there were 33 and 25 incidents of prostate cancer. The ED group demonstrated a 2.6-fold greater risk of prostate cancer than that by the GENPOP with an aHR of 2.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] [1.51, 4.59], p < .001). There was no significant difference in risk between ED and BPH group (aHR = 0.83, 95% CI [0.46, 1.48]). This concurrent, double comparison, longitudinal study revealed a positive association between ED and subsequent prostate cancer incidence.

KEYWORDS:

cancer epidemiology; cancer risk; erectile dysfunction; population-based study; prostate cancer

 

Dietary Salt (Sodium Chloride) Requirement and Adverse Effects of Salt Restriction in Humans.

Nishimuta M, Kodama N, Yoshitake Y, Shimada M, Serizawa N.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2018;64(2):83-89. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.64.83.

PMID: 29710036

Abstract

Inevitable sodium loss under sodium restriction must not be construed as evidence for the estimated average requirement (EAR) for sodium (Na) in humans. We conducted human mineral balance studies to determine the EAR for some minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn). Na concentration in arm sweat was low while those of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were high, during relatively heavy bicycle-ergometer exercise under relatively low Na intake (100 mmol/d). This suggests that Na was released from the bone, the sole pool of Na, with Ca and Mg. Additionally, the negative balances of Ca and Mg was observed under a relatively low sodium intake (100 mmol/d) even with the sufficient supply and intake of Ca and Mg into human body. Finally, we found no correlation between the Na intake and the Na balance, while the Na-intake was correlated significantly to the balances of K, Ca and Mg. The Na intake necessary to keep the balances of Ca and Mg positive was calculated to be 68 mg/kg body weight/d. To learn the signs and symptoms of low sodium intake, we compared the results of a metabolic study in which subjects consumed diets with 6 g and 12 g salt/d respectively. The blood pressure decreased only with the 6 g/d group. Fecal moisture contents of the 6 g/d group were lower than for the 12 g/d group, suggesting the fecal Na was strongly reabsorbed with water when the dietary Na was insufficienct. Indiscriminate Na restriction may have adverse effects on health.

KEYWORDS:

calcium; magnesium; potassium; sodium restriction

 

How a 39 year-old Revelstoke man turned a nerdy hobby into a million dollar startup

Aaron Davidson left behind a six figure corporate job to find meaning in the mountains

JAKE SHERMAN

Apr. 4, 2018

https://www.revelstokereview.com/business/how-a-39-year-old-revelstoke-man-turned-a-nerdy-hobby-into-a-million-dollar-startup/

"... Cronometer, an open source hobby and obsession, has turned into a career."

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Selenium Concentrations and Mortality among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results from IlSIRENTE Study.

Giovannini S, Onder G, Lattanzio F, Bustacchini S, Di Stefano G, Moresi R, Russo A, Bernabei R, Landi F.

J Nutr Health Aging. 2018;22(5):608-612. doi: 10.1007/s12603-018-1021-9.

PMID: 29717761

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Selenium has a wide range of pleiotropic effects, influencing redox homeostasis, thyroid hormone metabolism, and protecting from oxidative stress and inflammation. Serum selenium levels are reduced in the older population.

OBJECTIVES:

to investigate the association of serum selenium levels with all-cause mortality in a sample of community-dwelling older adults.

DESIGN AND SETTING:

Data are from the 'Invecchiamento e Longevità nel Sirente' (Aging and Longevity in the Sirente geographic area, ilSIRENTE) study, a prospective cohort study that collected information on individuals aged 80 years and older living in an Italian mountain community (n=347). The main outcome was risk of death after ten years of follow-up.

PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS:

Participants were classified according to the median value of selenium (105.3 μg/L) in two groups: high selenium and low selenium.

RESULTS:

A total of 248 deaths occurred during a 10-year follow-up. In the unadjusted model, low levels of selenium was associated with increased mortality (HR, 0.66; 95% CI 0.51-0.85). After adjusting for potential confounders the relationship remained significant (HR, 0.71; 95% CI 0.54-0.92).

CONCLUSIONS:

Low serum levels of selenium are associated with reduced survival in elderly, independently of age and other clinical and functional variables.

KEYWORDS:

Selenium ; frail elderly; mortality

 

Comparative effects of different dietary approaches on blood pressure in hypertensive and pre-hypertensive patients: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Schwingshackl L, Chaimani A, Schwedhelm C, Toledo E, Pünsch M, Hoffmann G, Boeing H.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2018 May 2:1-59. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2018.1463967. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29718689

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Pairwise meta-analyses have shown beneficial effects of individual dietary approaches on blood pressure but their comparative effects have not been established.

OBJECTIVE:

Therefore we performed a systematic review of different dietary intervention trials and estimated the aggregate blood pressure effects through network meta-analysis including hypertensive and pre-hypertensive patients.

DESIGN:

PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Google Scholar were searched until June 2017. The inclusion criteria were defined as follows: i) Randomized trial with a dietary approach; ii) hypertensive and pre-hypertensive adult patients; and iii) minimum intervention period of 12 weeks. In order to determine the pooled effect of each intervention relative to each of the other intervention for both diastolic and systolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), random effects network meta-analysis was performed.

RESULTS:

A total of 67 trials comparing 13 dietary approaches (DASH, low-fat, moderate-carbohydrate, high-protein, low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, Palaeolithic, vegetarian, low-GI/GL, low-sodium, Nordic, Tibetan, and control) enrolling 17,230 participants were included. In the network meta-analysis, the DASH, Mediterranean, low-carbohydrate, Palaeolithic, high-protein, low-glycaemic index, low-sodium, and low-fat dietary approaches were significantly more effective in reducing SBP (-8.73 to -2.32 mmHg) and DBP (-4.85 to -1.27 mmHg) compared to a control diet. According to the SUCRAs, the DASH diet was ranked the most effective dietary approach in reducing SBP (90%) and DBP (91%), followed by the Palaeolithic, and the low-carbohydrate diet (ranked 3rd for SBP) or the Mediterranean diet (ranked 3rd for DBP). For most comparisons, the credibility of evidence was rated very low to moderate, with the exception for the DASH vs. the low-fat dietary approach for which the quality of evidence was rated high.

CONCLUSION:

The present network meta-analysis suggests that the DASH dietary approach might be the most effective dietary measure to reduce blood pressure among hypertensive and pre-hypertensive patients based on high quality evidence.

List of abbreviations BMI: Body Mass Index; DASH: Dietary approaches to Stop Hypertension; DBP: Diastolic blood pressure; HP: high protein; LC: low-carbohydrate; LF: low-fat; LGI/LGL: low-glycaemic index/load; MD: mean difference; SBP: Diastolic blood pressure; SUCRA: surface under the cumulative ranking curves.

KEYWORDS:

blood pressure; dietary approaches; evidence synthesis; hypertension; network meta-analysis

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NEW

University of Twitter? Scientists give impromptu lecture critiquing nutrition research

'Tweetorial' revealing scientists' frustration with recent alcohol study

Kelly Crowe · CBC News · Posted: May 05, 2018

http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/second-opinion-alcohol180505-1.4648331

 

Cinnamon Consumption Improves Clinical Symptoms and Inflammatory Markers in Women With Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Shishehbor F, Rezaeyan Safar M, Rajaei E, Haghighizadeh MH.

J Am Coll Nutr. 2018 May 3:1-6. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2018.1460733. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29722610

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study evaluated the effect of cinnamon on disease activity, serum levels of some inflammatory markers, and cardiovascular risk factors in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

METHODS:

In this randomized double-blind clinical trial, 36 women with RA were randomly divided to 2 groups, receiving 4 capsules of either 500 mg cinnamon powder or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid profile, liver enzymes, serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), blood pressure, and clinical symptoms were determined at baseline and end of the week 8.

RESULTS:

At the end of the study, there was a significant decrease of serum levels of CRP (p < 0.001) and TNF-α (p < 0.001) in the cinnamon group as compared to the placebo group. Diastolic blood pressure was also significantly lower in the intervention group compared with the control group (p = 0.017). Compared with placebo, cinnamon intake significantly reduced the Disease Activity Score (DAS-28) (p < 0.001), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) (p < 0.001), and tender (TJC) (p < 0.001) and swollen joints (SJC) (p < 0.001) counts. No significant changes were observed for FBS, lipid profile, liver enzymes, or ESR.

CONCLUSION:

Cinnamon supplementation can be a safe and potential adjunct treatment to improve inflammation and clinical symptoms in patients with RA.

KEYWORDS:

Rheumatoid arthritis; arthritis; cinnamon; inflammation; randomized controlled trial

 

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The Scientist » News & Opinion » News Analysis

Vision Restored: The Latest Technologies to Improve Sight

Cell implants, gene therapy, even optogenetics are making headway in clinical trials to treat various forms of blindness.

By Anna Azvolinsky | April 10, 2018

https://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/52264/title/Vision-Restored--The-Latest-Technologies-to-Improve-Sight/&utm_campaign=TS_DAILY%20NEWSLETTER_2018&utm_source=hs_email&utm_medium=email&utm_content=62016232&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-98afxPIw62Qdu-beJCRL9ufm-TGpSJzRPNOc40XEk_U4zuoXus9jmKQs7z_MmxxVL3VlrdAd4Z86wPCmIKCGrcgyy3QQ&_hsmi=62016232

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

A bioengineered retinal pigment epithelial monolayer for advanced, dry age-related macular degeneration.

Kashani AH, Lebkowski JS, Rahhal FM, Avery RL, Salehi-Had H, Dang W, Lin CM, Mitra D, Zhu D, Thomas BB, Hikita ST, Pennington BO, Johnson LV, Clegg DO, Hinton DR, Humayun MS.

Sci Transl Med. 2018 Apr 4;10(435). pii: eaao4097. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aao4097.

PMID: 29618560

Abstract

Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) dysfunction and loss are a hallmark of non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NNAMD). Without the RPE, a majority of overlying photoreceptors ultimately degenerate, leading to severe, progressive vision loss. Clinical and histological studies suggest that RPE replacement strategies may delay disease progression or restore vision. A prospective, interventional, U.S. Food and Drug Administration-cleared, phase 1/2a study is being conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of a composite subretinal implant in subjects with advanced NNAMD. The composite implant, termed the California Project to Cure Blindness-Retinal Pigment Epithelium 1 (CPCB-RPE1), consists of a polarized monolayer of human embryonic stem cell-derived RPE (hESC-RPE) on an ultrathin, synthetic parylene substrate designed to mimic Bruch's membrane. We report an interim analysis of the phase 1 cohort consisting of five subjects. Four of five subjects enrolled in the study successfully received the composite implant. In all implanted subjects, optical coherence tomography imaging showed changes consistent with hESC-RPE and host photoreceptor integration. None of the implanted eyes showed progression of vision loss, one eye improved by 17 letters and two eyes demonstrated improved fixation. The concurrent structural and functional findings suggest that CPCB-RPE1 may improve visual function, at least in the short term, in some patients with severe vision loss from advanced NNAMD.

 

Perspective: Total, Added, or Free? What Kind of Sugars Should We Be Talking About?

Mela DJ, Woolner EM.

Adv Nutr. 2018 Mar 1;9(2):63-69. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmx020.

PMID: 29659689 Free PMC Article

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916432/

Abstract

There is consistent public guidance to limit sugars intakes. However, WHO recommendations are for “free” sugars, whereas some other guidance documents and public discussion focus on “added” sugars, and globally most food labeling states “total” sugars. Total sugars comprise all mono- and disaccharides, regardless of source, whereas both added and free sugars exclude the sugars that naturally occur in dairy products and intact fruit and vegetables. Definitions of added and free sugars differ mainly in their respective exclusion or inclusion of sugars in juiced or pureed fruit and vegetables. To date, there has been little evidence-based analysis of the scientific basis for these different sugar classifications or implications of their adoption for consumer communication and nutrition labeling. Evidence of discriminating relations of total compared with added or free sugars with weight gain or energy intake, type 2 diabetes, and dental caries was identified from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The relations were weakest for total sugars and most consistent for dietary sources corresponding to free sugars (including sugars added to and in fruit juices). Consideration of these health outcomes suggests that the emphasis for intake monitoring, public health guidance, and consumer communication should be on free sugars. However, at present, the adoption of free sugars for these purposes would also carry challenges related to implementation, including consumer understanding, consensus on specifications, and current (labeling) regulations.

Keywords: sugar, health, recommendations, labeling, regulation

 

Obesity Interventions for Older Adults: Diet as a Determinant of Physical Function.

Bales CW, Porter Starr KN.

Adv Nutr. 2018 Mar 1;9(2):151-159. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmx016.

PMID: 29659687

https://academic.oup.com/advances/article/9/2/151/4969261

Abstract

Throughout the world, a high prevalence of obesity in older populations has created a new phenotype of frailty: the obese, functionally frail older adult. The convergence of the obesity epidemic with global graying will undoubtedly increase the prevalence of this concern. Barriers to treatment include ambiguities about the appropriate level of obesity that should trigger an intervention, due to age-related physiologic changes and a lack of consensus on specific criteria and cutoffs. Moreover, obesity interventions for this population have been limited by concerns about negative effects on lean mass, bone mineral density, and even mortality. However, newly reported approaches for restoring physical function by obesity reduction have shown good short-term efficacy. Because the majority of these interventions have used exercise as part of the treatment, this review focuses specifically on current understanding of the discrete effects of dietary interventions for geriatric obesity with regards to functional outcomes on tests including the Short Physical Performance Battery, the Physical Performance Test, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. The literature showed roughly equal benefits to function from a weight reduction diet or exercise regimen, although neither modality was as efficacious alone as the 2 combined. Only 1 of 3 studies of protein intake during weight loss showed a positive effect of protein on function, but findings to date are too limited to prove or disprove a protein benefit. We conclude that although diet and exercise should be combined whenever possible, it remains important to further investigate the beneficial and likely unique effects that calorie restriction and/or nutrient modification can provide, particularly for obese and functionally frail older populations.

 

Central Blood Pressure Responses to Dietary Sodium and Potassium Interventions.

Xing X, Liu F, Yang X, Huang C, Zhang D, Chen S, Chen J, Li J, Liu Z, Lu F, Gu D, Huang J.

Am J Hypertens. 2018 Apr 13;31(5):582-589. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpx209.

PMID: 29385399

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

To explore how central hemodynamics respond to dietary sodium and potassium interventions, and whether the responses are associated with metabolic traits.

METHODS:

We conducted a dietary intervention study including a 7-day low-sodium (51.3 mmol sodium/day) intervention, a 7-day high-sodium (307.8 mmol sodium/day) intervention, and a 7-day high-sodium with potassium supplementation (60.0 mmol potassium/day) intervention among 99 northern Chinese subjects aged 18-60 years. Five metabolic traits included abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, raised blood pressure (BP), and high glucose. Central hemodynamics were measured at baseline and during each intervention.

RESULTS:

Central systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), and augmentation index (AIx@75) significantly decreased during low-sodium intervention, increased during high-sodium intervention, and then decreased during potassium supplementation. We observed potential linear trends toward significance of central SBP and PP responses to low-sodium intervention, and significant linear trends of responses to high-sodium intervention as the number of metabolic traits grows. For example, among participants with 0 or 1, 2 or 3, and 4 or 5 metabolic traits, central SBP responses to high-sodium intervention were 8.8 [95% confidence interval (5.8, 11.8)], 9.3 (7.1, 11.6), and 14.0 (11.6, 16.3) mmHg, respectively (P for trend = 0.009). Significant linear trends of central SBP and DBP responses to potassium supplementation were also observed.

CONCLUSIONS:

Central BP and AIx@75 were lowered by sodium reduction and potassium supplementation, and elevated by sodium-loading. The responses of central BP were pronounced among individuals with metabolic traits clustering.

 

Longitudinal Blood Pressure Changes and Kidney Function Decline in Persons Without Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings From the MESA Study.

Judson GL, Rubinsky AD, Shlipak MG, Katz R, Kramer H, Jacobs DR Jr, Odden MC, Peralta CA.

Am J Hypertens. 2018 Apr 13;31(5):600-608. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpx177.

PMID: 29036269

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

While changes in blood pressure (BP) are independently associated with cardiovascular events, less is known about the association between changes in BP and subsequent changes in renal function in adults with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of >60 ml/min/1.73 m2.

METHODS:

The present study included 3,920 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) study who had ≥2 BP measurements during the first 5 years of MESA and had eGFR measurements at both year 5 and 10. Change in BP was estimated as the annualized slope of BP between year 0 and 5 based on linear mixed models (mean number of measurements = 4.0). Participants were then grouped into 1 of 3 categories based on the distribution of systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and pulse pressure (PP) change (top 20%, middle 21-79%, bottom 20%). We calculated eGFR from cystatin C (ml/min/1.73 m2), estimated annual change in eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2/year), and defined rapid kidney function decline as a >30% decrease in eGFR from year 5 to 10. We used multivariable logistic regression adjusting for year 0 demographic and clinical characteristics, including eGFR and BP, to determine associations of BP change with rapid kidney function decline.

RESULTS:

Median age was 59 [interquartile range (IQR): 52, 67] and median eGFR at year 0 was 95.5 (IQR: 81.7, 105.9) ml/min/1.73 m2. Median SBP at year 0 was 111, 121, and 147 mm Hg for increasing, stable, and decreasing SBP change, respectively. Increasing SBP and widening PP change were each associated with higher odds of rapid kidney function decline compared with stable SBP and PP groups, respectively [odds ratio, OR 1.7 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.3, 2.4) for SBP; OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.1, 1.9) for PP]. Decreasing SBP was associated with rapid kidney function decline after adjusting for all covariates except for year 0 BP [OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.0, 1.8)], but this association was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for year 0 BP. There were no significant associations between DBP change and rapid decline in the fully adjusted models. Similar findings were seen with annual change in eGFR.

CONCLUSIONS:

Increasing SBP and widening PP over time were associated with greater risk for accelerated kidney function decline even at BP levels below established hypertension thresholds.

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Fasting For Just 24 Hours Boosts The Regeneration of Stem Cells, Study Finds

PETER DOCKRILL 7 MAY 2018

https://www.sciencealert.com/fasting-for-just-24-hours-boosts-the-regeneration-of-stem-cells-study-finds-intestine-longevity

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Fasting Activates Fatty Acid Oxidation to Enhance Intestinal Stem Cell Function during Homeostasis and Aging

Maria M. Mihaylova12, Chia-Wei Cheng12, Amanda Q. Cao13, Surya Tripathi13, Miyeko D. Mana, Khristian E. Bauer-Rowe, Monther Abu-Remaileh, Laura Clavain, Aysegul Erdemir, Caroline A. Lewis, Elizaveta Freinkman, Audrey S. Dickey, Albert R. La Spada, Yanmei Huang, George W. Bell, Vikram Deshpande, Peter Carmeliet, Pekka Katajisto, David M. Sabatini14,'Correspondence information about the author David M. SabatiniEmail the author David M. Sabatini, Ömer H. Yilmaz14,15,'Correspondence information about the author Ömer H. YilmazEmail the author Ömer H. Yilmaz

Cell Stem Cell Volume 22, Issue 5, p769–778.e4, 3 May 2018

Highlights

•Fasting induces fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in intestinal stem and progenitor cells

•Aging reduces ISC numbers and function, correlating with decreased FAO

•PPAR/CPT1a-mediated FAO augments ISC function in aging and during regeneration

•PPARδ agonists boost and restore ISC and progenitor function in young and old age

Summary

Diet has a profound effect on tissue regeneration in diverse organisms, and low caloric states such as intermittent fasting have beneficial effects on organismal health and age-associated loss of tissue function. The role of adult stem and progenitor cells in responding to short-term fasting and whether such responses improve regeneration are not well studied. Here we show that a 24 hr fast augments intestinal stem cell (ISC) function in young and aged mice by inducing a fatty acid oxidation (FAO) program and that pharmacological activation of this program mimics many effects of fasting. Acute genetic disruption of Cpt1a, the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO, abrogates ISC-enhancing effects of fasting, but long-term Cpt1a deletion decreases ISC numbers and function, implicating a role for FAO in ISC maintenance. These findings highlight a role for FAO in mediating pro-regenerative effects of fasting in intestinal biology, and they may represent a viable strategy for enhancing intestinal regeneration.

Keywords:

stem cells, intestinal stem cells, fasting, aging, metabolism, intestine, fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial metabolism

 

Effects of protein supplements consumed with meals, versus between meals, on resistance training-induced body composition changes in adults: a systematic review.

Hudson JL, Bergia RE 3rd, Campbell WW.

Nutr Rev. 2018 Apr 25. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuy012. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29697807

Abstract

CONTEXT:

The impact of timing the consumption of protein supplements in relation to meals on resistance training-induced changes in body composition has not been evaluated systematically.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of consuming protein supplements with meals, vs between meals, on resistance training-induced body composition changes in adults.

DATA SOURCES:

Studies published up to 2017 were identified with the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases.

DATA EXTRACTION:

Two researchers independently screened 2077 abstracts for eligible randomized controlled trials of parallel design that prescribed a protein supplement and measured changes in body composition for a period of 6 weeks or more.

RESULTS:

In total, 34 randomized controlled trials with 59 intervention groups were included and qualitatively assessed. Of the intervention groups designated as consuming protein supplements with meals (n = 16) vs between meals (n = 43), 56% vs 72% showed an increase in body mass, 94% vs 90% showed an increase in lean mass, 87% vs 59% showed a reduction in fat mass, and 100% vs 84% showed an increase in the ratio of lean mass to fat mass over time, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Concurrently with resistance training, consuming protein supplements with meals, rather than between meals, may more effectively promote weight control and reduce fat mass without influencing improvements in lean mass.

 

Coffee consumption and reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

Carlström M, Larsson SC.

Nutr Rev. 2018 Mar 26. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuy014. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29590460

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major health problem worldwide that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There is increased interest in the value of different nutrition-based strategies for preventing the development of T2D.

OBJECTIVE:

This review aims to cover current knowledge regarding the effects of coffee consumption on development of T2D or modulation of adverse complications. A meta-analysis on coffee consumption and the risk of T2D was conducted. Moreover, bioactive components in coffee, polymorphisms, and potential underlying mechanism(s) in relation to T2D and adverse complications are discussed.

DATA SOURCES:

PubMed was searched up to December 1, 2017, and prospective cohort and nested case-control studies of the association between coffee consumption and T2D risk were selected.

DATA EXTRACTION:

Two investigators independently extracted data from included studies.

RESULTS:

A total of 30 prospective studies with 1 185 210 participants and 53 018 incident T2D cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled relative risk (RR) was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.76) for the highest category of coffee consumption (median consumption, 5 cups/d) vs the lowest category (median consumption, 0 cups/d). The risk of T2D decreased by 6% (RR = 0.94; 95%CI, 0.93-0.95) for each cup-per-day increase in coffee consumption. Results were similar for caffeinated coffee consumption (per additional cup of coffee per day: RR = 0.93; 95%CI, 0.90-0.96) and decaffeinated coffee consumption (corresponding RR = 0.94; 95%CI, 0.90-0.98).

CONCLUSIONS:

Available evidence indicates that coffee consumption is inversely associated with risk of T2D. Possible mechanisms behind this association include thermogenic, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects; modulation of adenosine receptor signaling; and microbiome content and diversity.

 

Activation of temperature-sensitive TRPV1-like receptors in ARC POMC neurons reduces food intake.

Jeong JH, Lee DK, Liu SM, Chua SC Jr., Schwartz GJ, Jo YH.

PLoS Biol. 2018 Apr 24;16(4):e2004399. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2004399. eCollection 2018 Apr.

PMID: 29689050 Free Article

http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2004399

Abstract

Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) respond to numerous hormonal and neural signals, resulting in changes in food intake. Here, we demonstrate that ARC POMC neurons express capsaicin-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1)-like receptors. To show expression of TRPV1-like receptors in ARC POMC neurons, we use single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, TRPV1 knock-out (KO), and TRPV1-Cre knock-in mice. A small elevation of temperature in the physiological range is enough to depolarize ARC POMC neurons. This depolarization is blocked by the TRPV1 receptor antagonist and by Trpv1 gene knockdown. Capsaicin-induced activation reduces food intake that is abolished by a melanocortin receptor antagonist. To selectively stimulate TRPV1-like receptor-expressing ARC POMC neurons in the ARC, we generate an adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) carrying a Cre-dependent channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) expression cassette under the control of the two neuronal POMC enhancers (nPEs). Optogenetic stimulation of TRPV1-like receptor-expressing POMC neurons decreases food intake. Hypothalamic temperature is rapidly elevated and reaches to approximately 39 °C during treadmill running. This elevation is associated with a reduction in food intake. Knockdown of the Trpv1 gene exclusively in ARC POMC neurons blocks the feeding inhibition produced by increased hypothalamic temperature. Taken together, our findings identify a melanocortinergic circuit that links acute elevations in hypothalamic temperature with acute reductions in food intake.

 

Effects of resistance training, endurance training and whole-body vibration on lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance in older people: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Lai CC, Tu YK, Wang TG, Huang YT, Chien KL.

Age Ageing. 2018 May 1;47(3):367-373. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afy009.

PMID: 29471456

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A variety of different types of exercise are promoted to improve muscle strength and physical performance in older people.

OBJECTIVE:

We aimed to determine the relative effects of resistance training, endurance training and whole-body vibration on lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance in older people.

DESIGN:

A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

SUBJECTS:

Adults aged 60 and over.

METHODS:

Evidence from randomised controlled trials of resistance training, endurance training and whole-body vibration were combined. The effects of exercise interventions on lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance were evaluated by conducting a network meta-analysis to compare multiple interventions and usual care. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. A meta-regression was performed to assess potential effect modifiers.

RESULTS:

Data were obtained from 30 trials involving 1,405 participants (age range: 60-92 years). No significant differences were found between the effects of exercise or usual care on lean body mass. Resistance training (minimum 6 weeks duration) achieved greater muscle strength improvement than did usual care (12.8 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.5-17.0 kg). Resistance training and whole-body vibration were associated with greater physical performance improvement compared with usual care (2.6 times greater [95% CI: 1.3-3.9] and 2.1 times greater [95% CI: 0.5-3.7], respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:

Resistance training is the most effect intervention to improve muscle strength and physical performance in older people. Our findings also suggest that whole-body vibration is beneficial for physical performance. However, none of the three exercise interventions examined had a significant effect on lean body mass.

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Exploiting Methionine Restriction for Cancer Treatment.

Chaturvedi S, Hoffman RM, Bertino JR.

Biochem Pharmacol. 2018 May 4. pii: S0006-2952(18)30188-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2018.05.003. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 29733806

Abstract

Normal cells can synthesize sufficient methionine for growth requirements from homocysteine and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and vitamin B12. However, many cancer-cell types require exogenous methionine for survival and therefore methionine restriction is a promising avenue for treatment. While the lack of the methionine salvage enzyme methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) deficiency is associated with methionine dependence in cancer cells, there are other causes for tumors to require exogenous methionine. In this review we describe studies that show restricting methionine to certain cancers by diet or by enzyme depletion, alone or in combination with certain chemotherapeutics is a promising antitumor strategy. The basis for methionine dependence in tumor cells is also briefly reviewed.

KEYWORDS:

5-methyltetrahydrofolate; MTAP; Methioninase; Methionine; Methionine restriction; Vitamin B12

 

Erectile dysfunction and risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Fan Y, Hu B, Man C, Cui F.

World J Urol. 2018 May 3. doi: 10.1007/s00345-018-2318-3. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 29725807

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Studies on the association of erectile dysfunction (ED) with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality have yielded conflicting findings. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the association of ED with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in the general population.

METHODS:

Pubmed and Embase databases were searched for prospective studies that evaluated the association of ED with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in the general population up to 15 December, 2017. The overall combined risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled for the men with or without ED.

RESULTS:

A total of 7 studies involving 111,440 participants were included in the meta-analysis. When compared to the men with or without ED, the overall pooled RR was 1.24 (95% CI 1.11-1.39) for all-cause mortality and 1.11 (95% CI 0.92-1.35) for cardiovascular mortality. Subgroup analyses indicated that only men with severe ED significantly increased all-cause mortality risk (RR 1.58; 95% CI 1.37-1.82), but not in the mild (RR 1.07; 95% CI 0.93-1.24) ED and the moderate (RR 1.16; 95% CI 1.00-1.35) ED.

CONCLUSIONS:

This meta-analysis suggests that severe ED is significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality in the general population. However, the association of ED with cardiovascular mortality should be further investigated.

KEYWORDS:

All-cause mortality; Cardiovascular mortality; Erectile dysfunction; Meta-analysis

 

Effect of vitamin D supplementation on fasting plasma glucose, insulin resistance and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in non-diabetics: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

He S, Yu S, Zhou Z, Wang C, Wu Y, Li W.

Biomed Rep. 2018 May;8(5):475-484. doi: 10.3892/br.2018.1074. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

PMID: 29725526

Abstract

Increasing epidemiological studies suggest that there is an association between vitamin D deficiency and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have been performed to observe the effect of vitamin D supplementation on preventing T2DM, decreasing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and improving insulin resistance to confirm the association between vitamin D and T2DM. However, the results of RCTs on controlling FPG level, improving insulin resistance and preventing T2DM in non-diabetics are inconsistent. In the present study, a systematic meta-analysis considering individual variation and intervention strategy was conducted to establish an objective and definitive conclusion. The results suggested that vitamin D supplementation had no significant effect on controlling FPG level, improving insulin resistance or preventing T2DM in non-diabetics in a pooled meta-analysis of 23 articles (containing 28 RCTs). However, stratified analysis indicated that supplementation of vitamin D had differential effects on FPG control, insulin sensitivity improvement and T2DM prevention in individuals with different baseline states: FPG was decreased for those with BMI <25 (P=0.048) or 20≤ 25(OH)D <30 ng/ml (P=0.002); insulin resistance was improved for those with 25(OH)D ≥30 ng/ml (P=0.021); and risk of T2DM was lower for pre-diabetic individuals (P=0.047) or for those with 25≤ BMI <30 (P=0.032). Additionally, the effect on T2DM prevention was improved when the supplement dose was >2,000 IU/day (P=0.047) and with intervention without calcium (P=0.047). Thus, further trials should focus on individual baselines and the supplementation strategy of vitamin D in the prevention of T2DM.

KEYWORDS:

fasting plasma glucose; insulin resistance; meta-analysis; type 2 diabetes mellitus; vitamin D

 

Fermented dairy products consumption is associated with attenuated cortical bone loss independently of total calcium, protein, and energy intakes in healthy postmenopausal women.

Biver E, Durosier-Izart C, Merminod F, Chevalley T, van Rietbergen B, Ferrari SL, Rizzoli R.

Osteoporos Int. 2018 May 3. doi: 10.1007/s00198-018-4535-4. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29725715

Abstract

A longitudinal analysis of bone microstructure in postmenopausal women of the Geneva Retirees Cohort indicates that age-related cortical bone loss is attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in fermented dairy products consumers, not in milk or ripened cheese consumers, independently of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes.

INTRODUCTION:

Fermented dairy products (FDP), including yogurts, provide calcium, phosphorus, and proteins together with prebiotics and probiotics, all being potentially beneficial for bone. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated whether FDP, milk, or ripened cheese consumptions influence age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure.

METHODS:

Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline and after 3.0 ± 0.5 years with a food frequency questionnaire in 482 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Geneva Retirees Cohort. Cortical (Ct) and trabecular (Tb) volumetric (v) BMD and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, in addition to areal (a) BMD and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, at the same time points.

RESULTS:

At baseline, FDP consumers had lower abdominal fat mass and larger bone size at the radius and tibia. Parathyroid hormone and β-carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen levels were inversely correlated with FDP consumption. In the longitudinal analysis, FDP consumption (mean of the two assessments) was associated with attenuated loss of radius total vBMD and of Ct vBMD, area, and thickness. There was no difference in aBMD and at the tibia. These associations were independent of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. For other dairy products categories, only milk consumption was associated with lower decrease of aBMD and of failure load at the radius.

CONCLUSION:

In this prospective cohort of healthy postmenopausal women, age-related Ct bone loss was attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in FDP consumers, not in milk or ripened cheese consumers, independently of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes.

KEYWORDS:

Bone fragility; Bone microstructure; Bone mineral density; Nutrition; Osteoporosis; Yogurts

 

An 18-mo randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of DHA-rich fish oil to prevent age-related cognitive decline in cognitively normal older adults.

Danthiir V, Hosking DE, Nettelbeck T, Vincent AD, Wilson C, O'Callaghan N, Calvaresi E, Clifton P, Wittert GA.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 May 1;107(5):754-762. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqx077.

PMID: 29722833

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Fish oil trials in cognitively healthy older adults have yielded inconsistent results. Supplementation may differentially affect the domains that underpin cognitive performance, and effects may differ across sex or genotype.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to test whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil slows 18-mo cognitive decline in cognitively healthy elders.

DESIGN:

In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, cognitively healthy Australian community-dwelling adults (aged 65-90 y) consumed either 1720 mg DHA and 600 mg eicosapentaenoic acid or low-polyphenolic olive oil daily, as capsules, for 18 mo. Groups were allocated by permuted-block randomization and stratified by age. Cognitive assessment was conducted at baseline and then every 6 mo. Primary analyses tested the difference between groups in the rate of 18-mo cognitive change via latent growth curve models on any of the following: reasoning, working memory, short-term memory, retrieval fluency, and cognitive speed-related constructs. Treatment interactions with sex and APOE-ε4 were tested. Secondary outcomes were self-reported changes in well-being and everyday functioning, blood pressure, biomarkers of n-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFAs), lipids, glucose metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and Mini-Mental State Examination.

RESULTS:

A total of 403 people were randomly assigned. Data from those who completed baseline were analyzed (n = 390; intervention n = 194, control n = 196). Daily supplementation with 2.3 g DHA-rich fish oil for 18 mo did not maintain or improve cognitive performance. A small negative main effect was found on psychomotor speed (intervention = -0.02, 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.00; d = 0.24, P = 0.03). Treatment effects differed according to sex on retrieval fluency and some speed-based domains, including psychomotor speed, and according to APOE-ε4 carrier status on reaction time and reasoning. For secondary outcomes, treatment was associated with increased perceived cognitive mistakes (d = 0.24; P = 0.003), increased oxidative stress, and expected changes in fatty acid metabolism.

CONCLUSIONS:

Findings do not support supplementing older adults with fish oil to prevent cognitive decline. Treatment interactions with sex and APOE-ε4 carrier status warrant further investigation.

 

Prospective association between added sugars and frailty in older adults.

Laclaustra M, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Guallar-Castillon P, Banegas JR, Graciani A, Garcia-Esquinas E, Ordovas J, Lopez-Garcia E.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 May 1;107(5):772-779. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy028.

PMID: 29635421

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Sugar-sweetened beverages and added sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides) in the diet are associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, which are all risk factors for decline in physical function among older adults.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to examine the association between added sugars in the diet and incidence of frailty in older people.

DESIGN:

Data were taken from 1973 Spanish adults ≥60 y old from the Seniors-ENRICA cohort. In 2008-2010 (baseline), consumption of added sugars (including those in fruit juices) was obtained using a validated diet history. Study participants were followed up until 2012-2013 to assess frailty based on Fried's criteria. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking status, body mass index, energy intake, self-reported comorbidities, Mediterranean Diet Adherence Score (excluding sweetened drinks and pastries), TV watching time, and leisure-time physical activity.

RESULTS:

Compared with participants consuming <15 g/d added sugars (lowest tertile), those consuming ≥36 g/d (highest tertile) were more likely to develop frailty (OR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.34, 3.90; P-trend = 0.003). The frailty components "low physical activity" and "unintentional weight loss" increased dose dependently with added sugars. Association with frailty was strongest for sugars added during food production. Intake of sugars naturally appearing in foods was not associated with frailty.

CONCLUSIONS:

The consumption of added sugars in the diet of older people was associated with frailty, mainly when present in processed foods. The frailty components that were most closely associated with added sugars were low level of physical activity and unintentional weight loss. Future research should determine whether there is a causal relation between added sugars and frailty.

 

Calcium, magnesium, and whole-milk intakes and high-aggressive prostate cancer in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP).

Steck SE, Omofuma OO, Su LJ, Maise AA, Woloszynska-Read A, Johnson CS, Zhang H, Bensen JT, Fontham ETH, Mohler JL, Arab L.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 May 1;107(5):799-807. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy037.

PMID: 29722851

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Calcium and dairy product intakes have been positively associated with prostate cancer risk. An imbalance in concentrations of calcium and magnesium has been associated with multiple chronic diseases, although few studies have examined the relation with prostate cancer aggressiveness.

OBJECTIVE:

The goal of this study was to examine the association between dietary intakes of calcium and magnesium, the calcium-to-magnesium ratio (Ca:Mg), and dairy products and prostate cancer aggressiveness.

DESIGN:

Dietary intake was assessed with the use of an interviewer-administered modified National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire in 996 African American and 1064 European American men with a recent histologically confirmed diagnosis of prostate cancer from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP). High-aggressive disease was defined as Gleason sum ≥8, or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >20 ng/mL, or Gleason score ≥7 and clinical stage T3-T4. The comparison group was all other prostate cancer cases. Logistic regression was used to determine the adjusted ORs and 95% CIs for high-aggressive prostate cancer by tertile of diet and supplement exposures.

RESULTS:

There was a positive association across tertiles of dietary Ca:Mg intake, with odds of high-aggressive prostate cancer in the upper tertiles as follows-OR for tertile 2 compared with tertile 1: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.88); OR for tertile 3 compared with tertile 1: 1.46 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.02). When stratified by race, the positive association was more pronounced in African American men (OR for tertile 3 compared with tertile 2: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.53). Men who reported the highest daily consumption of whole-fat milk had a 74% increased odds of high-aggressive prostate cancer compared with non-whole-fat milk drinkers, which was attenuated after adjustment for potential mediating factors, such as saturated fat and Ca:Mg intake.

CONCLUSIONS:

Among both African American and European American men diagnosed with prostate cancer, a higher Ca:Mg and whole-milk intake were associated with higher odds of high-aggressive prostate cancer.

 

The association between the patient and the physician genders and the likelihood of intensive care unit admission in hospital with restricted ICU bed capacity.

Sagy I, Fuchs L, Mizrakli Y, Codish S, Politi L, Fink L, Novack V.

QJM. 2018 Jan 27. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcy017. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29385542

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Despite the evidence that the patient gender is an important component in the intensive care unit (ICU) admission decision, the role of physician gender and the interaction between the two remain unclear.

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the association of both the patient and the physician gender with ICU admission rate of critically ill emergency department (ED) medical patients in a hospital with restricted ICU bed capacity operates with 'closed door' policy.

METHODS:

A retrospective population-based cohort analysis. We included patients above 18 admitted to an ED resuscitation room (RR) of a tertiary hospital during 2011-12. Data on medical, laboratory and clinical characteristics were obtained. We used an adjusted multivariable logistic regression to analyze the association between both the patient and the physician gender to the ICU admission decision.

RESULTS:

We included 831 RR admissions, 388 (46.7%) were female patients and 188 (22.6%) were treated by a female physicians. In adjusted multivariable analysis (adjusted for age, diabetes, mode of hospital transportation, first pH and patients who were treated with definitive airway and vasso-pressors in the RR), female-female combination (patient-physician, respectively) showed the lowest likelihood to be admitted to ICU (adjusted OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.09-0.51) compared to male-male combination, in addition to a smaller decrease among female-male (adjusted OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.32-0.86) and male-female (adjusted OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.21-0.89) combinations.

CONCLUSION:

We demonstrated the existence of the possible gender bias where female gender of the patient and treating physician diminish the likelihood of the restricted health resource use.

 

A longitudinal 20 years of follow up showed a decrease in the survival of heart failure patients who maintained low LDL cholesterol levels

G Charach O Argov H Nochomovitz O Rogowski L Charach I Grosskopf

QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, Volume 111, Issue 5, 1 May 2018, Pages 319–325, https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcy043

Published: 23 February 2018Abstract

Background

Treatment by statins is well established for primary and secondary prevention of cardiac events but may be hazardous for patients with heart failure (HF).

Aim

We studied the long-term (20 years) association between baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels and clinical outcome in patients with severe HF.

Design

Patients were divided into those with plasma LDL-C levels 110 mg/dl (Group 1) or >110 mg/dl (Group 2).

Methods

The mean follow-up of 305 study patients with advanced HF who had an average NYHA score of 2.7 was 11.3 years (range 15 months to 20 years). Mortality during follow-up was 43%.

Results

Patients with the highest baseline LDL-c levels had significantly improved outcome, whereas those with the lowest LDL-c levels had the highest mortality. This paradoxical effect was prominent in patients <70 years old. The negative association of LDL-c levels and mortality was most conspicuous among the HF patients who were treated with statins.

Discussion and Conclusion

Long-term follow-up findings showed that low LDL-c levels may predict a less favorable outcome in advanced HF, particularly in patients <70 years old and those taking statins. This negates the protocol of following an aggressive LDL-c-lowering strategy in younger patients with HF.

Topic: ldl cholesterol lipoproteins statins heart failure cardiac event follow-up plasma cholesterol measurement test mortality treatment outcome secondary prevention new york heart association classification advanced heart failure low density lipoprotein decreased

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Fasting Activates Fatty Acid Oxidation to Enhance Intestinal Stem Cell Function during Homeostasis and Aging.

Mihaylova MM, Cheng CW, Cao AQ, Tripathi S, Mana MD, Bauer-Rowe KE, Abu-Remaileh M, Clavain L, Erdemir A, Lewis CA, Freinkman E, Dickey AS, La Spada AR, Huang Y, Bell GW, Deshpande V, Carmeliet P, Katajisto P, Sabatini DM, Yilmaz ÖH.

Cell Stem Cell. 2018 May 3;22(5):769-778.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2018.04.001.

PMID: 29727683

Abstract

Diet has a profound effect on tissue regeneration in diverse organisms, and low caloric states such as intermittent fasting have beneficial effects on organismal health and age-associated loss of tissue function. The role of adult stem and progenitor cells in responding to short-term fasting and whether such responses improve regeneration are not well studied. Here we show that a 24 hr fast augments intestinal stem cell (ISC) function in young and aged mice by inducing a fatty acid oxidation (FAO) program and that pharmacological activation of this program mimics many effects of fasting. Acute genetic disruption of Cpt1a, the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO, abrogates ISC-enhancing effects of fasting, but long-term Cpt1a deletion decreases ISC numbers and function, implicating a role for FAO in ISC maintenance. These findings highlight a role for FAO in mediating pro-regenerative effects of fasting in intestinal biology, and they may represent a viable strategy for enhancing intestinal regeneration.

KEYWORDS:

aging; fasting; fatty acid oxidation; intestinal stem cells; intestine; metabolism; mitochondrial metabolism; stem cells

 

Associations of grip strength with cardiovascular, respiratory, and cancer outcomes and all cause mortality: prospective cohort study of half a million UK Biobank participants.

Celis-Morales CA, Welsh P, Lyall DM, Steell L, Petermann F, Anderson J, Iliodromiti S, Sillars A, Graham N, Mackay DF, Pell JP, Gill JMR, Sattar N, Gray SR.

BMJ. 2018 May 8;361:k1651. doi: 10.1136/bmj.k1651.

PMID: 29739772

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the association of grip strength with disease specific incidence and mortality and whether grip strength enhances the prediction ability of an established office based risk score.

DESIGN:

Prospective population based study.

SETTING:

UK Biobank.

PARTICIPANTS:

502 293 participants (54% women) aged 40-69 years.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

All cause mortality as well as incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer (all cancer, colorectal, lung, breast, and prostate).

RESULTS:

Of the participants included in analyses, 13 322 (2.7%) died over a mean of 7.1 (range 5.3-9.9) years' follow-up. In women and men, respectively, hazard ratios per 5 kg lower grip strength were higher (all at P<0.05) for all cause mortality (1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.23, and 1.16, 1.15 to 1.17) and cause specific mortality from cardiovascular disease (1.19, 1.13 to 1.25, and 1.22, 1.18 to 1.26), all respiratory disease (1.31, 1.22 to 1.40, and 1.24, 1.20 to 1.28), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.24, 1.05 to 1.47, and 1.19, 1.09 to 1.30), all cancer (1.17, 1.13 to 1.21, 1.10, 1.07 to 1.13), colorectal cancer (1.17, 1.04 to 1.32, and 1.18, 1.09 to 1.27), lung cancer (1.17, 1.07 to 1.27, and 1.08, 1.03 to 1.13), and breast cancer (1.24, 1.10 to 1.39) but not prostate cancer (1.05, 0.96 to 1.15). Several of these relations had higher hazard ratios in the younger age group. Muscle weakness (defined as grip strength <26 kg for men and <16 kg for women) was associated with a higher hazard for all health outcomes, except colon cancer in women and prostate cancer and lung cancer in both men and women. The addition of handgrip strength improved the prediction ability, based on C index change, of an office based risk score (age, sex, diabetes diagnosed, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and smoking) for all cause (0.013) and cardiovascular mortality (0.012) and incidence of cardiovascular disease (0.009).

CONCLUSION:

Higher grip strength was associated with a range of health outcomes and improved prediction of an office based risk score. Further work on the use of grip strength in risk scores or risk screening is needed to establish its potential clinical utility.

 

Cruciferous vegetable intake and mortality in middle-aged adults: A prospective cohort study.

Mori N, Shimazu T, Charvat H, Mutoh M, Sawada N, Iwasaki M, Yamaji T, Inoue M, Goto A, Takachi R, Ishihara J, Noda M, Iso H, Tsugane S; JPHC Study Group.

Clin Nutr. 2018 Apr 24. pii: S0261-5614(18)30163-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.04.012. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29739681

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Cruciferous vegetables contain isothiocyanates, which effectively reduce inflammation and oxidative stress related to chronic diseases, inhibit the bioactivation of procarcinogens, and enhance the excretion of carcinogens. However, at present, no large cohort studies have investigated the effect of cruciferous vegetable on mortality. We aimed to examine the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and all-cause mortality, namely cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and injuries, in a large cohort study conducted between 1990 and 1993, in Japan.

METHODS:

The analysis included 88,184 participants (age: 45-74 years) with no history of cancer, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Participants were tracked for a median of 16.9 years, during which 15,349 deaths were occurred. The association between cruciferous vegetable intake and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality was determined by Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), after adjustment for potential confounding factors.

RESULTS:

An inverse association was found between cruciferous vegetable intake and total mortality in both gender. HRs (95% CI) for all-cause mortality in the highest compared to the lowest quintile were 0.86 (0.80, 0.93) for men (P = 0.0002 for trend) and 0.89 (0.81, 0.98) for women (P = 0.03 for trend). Cruciferous vegetable intake was associated with lower cancer mortality in men, as well as with heart disease-, cerebrovascular disease-, and injury-related mortality in women.

CONCLUSIONS:

This prospective study suggests that a higher cruciferous vegetables intake is associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality.

KEYWORDS:

Cruciferous vegetables; Isothiocyanate; Mortality; Prospective study

 

Benefits and safety of dietary protein for bone health-an expert consensus paper endorsed by the European Society for Clinical and Economical Aspects of Osteopororosis, Osteoarthritis, and Musculoskeletal Diseases and by the International Osteoporosis Foundation.

Rizzoli R, Biver E, Bonjour JP, Coxam V, Goltzman D, Kanis JA, Lappe J, Rejnmark L, Sahni S, Weaver C, Weiler H, Reginster JY.

Osteoporos Int. 2018 May 8. doi: 10.1007/s00198-018-4534-5. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 29740667

Abstract

A summary of systematic reviews and meta-analyses addressing the benefits and risks of dietary protein intakes for bone health in adults suggests that dietary protein levels even above the current RDA may be beneficial in reducing bone loss and hip fracture risk, provided calcium intakes are adequate. Several systematic reviews and meta-analyses have addressed the benefits and risks of dietary protein intakes for bone health in adults. This narrative review of the literature summarizes and synthesizes recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses and highlights key messages. Adequate supplies of dietary protein are required for optimal bone growth and maintenance of healthy bone. Variation in protein intakes within the "normal" range accounts for 2-4% of BMD variance in adults. In older people with osteoporosis, higher protein intake (≥ 0.8-g/kg body weight/day, i.e., above the current RDA) is associated with higher BMD, a slower rate of bone loss, and reduced risk of hip fracture, provided that dietary calcium intakes are adequate. Intervention with dietary protein supplements attenuate age-related BMD decrease and reduce bone turnover marker levels, together with an increase in IGF-I and a decrease in PTH. There is no evidence that diet-derived acid load is deleterious for bone health. Thus, insufficient dietary protein intakes may be a more severe problem than protein excess in the elderly. Long-term, well-controlled randomized trials are required to further assess the influence of dietary protein intakes on fracture risk.

KEYWORDS:

Acid-base homeostasis; Bone mineral density; Bone turnover; Dairy products; Fracture; Osteoporosis

 

Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery-incidence and predictors from a prospective observational cohort study at an Indian tertiary care centre.

George R, Menon VP, Edathadathil F, Balachandran S, Moni M, Sathyapalan D, Prasanna P, S G, Paul J, K K C, Kumar L, Pillai A.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 May;97(19):e0402. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000010402.

PMID: 29742684

Abstract

Asymptomatic myocardial injury following noncardiac surgery (MINS) is an independent predictor of 30-day mortality and may go unrecognized based on standard diagnostic definition for myocardial infarction (MI). Given lack of published research on MINS in India, our study aims to determine incidence of MINS in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery at our tertiary care hospital, and evaluate the clinical characteristics including 30-day outcome.The prospective observational study included patients >65 years or >45 years with either hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or peripheral arterial disease undergoing noncardiac surgery. MINS was peak troponin level of ≥0.03 ng/dL at 12-hour or 24-hour postoperative. All patients were followed for 30 days postoperatively. Predictors of MINS and mortality were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Patients categorized based on peak troponin cut-off values determined by receiver operating characteristic curve were analyzed by Kaplan-Meir test to compare the survival of patients between the groups. Among 1075 patients screened during 34-month period, the incidence of MINS was 17.5% (188/1075). Patients with DM, CAD, or who underwent peripheral nerve block anaesthesia were 1.5 (P < .01), 2 (P < .001), and 12 (P < .001) times, respectively, more likely to develop MINS than others. Patients with heart rates ≥96 bpm before induction of anesthesia were significantly associated with MINS (P = .005) and mortality (P = .02). The 30-day mortality in MINS cohort was 11.7% (22/188, 95% CI 7.5%-17.2%) vs 2.5% (23/887, 95% CI 1.7%-3.9%) in patients without MINS (P < .001). ECG changes (P = .002), peak troponin values >1 ng/mL (P = .01) were significantly associated with mortality. A peak troponin cut-off of >0.152 ng/mL predicted mortality among MINS patients at 72% sensitivity and 58% specificity. Lack of antithrombotic therapy following MINS was independent predictor of mortality (P < .001), with decreased mortality in patients who took post-op ASA (Aspirin) or Clopidogrel. Mortality among MINS patients with post-op ASA intake is 6.7% vs 12.1% among MINS patients without post-op ASA intake. Mortality among MINS patients with post-op Clopidogrel intake is 10.5% vs 11.8% among MINS patients without post-op Clopidogrel intake.A higher (17.5%, 95% CI 15-19%) incidence of MINS was observed in our patient cohort with significant association with 30-day mortality. Serial postoperative monitoring of troponin following noncardiac surgery as standard of care, would identify "at risk" patients translating to improved outcomes.

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Mid-upper arm circumference, calf circumference and mortality in Chinese long-term care facility residents: a prospective cohort study.

Weng CH, Tien CP, Li CI, L'Heureux A, Liu CS, Lin CH, Lin CC, Lai SW, Lai MM, Lin WY.

BMJ Open. 2018 May 9;8(5):e020485. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020485.

PMID: 29743327

http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/5/e020485.long

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the association between mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), calf circumference (CC) and all-cause mortality in a Chinese population.

DESIGN:

Prospective cohort study.

SETTING:

Eight long-term care facilities in central Taiwan.

PARTICIPANTS:

A total of 329 residents age 60 years and older (median 79.0 years, range 60-101; 139 men, 190 women) were enrolled.

METHODS:

Anthropometrics and metabolic parameters were measured at the time of enrolment to the study. Mean MUAC and CC were 24.2±3.4 cm and 27.5±4.3 cm, respectively. Mortality data were obtained from the Department of Health in Taiwan.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

To identify the association between all-cause mortality and MUAC or CC.

RESULTS:

There were 255 deaths during the 7-year follow-up period. After adjusting for age, sex, cigarette smoking, betel nut chewing, alcohol use, Karnofsky Performance Status Scale score, serum albumin level, hypertension and diabetes mellitus, subjects in the highest tertile of MUAC (27.8±2.2 cm) and CC (32.1±2.6 cm) had a significantly lower mortality rate than did subjects in the lowest tertile (MUAC 20.6±1.7 cm; CC 22.8±1.9 cm). The adjusted HR for all-cause mortality in the highest versus lowest MUAC tertile was 0.64 (95% CI 0.45 to 0.90). The adjusted HR for all-cause mortality in the highest versus lowest CC tertile was 0.51 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.74).

CONCLUSIONS:

MUAC and CC are negative predictors for all-cause mortality in older Chinese adults living in long-term care facilities. Participants with higher MUAC and CC had lower all-cause mortality.

KEYWORDS:

body mass index; calf circumference; elderly; long-term care facility; mid-upper arm circumference; mortality

 

Circadian nutritional behaviours and cancer risk: New insights from the NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort study.

Srour B, Plancoulaine S, Andreeva VA, Fassier P, Julia C, Galan P, Hercberg S, Deschasaux M, Latino-Martel P, Touvier M.

Int J Cancer. 2018 May 9. doi: 10.1002/ijc.31584. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29744870

Abstract

Circadian disruption has been classified as probably carcinogenic to humans by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer. The circadian clock is subject to environmental factors, particularly light exposure and food intake rhythms. However, the association between nutritional circadian behaviours and cancer is not well understood. We investigated the longitudinal associations between number of eating episodes, night-time fasting duration, time of first and last eating episodes, as well as nutritional quality of last eating episode, respectively, with breast and prostate cancer risks, the two main cancer locations in women and men respectively. This prospective study included 41389 day-working adults in the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-2016) who completed at least three 24h dietary records during the first two years of follow-up. Multivariable Cox models were computed. 1732 first primary incident cancer cases were diagnosed during the follow-up, among which 428 breast and 179 prostate cancers. After adjustment for covariates including sleep duration, late eaters (last eating episode after 9:30 pm) had an increased risk of breast (HR=1.48 (1.02-2.17), p=0.03) and prostate (HR=2.20 (1.28-3.78), p=0.004) cancers. However, no association was observed between cancer risk and number of eating episodes, night-time fasting duration, time of first eating episode or macronutrient composition of the last eating episode. This large cohort study suggests that circadian perturbations resulting from late time of last food intake may be involved in carcinogenesis at different locations. Beyond nutritional quality of food intake, nutritional circadian regulation should be further investigated in the context of cancer prevention.

KEYWORDS:

cancer risk; circadian rhythm; eating behaviours; nutrition; prospective cohort

 

Pressure Ulcer and Nutrition.

Saghaleini SH, Dehghan K, Shadvar K, Sanaie S, Mahmoodpoor A, Ostadi Z.

Indian J Crit Care Med. 2018 Apr;22(4):283-289. doi: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_277_17. Review.

PMID: 29743767

http://www.ijccm.org/article.asp?issn=0972-5229;year=2018;volume=22;issue=4;spage=283;epage=289;aulast=Saghaleini

Abstract

Pressure ulcers can diminish global life quality, contribute to rapid mortality in some patients and pose a significant cost to health-care organizations. Accordingly, their prevention and management are highly important. Nutritional deprivation and insufficient dietary intake are the key risk factors for the development of pressure ulcers and impaired wound healing. Unplanned weight loss is a major risk factor for malnutrition and pressure ulcer development. Suboptimal nutrition interferes with the function of the immune system, collagen synthesis, and tensile strength. No laboratory test can exactly define an individual's nutritional status. Although serum albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, and retinol-binding protein as well as anthropometric measures such as height, weight, and body mass index and the other laboratory values may be suitable to establish the overall prognosis, still they might not well represent the nutritional status. Although the ideal nutrient intake to encourage wound healing is unknown, increased needs for energy, protein, zinc, and Vitamins A, C, and E and also amino acids such as arginine and glutamine have been documented. Hydration plays a vital role in the preservation and repair of skin integrity. Dehydration disturbs cell metabolism and wound healing. Adequate fluid intake is necessary to support the blood flow to wounded tissues and to prevent additional breakdown of the skin. The main aim of the present article is to review the current evidence related to hydration and nutrition for bedsore prevention and management in adults.

KEYWORDS:

Management; nutrition; pressure ulcer

 

Exploration of the association between dietary fiber intake and depressive symptoms in adults.

Xu H, Li S, Song X, Li Z, Zhang D.

Nutrition. 2018 Mar 21;54:48-53. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2018.03.009. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29747090

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Current evidence on the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of depressive symptoms is inconsistent. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to explore their association.

METHODS:

Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007 to 2014 were used in this cross-sectional study. Dietary data were obtained through two 24-h dietary recall interviews. Depressive symptoms were assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire. Logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline models were applied to evaluate the associations among dietary intakes of total, cereal, vegetable, and fruit fiber and depressive symptoms.

RESULTS:

A total of 16 807 adults ages 20 y or older were included in this study. Dietary intakes of total, cereal, vegetable, and fruit fiber were inversely associated with depressive symptoms in unadjusted model and multivariate-adjusted model 1. In multivariate-adjusted model 2, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of depressive symptoms were 0.59 (0.44-0.79), 0.90 (0.69-1.19), 0.58 (0.45-0.76), and 0.64 (0.45-0.92) for the highest versus lowest quartile of total, cereal, vegetable, and fruit fiber intakes, respectively. Dose-response analyses found that the risk of depressive symptoms was associated with total fiber intake in a nonlinear manner, whereas the relationships were linear with cereal, vegetable, and fruit fiber intakes.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study suggested that intakes of total fiber, vegetable fiber, and fruit fiber were inversely associated with depressive symptoms. Further larger prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.

KEYWORDS:

Depressive symptoms; Diet; Dietary fiber; Dose-response; NHANES

 

Target Organ Damage and Target Systolic Blood Pressure in Clinical Practice: The Campania Salute Network.

D'Amato A, Mancusi C, Losi MA, Izzo R, Arnone MI, Canciello G, Senese S, De Luca N, de Simone G, Trimarco B.

Am J Hypertens. 2018 May 7;31(6):658-664. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpy007.

PMID: 29566163

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Lowering systolic blood pressure (SBP) below the conventional threshold (140 mm Hg) reduces left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and incident cardiovascular (CV) events. We assessed whether different thresholds of SBP as the average value during follow-up (FU) have different impact on changes in target organ damage (TOD).

METHODS:

From the Campania Salute Network registry, we selected 4,148 hypertensive patients with average SBP-FU <140 mm Hg, and without history of prevalent CV or chronic kidney disease (i.e., <stage IV CKD). Patients were divided in "Tight" (SBP-FU <130 mm Hg) or "Usual" (SBP-FU ≥130) BP control. At baseline and at the last available control visit, we assessed LV mass index (LVMi, g/m2.7), carotid intimal-medial thickness (IMT, mm), and glomerular filtration rate by CKD-EPI equation (GFR, ml/min/1.73 m2) as markers of TOD. Time trend of TOD for tight and usual subgroups were compared, adjusting for significant confounders.

RESULTS:

During a median of 74 months (interquartile range: 35-108 months), 1,824 patients (44%) were classified as tight control. They were younger, with less prevalent obesity, diabetes, lower initial LVMi, and IMT, and were taking less Ca++-channel blockers during FU than the usual control subgroup (all P < 0.05). In both subgroups, there were no changes over time in LVMi and GFR, whereas the IMT increased during the FU (P < 0.004), with no significant effect of degree of SBP control.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a registry of treated hypertensive patients from a tertiary care center, progression of TODs is not related to average SBP during FU.

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Effect of protein intake beyond habitual intakes following resistance training on cardiometabolic risk disease parameters in pre-conditioned older women.

Fernandes RR, Nabuco HCG, Junior PS, Cavalcanti EF, Tomeleri CM, Ribeiro AS, Barbosa DS, Venturini D, Schoenfeld BJ, Cyrino ES.

Exp Gerontol. 2018 May 9. pii: S0531-5565(18)30043-3. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2018.05.003. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29752998

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of higher protein (HP) intake associated with resistance training (RT) on parameters of cardiometabolic risk disease (CMR).

METHODS:

A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled design was conducted. Thirty-two pre-conditioned older women were randomized in two groups to receive 35 g of protein (high protein group - HP) or 35 g of placebo (low protein group - LP) after training sessions. The RT program was carried out over 12 weeks, 3 days per week and 3 sets of 8-12 repetitions. Body composition (whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), blood samples, anthropometric measurements and dietary intake were performed at pre- and post-intervention.

RESULTS:

There was a significant group-by-time interaction (P < 0.05) for lean soft tissue (LST), total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio (TC/HDL) and volume of load (VL), in which HP group presented greater improvements when compared to LP group (LST: +3.8% vs +2.0%; TC/HDL: -11.8% vs -2.9%; VL: 45.4% vs 35.4%). A time effect was found for HDL, LDL, Triglycerides (TGC), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein/HDL ratio (LDL/HDL) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (HDL: +6.7% vs +6.3%; LDL: -6.8% vs +0.9%; TGC: -2.0% vs -1.2%; TC: -2.8% vs +0.5%; LDL/HDL: -11.5 vs -6.9%; CRP: -8.6% vs -11.5%) in which both groups improved their scores without statistical differences between them. No effect was found for waist circumference.

CONCLUSION:

Increased dietary protein intake, achieved by whey protein supplementation, when associated with RT promotes greater gains on LST and VL, and a reduction on TC/HDL ratio in pre-conditioned older women.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Metabolic profile; Strength training; Whey protein

 

Association between a pro plant-based dietary score and cancer risk in the prospective NutriNet-Santé cohort.

Kane-Diallo A, Srour B, Sellem L, Deschasaux M, Latino-Martel P, Hercberg S, Galan P, Fassier P, Guéraud F, Pierre FH, Kesse-Guyot E, Allès B, Touvier M.

Int J Cancer. 2018 May 11. doi: 10.1002/ijc.31593. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29752709

Abstract

Diverse plant products (e.g. fruits, vegetables, legumes) are associated with decreased cancer risk at several locations while red and processed meat were found to increase cancer risk. A pro plant-based dietary score reflecting the relative contribution of consumed plant vs animal products was developed, and was associated with lower overall mortality, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk, among omnivorous adults. For the first time, we investigated the prospective associations between this pro plant-based dietary score and cancer risk. This study included 42,544 men and women of the French NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort (2009-2016) aged ≥45y who completed at least three 24h-dietary records during the first year of follow-up. The risk of developing cancer was compared across sex-specific tertiles of pro plant-based dietary score by multivariable Cox models. In total, 1,591 first primary incident cancer cases were diagnosed during follow-up, among which 487 breast, 243 prostate, 198 digestive and 68 lung cancers. A higher pro plant-based dietary score was associated with decreased risks of overall (HRt3vs.t1 =0.85; 95% CI 0.76, 0.97; ptrend =0.02), digestive (HRt3vs.t1 =0.68; 95% CI 0.47; 0.99; ptrend =0.04) and lung (HRt3vs.t1 =0.47; 95% CI 0.25, 0.90; ptrend =0.02) cancer, though no substantial associations were found for breast or prostate cancers. This large cohort study supports a beneficial role of higher intakes of plant-based products along with lower intakes of animal products, within a balanced omnivorous diet, regarding primary cancer prevention. These results are consistent with mechanistic evidence from experimental studies.

KEYWORDS:

Dietary score; animal foods; cancer; pro plant-based dietary score; prospective study

 

Effects of Whey Protein Supplementation Pre- or Post-Resistance Training on Muscle Mass, Muscular Strength, and Functional Capacity in Pre-Conditioned Older Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Nabuco HCG, Tomeleri CM, Sugihara Junior P, Fernandes RR, Cavalcante EF, Antunes M, Ribeiro AS, Teixeira DC, Silva AM, Sardinha LB, Cyrino ES.

Nutrients. 2018 May 3;10(5). pii: E563. doi: 10.3390/nu10050563.

PMID: 29751507

Abstract

Aging is associated with sarcopenia and dynapenia, with both processes contributing to functional dependence and mortality in older adults. Resistance training (RT) and increased protein intake are strategies that may contribute to health improvements in older adults. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the effects of whey protein (WP) supplementation consumed either immediately pre- or post-RT on skeletal muscle mass (SMM), muscular strength, and functional capacity in pre-conditioned older women. Seventy older women participated in this investigation and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: whey protein pre-RT and placebo post-RT (WP-PLA, n = 24), placebo pre-RT and whey protein post-RT (PLA-WP, n = 23), and placebo pre- and post-RT (PLA-PLA, n = 23). Each group ingested 35 g of WP or PLA. The RT program was carried out over 12 weeks (three times per week; 3 × 8⁻12 repetition maximum). Body composition, muscular strength, functional capacity, and dietary intake were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for repeated measures, with baseline scores as covariates were used for data analysis. A time vs. group interaction (p < 0.05) was observed with WP-PLA and PLA-WP presenting greater increases compared with PLA-PLA for SMM (WP-PLA = 3.4%; PLA-WP = 4.2%; PLA-PLA = 2.0%), strength (WP-PLA = 8.1%; PLA-WP = 8.3%; PLA-PLA = 7.0%), and the 10-m walk test (WP-PLA = −10.8%; PLA-WP = −11.8%; PLA-PLA = −4.3%). Whey protein supplementation was effective in promoting increases in SMM, muscular strength, and functional capacity in pre-conditioned older women, regardless of supplementation timing.

KEYWORDS:

aging; hypertrophy; protein timing; strength training

 

Hormone replacement therapy, mammographic density, and breast cancer risk: a cohort study.

Azam S, Lange T, Huynh S, Aro AR, von Euler-Chelpin M, Vejborg I, Tjønneland A, Lynge E, Andersen ZJ.

Cancer Causes Control. 2018 Jun;29(6):495-505. doi: 10.1007/s10552-018-1033-0. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

PMID: 29671181

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10552-018-1033-0

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use increases breast cancer risk and mammographic density (MD). We examine whether MD mediates or modifies the association of HRT with the breast cancer.

METHODS:

For the 4,501 participants in the Danish diet, cancer and health cohort (1993-1997) who attended mammographic screening in Copenhagen (1993-2001), MD (mixed/dense or fatty) was assessed at the first screening after cohort entry. HRT use was assessed by questionnaire and breast cancer diagnoses until 2012 obtained from the Danish cancer registry. The associations of HRT with MD and with breast cancer were analyzed separately using Cox's regression. Mediation analyses were used to estimate proportion [with 95% confidence intervals (CI)] of an association between HRT and breast cancer mediated by MD.

RESULTS:

2,444 (54.3%) women had mixed/dense breasts, 229 (5.4%) developed breast cancer, and 35.9% were current HRT users at enrollment. Compared to never users, current HRT use was statistically significantly associated with having mixed/dense breasts (relative risk and 95% CI 1.24; 1.14-1.35), and higher risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 1.87; 1.40-2.48). Association between current HRT use and breast cancer risk was partially mediated by MD (percent mediated = 10%; 95% CI 4-22%). The current HRT use-related breast cancer risk was higher in women with mixed/dense (1.94; 1.37-3.87) than fatty (1.37; 0.80-2.35) breasts (p value for interaction = 0.15).

CONCLUSIONS:

MD partially mediates some of the association between HRT and breast cancer risk. The association between HRT and breast cancer seems to be stronger in women with dense breasts.

KEYWORDS:

Breast cancer; Breasts density; Hormone replacement therapy; Mammographic density

 

Interactions of coffee consumption and postmenopausal hormone use in relation to breast cancer risk in UK Biobank.

Yaghjyan L, Rich S, Mao L, Mai V, Egan KM.

Cancer Causes Control. 2018 Jun;29(6):519-525. doi: 10.1007/s10552-018-1028-x. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

PMID: 29651651

Abstract

PURPOSE:

We investigated the association of coffee consumption with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, overall and by the status of postmenopausal hormone therapy (PMH).

METHODS:

This study included 126,182 postmenopausal women (2,636 with breast cancer and 123,546 without) from UK Biobank. Cancer diagnoses were ascertained through the linkage to the UK National Health Service Central Registers. Information on breast cancer risk factors and coffee consumption was collected at baseline and updated during follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate associations between coffee consumption and breast cancer, overall and in stratified analyses by woman's PMH status (none, past, current).

RESULTS:

In the overall analysis, coffee consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk (Hazard Ratio


1.00, 95% CI 0.91-1.11 for 2-3 cups/day, and HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.87-1.10 for ≥ 4 cups/day, p-trend = 0.69). Women with no PMH history who consumed ≥ 4 cups/day had a 16% reduced risk of breast cancer as compared to women who consumed < 7 cups/week (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71-1.00). Among women with past PMH, those consuming ≥ 4 cups/day had a 22% greater risk of breast cancer than women consuming < 7 cups/week (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.47). No association was found among current PMH users. We found no significant interaction between PMH and coffee consumption (p = 0.24).

CONCLUSIONS:

Coffee consumption might be associated with increased breast cancer risk in women who used hormones in the past. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and elucidate potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed associations.

KEYWORDS:

Breast cancer risk; Coffee intake; Postmenopausal hormones; UK Biobank

 

Maternal consumption of coffee and tea during pregnancy and risk of childhood ALL: a pooled analysis from the childhood Leukemia International Consortium.

Milne E, Greenop KR, Petridou E, Bailey HD, Orsi L, Kang AY, Baka M, Bonaventure A, Kourti M, Metayer C, Clavel J.

Cancer Causes Control. 2018 Jun;29(6):539-550. doi: 10.1007/s10552-018-1024-1. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

PMID: 29600472

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The early onset of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) suggests that critical exposures occurring during pregnancy may increase risk. We investigated the effects of maternal coffee and tea consumption during pregnancy on ALL risk by pooling data from eight case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium.

METHOD:

Data on maternal coffee intake were available for 2,552 cases and 4,876 controls, and data on tea intake were available for 2,982 cases and 5,367 controls. Coffee and tea intake was categorized into 0, > 0-1, > 1-2, and > 2 cups/day, and covariates were combined and harmonized. Data on genetic variants in NAT2, CYP1A1, and NQO1 were also available in a subset. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, and linear trends across categories were assessed.

RESULTS:

No association was seen with 'any' maternal coffee consumption during pregnancy, but there was evidence of a positive exposure-response; the pooled OR for > 2 cups/day versus none was 1.27 (95% CI 1.09-1.43), p trend = 0.005. No associations were observed with tea consumption. No interactions were seen between coffee or tea intake and age, maternal smoking or genotype, and there was little or no evidence that associations with coffee or tea differed among cases with and without chromosomal translocations.

CONCLUSIONS:

Despite some limitations, our findings suggest that high coffee intake during pregnancy may increase risk of childhood ALL. Thus, current advice to limit caffeine intake during pregnancy to reduce risk of preterm birth may have additional benefits.

KEYWORDS:

Child; Coffee; Leukemia; Pooled analysis; Tea

 

Cognitive Function and Changes in Cognitive Function as Predictors of Incident Cardiovascular Disease: The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

Leng X, Espeland MA, Manson JE, Stefanick ML, Gower EW, Hayden KM, Limacher MC, Vaughan L, Robinson J, Wallace R, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Yaffe K, Shumaker SA.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018 May 9;73(6):779-785. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glx138.

PMID: 28977360

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cognitive impairment and decline may signal the increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined associations of global cognitive function, as measured by the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) and changes in 3MS over time, with incident CVD, individual CVD outcomes, CVD death, and all-cause mortality.

METHODS:

A total of 5,596 women (≥ 60) from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study free of CVD at baseline were followed for an average of 7.1 years. The 3MS was measured at baseline and annually thereafter. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to model associations between baseline 3MS and changes in 3MS and time to events.

RESULTS:

In the fully-adjusted models for every 5-point lower baseline 3MS score, the risk was 12% greater for incident CVD, 37% for HF, 35% for CVD death, and 24% for all-cause mortality. No significant relationships were found for coronary heart disease (CHD), angina, stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), or coronary revascularization. When change in 3MS was added as a time-varying covariate in the fully-adjusted models, for every 1-point/year greater decline in 3MS, the risk was 4% greater for incident CVD, 10% for CHD, 9% for Stroke/TIA, 17% for CVD death, and 13% for all-cause mortality.

CONCLUSIONS:

In older women free of prevalent CVD at baseline, lower baseline global cognitive function or decline in global cognitive function over time, increased risk of incident CVD, CVD death, and all-cause mortality.

 

No Association Between Consumption of Sweetened Beverages and Later Risk of Crohn's Disease or Ulcerative Colitis.

Khalili H, Hakansson N, Chan SS, Ludvigsson JF, Olen O, Chan AT, Hart AR, Wolk A.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 May 8. pii: S1542-3565(18)30465-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2018.04.059. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29751165

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Consumption of sweetened beverages has been associated with inflammation, based on measurements of C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor, as well as immune-mediated disorders including rheumatoid arthritis. We investigated associations with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC).

METHODS:

We conducted a prospective cohort study of 83,042 participants (44-83 years old) enrolled in the Cohort of Swedish Men or the Swedish Mammography Study. Dietary and lifestyle data were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline in 1997. Diagnoses of CD and UC were ascertained from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Cox proportional hazards modeling to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs.

RESULTS:

Through December of 2014, we confirmed 143 incident cases of CD (incidence; rate = 11 cases/100,000 person-years) and 349 incident cases of UC (incidence rate = 28 cases/100,000 person-years) over 1,264,345 person-years of follow up. Consumption of sweetened beverages was not associated with increased risk of CD (Ptrend = 0.34) or UC (Ptrend = 0.40). Compared to participants who reported no consumption of sweetened beverages, the multivariable-adjusted HRs for 1 or more servings per day were 1.02 for CD (95% CI, 0.60-1.73) and 1.14 for UC (95% CI, 0.83-1.57). The association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of CD or UC were not modified by age, sex (cohort), body mass index, or smoking (all Pinteraction ≥ 0.12).

CONCLUSION:

In analyses of data from 2 large prospective cohort studies from Sweden, we observed no evidence for associations between consumption of sweetened beverages and later risk of CD or UC.

KEYWORDS:

BMI; CoSM; IBD; SMC; epidemiology

 

Platelet Count Affects Efficacy of Folic Acid in Preventing First Stroke.

Kong X, Huang X, Zhao M, Xu B, Xu R, Song Y, Yu Y, Yang W, Zhang J, Liu L, Zhang Y, Tang G, Wang B, Hou FF, Li P, Cheng X, Zhao S, Wang X, Qin X, Li J, Huo Y.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 May 15;71(19):2136-2146. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.02.072.

PMID: 29747834

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The role of platelets and important effect modifiers on the risk of first stroke is unknown.

OBJECTIVES:

This study examined whether low platelet count (PLT) and elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) levels jointly increase the risk of first stroke, and, if so, whether folic acid treatment is particularly effective in stroke prevention in such a setting.

METHODS:

A total of 10,789 Chinese hypertensive adults (mean age 59.5 years; 38% male, with no history of stroke and myocardial infarction) were analyzed from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, where participants were randomly assigned to daily treatments of 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid (n = 5,408) or 10 mg enalapril alone (n = 5,381). The primary endpoint was first stroke.

RESULTS:

During 4.2 years of follow-up, a total of 371 first strokes occurred. In the enalapril-alone group, the lowest rate of first stroke (3.3%) was found in patients with high PLT (quartiles 2 to 4) and low tHcy (<15 μmol/l); and the highest rate (5.6%) was in patients with low PLT (quartile 1) and high tHcy (≥15 μmol/l) levels. Following folic acid treatment, the high-risk group had a 73% reduction in stroke (hazard ratio: 0.27; 95% confidence interval: 0.11 to 0.64; p = 0.003), whereas there was no significant effect among the low-risk group.

CONCLUSIONS:

Among Chinese hypertensive adults, the subgroup with low PLT and high tHcy had the highest risk of first stroke, and this risk was reduced by 73% with folic acid treatment. If confirmed, PLT and tHcy could serve as biomarkers to identify high-risk individuals who would particularly benefit from folic acid treatment. (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial [CSPPT]; NCT00794885).

KEYWORDS:

FA supplementation; homocysteine; hypertensive adults; platelet; stroke

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Adult height and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC).

Ihira H, Sawada N, Iwasaki M, Yamaji T, Goto A, Noda M, Iso H, Tsugane S; JPHC Study Group.

PLoS One. 2018 May 14;13(5):e0197164. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197164. eCollection 2018.

PMID: 29758048

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0197164

Abstract

Adult height is determined by both genetic characteristics and environmental factors in early life. Although previous studies have suggested that adult height is associated with risk of mortality, comprehensive associations between height and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the Japanese population are unclear. We aimed to evaluate the associations between adult height and all-cause and cause-specific mortality among Japanese men and women in a prospective cohort study. We investigated 107,794 participants (50,755 men and 57,039 women) aged 40 to 69 years who responded to the baseline questionnaire in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. Participants were classified by quartile of adult height obtained from a self-reported questionnaire in men (<160cm, 160-163cm, 164-167cm, ≥168cm) and women (<149cm, 149-151cm, 152-155cm, ≥156cm). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality from all-cause, cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and other cause mortality were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. During follow-up, 12,320 men and 7,030 women died. Taller adult height was associated with decreased risk for mortality from cerebrovascular disease (HR <160cm vs. ≥168cm (95% CI) = 0.83 (0.69-0.99); HR for 5-cm increment (95% CI) = 0.95 (0.90-0.99)) and respiratory disease (HR <160cm vs. ≥168cm (95% CI) = 0.84 (0.69-1.03); HR for 5-cm increment (95% CI) = 0.92 (0.87-0.97)), but was also associated with increased risk for overall cancer mortality (HR <160cm vs. ≥168cm (95% CI) = 1.17 (1.07-1.28); HR for 5-cm increment (95% CI) = 1.04 (1.01-1.07)) in men. Taller adult height was also associated with decreased risk for mortality from cerebrovascular disease (HR <149cm vs. ≥156cm (95% CI) = 0.84 (0.66-1.05); HR for 5-cm increment (95% CI) = 0.92 (0.86-0.99)) in women. Our results confirmed that adult height is associated with cause-specific mortality in a Japanese population.

Edited by AlPater

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Do highly physically active workers die early? A systematic review with meta-analysis of data from 193 696 participants.

Coenen P, Huysmans MA, Holtermann A, Krause N, van Mechelen W, Straker LM, van der Beek AJ.

Br J Sports Med. 2018 May 14. pii: bjsports-2017-098540. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2017-098540. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 29760168

http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/bjsports/early/2018/04/17/bjsports-2017-098540.full.pdf

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Recent evidence suggests the existence of a physical activity paradox, with beneficial health outcomes associated with leisure time physical activity, but detrimental health outcomes for those engaging in high level occupational physical activity. This is the first quantitative systematic review of evidence regarding the association between occupational physical activity and all-cause mortality.

DESIGN:

Systematic review with meta-analysis.

DATA SOURCE:

A literature search was performed in electronic databases PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane.

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES:

We screened for peer reviewed articles from prospective studies assessing the association of occupational physical activity with all-cause mortality. A meta-analysis assessed the association of high (compared with low) level occupational physical activity with all-cause mortality, estimating pooled hazard ratios (HR) (with 95% CI).

RESULTS:

2490 unique articles were screened and 33 (from 26 studies) were included. Data from 17 studies (with 193 696 participants) were used in a meta-analysis, showing that men with high level occupational physical activity had an 18% increased risk of early mortality compared with those engaging in low level occupational physical activity (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.34). No such association was observed among women, for whom instead a tendency for an inverse association was found (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

The results of this review indicate detrimental health consequences associated with high level occupational physical activity in men, even when adjusting for relevant factors (such as leisure time physical activity). These findings suggest that research and physical activity guidelines may differentiate between occupational and leisure time physical activity.

KEYWORDS:

meta-analysis; physical activity

 

Habitual coffee consumption and cognitive function: a Mendelian randomization meta-analysis in up to 415,530 participants.

Zhou A, Taylor AE, Karhunen V, Zhan Y, Rovio SP, Lahti J, Sjögren P, Byberg L, Lyall DM, Auvinen J, Lehtimäki T, Kähönen M, Hutri-Kähönen N, Perälä MM, Michaëlsson K, Mahajan A, Lind L, Power C, Eriksson JG, Raitakari OT, Hägg S, Pedersen NL, Veijola J, Järvelin MR, Munafò MR, Ingelsson E, Llewellyn DJ, Hyppönen E.

Sci Rep. 2018 May 14;8(1):7526. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-25919-2.

PMID: 29760501

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-25919-2

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-25919-2.pdf

Abstract

Coffee's long-term effect on cognitive function remains unclear with studies suggesting both benefits and adverse effects. We used Mendelian randomization to investigate the causal relationship between habitual coffee consumption and cognitive function in mid- to later life. This included up to 415,530 participants and 300,760 coffee drinkers from 10 meta-analysed European ancestry cohorts. In each cohort, composite cognitive scores that capture global cognition and memory were computed using available tests. A genetic score derived using CYP1A1/2 (rs2472297) and AHR (rs6968865) was chosen as a proxy for habitual coffee consumption. Null associations were observed when examining the associations of the genetic score with global and memory cognition (β = -0.0007, 95% C.I. -0.009 to 0.008, P = 0.87; β = -0.001, 95% C.I. -0.005 to 0.002, P = 0.51, respectively), with high consistency between studies (Pheterogeneity > 0.4 for both). Domain specific analyses using available cognitive measures in the UK Biobank also did not support effects by habitual coffee intake for reaction time, pairs matching, reasoning or prospective memory (P ≥ 0.05 for all). Despite the power to detect very small effects, our meta-analysis provided no evidence for causal long-term effects of habitual coffee consumption on global cognition or memory.

 

Bilirubin Is Inversely Associated With Cardiovascular Disease Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Individuals in VACS (Veterans Aging Cohort Study).

Marconi VC, Duncan MS, So-Armah K, Re VL 3rd, Lim JK, Butt AA, Goetz MB, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Alcorn CW, Lennox J, Beckman JA, Justice A, Freiberg M.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 May 2;7(10). pii: e007792. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.007792.

PMID: 29720501 Free Article

http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/7/10/e007792

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Bilirubin may protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD) by reducing oxidative stress. Whether elevated bilirubin reduces the risk of CVD events among HIV+ individuals and if this differs from uninfected individuals remain unclear. We assessed whether bilirubin independently predicted the risk of CVD events among HIV+ and uninfected participants in VACS (Veterans Aging Cohort Study).

METHODS AND RESULTS:

We conducted a prospective cohort study using VACS participants free of baseline CVD. Total bilirubin was categorized by quartiles. CVD as well as acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and ischemic stroke events were assessed. Cox regression was used to evaluate hazard ratios of outcomes associated with quartiles of total bilirubin in HIV+ and uninfected people after adjusting for multiple risk factors. There were 96 381 participants (30 427 HIV+); mean age was 48 years, 48% were black, and 97% were men. There were 6603 total incident CVD events over a mean of 5.7 years. In adjusted models, increasing quartiles of baseline total bilirubin were associated with decreased hazards of all outcomes (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.91). Among HIV+ participants, results persisted for heart failure, ischemic stroke, and total CVD, but nonsignificant associations were observed for acute myocardial infarction.

CONCLUSIONS:

VACS participants (regardless of HIV status) with elevated bilirubin levels had a lower risk of incident total CVD, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and ischemic stroke events after adjusting for known risk factors. Future studies should investigate how this apparently protective effect of elevated bilirubin could be harnessed to reduce CVD risk or improve risk estimation among HIV+ individuals.

KEYWORDS:

HIV ; bilirubin; cardiovascular disease; heart failure; myocardial infarction; stroke

 

Orthostatic Hypotension and Risk of Clinical and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Middle-Aged Adults.

Juraschek SP, Daya N, Appel LJ, Miller ER 3rd, McEvoy JW, Matsushita K, Ballantyne CM, Selvin E.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 May 7;7(10). pii: e008884. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.118.008884.

PMID: 29735525 Free Article

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a well-recognized manifestation of neuropathy and hypovolemia, its contribution to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is controversial.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Participants with OH, defined as a decrease in blood pressure (systolic ≥20 mm Hg or diastolic ≥10 mm Hg) from the supine to standing position, were identified during the first visit of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study (1987-1989) within 2 minutes of standing. All participants were followed up for the development of myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, fatal coronary heart disease (CHD), any CHD (combination of silent, nonfatal, and fatal CHD or cardiac procedures), and all-cause mortality. Participants were assessed for carotid intimal thickness and plaque during the first visit. Detectable high-sensitivity troponin T (≥5 ng/L) and elevated NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; ≥100 pg/mL) were determined in blood collected during the second visit (1990-1992). All associations were adjusted for known CVD risk factors. In 9139 participants (57% women; 23% black; mean age, 54±5.7 years), 3% had OH. During follow-up (median, 26 years), OH was associated with myocardial infarction (hazard ratio {HR}, 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44-2.46), congestive heart failure (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.34-2.04), stroke (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.35-2.48), fatal CHD (HR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.93-3.98), any CHD (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.64-2.44), and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.45-1.95). OH was also associated with carotid intimal thickness (β, 0.05 mm; 95% CI, 0.04-0.07 mm), carotid plaque (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.18-1.93), detectable high-sensitivity troponin T (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.16-1.93), and elevated NT-proBNP (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.48-2.49).

CONCLUSIONS:

OH identified in community-dwelling middle-aged adults was associated with future CVD events and subclinical CVD. Further research is necessary to establish a causal role for OH in the pathogenesis of CVD.

KEYWORDS:

NT‐proBNP; cardiovascular disease; heart failure; high‐sensitivity troponin; mortality; orthostatic hypotension; stroke

Edited by AlPater

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The effect of coenzyme Q10 on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure: results from Q-SYMBIO: a randomized double-blind trial.

Mortensen SA, Rosenfeldt F, Kumar A, Dolliner P, Filipiak KJ, Pella D, Alehagen U, Steurer G, Littarru GP; Q-SYMBIO Study Investigators.

JACC Heart Fail. 2014 Dec;2(6):641-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2014.06.008. Epub 2014 Oct 1.

PMID: 25282031 Free Article

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

This randomized controlled multicenter trial evaluated coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as adjunctive treatment in chronic heart failure (HF).

BACKGROUND:

CoQ10 is an essential cofactor for energy production and is also a powerful antioxidant. A low level of myocardial CoQ10 is related to the severity of HF. Previous randomized controlled trials of CoQ10 in HF were underpowered to address major clinical endpoints.

METHODS:

Patients with moderate to severe HF were randomly assigned in a 2-year prospective trial to either CoQ10 100 mg 3 times daily or placebo, in addition to standard therapy. The primary short-term endpoints at 16 weeks were changes in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification, 6-min walk test, and levels of N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide. The primary long-term endpoint at 2 years was composite major adverse cardiovascular events as determined by a time to first event analysis.

RESULTS:

A total of 420 patients were enrolled. There were no significant changes in short-term endpoints. The primary long-term endpoint was reached by 15% of the patients in the CoQ10 group versus 26% in the placebo group (hazard ratio: 0.50; 95% confidence interval: 0.32 to 0.80; p = 0.003) by intention-to-treat analysis. The following secondary endpoints were significantly lower in the CoQ10 group compared with the placebo group: cardiovascular mortality (9% vs. 16%, p = 0.026), all-cause mortality (10% vs. 18%, p = 0.018), and incidence of hospital stays for HF (p = 0.033). In addition, a significant improvement of NYHA class was found in the CoQ10 group after 2 years (p = 0.028).

CONCLUSIONS:

Long-term CoQ10 treatment of patients with chronic HF is safe, improves symptoms, and reduces major adverse cardiovascular events. (Coenzyme Q10 as adjunctive treatment of chronic heart failure: a randomised, double-blind, multicentre trial with focus on SYMptoms, BIomarker status [brain-Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)], and long-term Outcome [hospitalisations/mortality]; ISRCTN94506234).

KEYWORDS:

chronic heart failure; coenzyme Q(10); metabolic therapy; randomized controlled trial; ubiquinone

 

Osteoporosis, diabetes, and hypertension are major risk factors for mortality in older adults: an intermediate report on a prospective survey of 1467 community-dwelling elderly healthy pensioners in Switzerland.

Gutzwiller JP, Richterich JP, Stanga Z, Nydegger UE, Risch L, Risch M.

BMC Geriatr. 2018 May 15;18(1):115. doi: 10.1186/s12877-018-0809-0.

PMID: 29764380

https://bmcgeriatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12877-018-0809-0

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Osteoporosis is an important morbidity factor for ageing populations in developed countries. However, compared to the amount of information available on diabetes and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the direct impact of osteoporosis on general mortality in older age.

METHODS:

We obtained data from a prospective population-based cohort of pensioners from the SENIORLAB study who were subjectively healthy. The inclusion criteria were an age of at least 60 years and Swiss residence. We assessed and analysed clinical measures, voluntary reports, and laboratory values.

RESULTS:

In total, 1467 subjects were included in the cohort. The mean follow-up time was 3.68 years (95% confidence interval, 3.64-3.71). The ages of the included participants ranged from 60 to 99 years. At follow-up, there were 1401 survivors, and 66 participants had died. According to the multivariate analysis (Cox regression), osteoporosis was the most important risk factor for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 4.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.82-10.91), followed by diabetes (hazard ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-4.52) and hypertension (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.03).

CONCLUSIONS:

Osteoporosis is a major risk factor for all-cause mortality in a subjectively healthy senior population, followed by type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Osteoporosis should be more actively diagnosed in healthy pensioners before they develop osteoporosis-associated health incidents.

KEYWORDS:

Diabetes; Hypertension; Mortality; Osteoporosis; Pensioners

 

Prospective cohort studies of dietary vitamin B6 intake and risk of cause-specific mortality.

Zhao LG, Shu XO, Li HL, Gao J, Han LH, Wang J, Fang J, Gao YT, Zheng W, Xiang YB.

Clin Nutr. 2018 May 4. pii: S0261-5614(18)30167-5. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.04.016. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29764693

https://sci-hub.hk/

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Vitamin B6 has been postulated to play an important role in determining chronic diseases. However, few studies have evaluated associations between dietary vitamin B6 and cause-specific mortality comprehensively.

METHODS:

We investigated the associations between vitamin B6 from diet and risk of all-cause, and cause-specific mortality in 134,480 participants from the Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002-2014) and Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997-2014). The median follow-up periods for men and women were 10.3 and 16.2 years, respectively. We estimated hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS:

After adjustment for suspected confounders, the multivariable-adjusted HRs for the highest versus lowest quintiles for total, CVD, stroke and CHD mortality among men were 0.83 (95%CI = 0.76, 0.90), 0.73 (95%CI = 0.63, 0.85), 0.71 (95%CI = 0.58, 0.88), 0.66 (95%CI = 0.47, 0.91), accordingly. Women with the highest intake had significantly 17% (HR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.77, 0.90), 20% (HR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.70, 0.92), and 28% (HR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.59, 0.86) lower risks of total, CVD and stroke mortality compared with those of women with lowest vitamin B6 intake. No significant association was observed between dietary vitamin B6 and cancer mortality both among men and women.

CONCLUSIONS:

In the current study with two prospective Chinese cohorts, high dietary vitamin B6 consumption was inversely associated with risk of all-cause and CVD mortality.

KEYWORDS:

All-cause mortality; CVD mortality; Cancer mortality; Cohort study; Diet; Vitamin B6

 

Progression and Regression of Hepatic Lesions in a Mouse Model of NASH Induced by Dietary Intervention and Its Implications in Pharmacotherapy.

Ding ZM, Xiao Y, Wu X, Zou H, Yang S, Shen Y, Xu J, Workman HC, Usborne AL, Hua H.

Front Pharmacol. 2018 May 1;9:410. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00410. eCollection 2018.

PMID: 29765319

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.00410/full

Abstract

Understanding of the temporal changes of hepatic lesions in the progression and regression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is vital to elucidation of the pathogenesis of NASH, and critical to the development of a strategy for NASH pharmacotherapy. There are challenges in studying hepatic lesion progression and regression in NASH patients due to the slow development of NASH in humans, one being the requirement for multiple biopsies during the longitudinal follow-up. Here we studied lesion progression and regression in the diet-induced animal model of NASH by application or removal of the pathogenic diet for multiple time periods. Male C57BL/6 mice fed Western diet developed progressive hepatic steatosis/macrovesicular vacuolation, inflammation, and hepatocyte degeneration, as well as perisinusoidal fibrosis and occasionally portal fibrosis as early as 2 months after initiation of the Western diet. In the same period, the mice exhibited elevated ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and AST (aspartate aminotransferase) enzyme activities, CK18 (cytokeratin-18), PIIINP (N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen), and TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1). Hepatic steatosis diminished rapidly when the Western diet was replaced by normal rodent chow diet and hepatic inflammation and hepatocyte degeneration were also reduced. Interestingly, perisinusoidal fibrosis and portal fibrosis regressed 8 months after chow diet replacement. To understand pharmacotherapy for NASH, mice with established NASH hepatic lesions were treated with either FXR agonist obeticholic acid (Ocaliva), or CCR2/5 antagonist Cenicriviroc. Similar to the diet replacement, metabolic modulator Ocaliva markedly reduced steatosis/macrovesicular vacuolation, hepatic inflammation, and hepatocyte degeneration effectively, but exhibited no significant effect on liver fibrosis. Anti-inflammation drug Cenicriviroc, on the other hand, markedly decreased inflammation and hepatocyte degeneration, and mildly decreased liver fibrosis, but exhibited no effect on hepatic steatosis/macrovesicular vacuolation. In conclusion, we found the progression of NASH hepatic steatosis/macrovesicular vacuolation, and inflammation eventually lead to hepatocyte death and fibrosis. Life style change and current pharmacotherapies in development may be effective in treating NASH, but their effects on NASH-induced fibrosis may be mild. Since fibrosis is known to be an independent risk for decompensated cirrhosis, cardiovascular events, and mortality, our study suggests that effective anti-fibrosis therapy should be an essential component of the combined pharmacotherapy for advanced NASH.

KEYWORDS:

CCR2/5; fibrosis; inflammation; non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; obeticholic acid; pathogenesis; steatosis

 

Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of depression: accumulative evidence from an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

Saghafian F, Malmir H, Saneei P, Milajerdi A, Larijani B, Esmaillzadeh A.

Br J Nutr. 2018 May;119(10):1087-1101. doi: 10.1017/S0007114518000697.

PMID: 29759102

Abstract

Findings from observational studies investigating the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of depression were inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise available data on the association between fruit and vegetable intake and depression. A systematic literature search of relevant reports published in Medline/PubMed, ISI (Web of Science), SCOPUS and Google Scholar until Oct 2017 was conducted. Data from 27 publications (sixteen cross-sectional, nine cohort and two case-control studies) on fruit, vegetables and/or total fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to depression were included in the systematic review. A total of eighteen studies that reported relative risks (RR), hazard ratios or OR for the relationship were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RR for depression in the highest v. the lowest category of fruit intake was 0·83 (95 % CI 0·71, 0·98) in cohort studies and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·92) in cross-sectional studies. Consumption of vegetables was also associated with a 14 % lower risk of depression (overall RR=0·86; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·98) in cohort studies and a 25 % lower risk of depression (overall RR=0·75; 95 % CI 0·62, 0·91) in cross-sectional studies. Moreover, an inverse significant association was observed between intake of total fruit and vegetables and risk of depression (overall RR=0·80; 95 % CI 0·65, 0·98) in cross-sectional studies. In a non-linear dose-response association, we failed to find any significant association between fruit or vegetable intake and risk of depression (fruit (cross-sectional studies): P non-linearty=0·12; vegetables (cross-sectional studies): P non-linearty<0·001; (cohort studies) P non-linearty=0·97). Meta-regression of included observational studies revealed an inverse linear association between fruit or vegetable intake and risk of depression, such that every 100-g increased intake of fruit was associated with a 3 % reduced risk of depression in cohort studies (RR=0·97; 95 % CI 0·95, 0·99). With regard to vegetable consumption, every 100-g increase in intake was associated with a 3 % reduced risk of depression in cohort studies (RR=0·97; 95 % CI 0·95, 0·98) and 5 % reduced odds in cross-sectional studies (RR=0·95; 95 % CI 0·91, 0·98). This meta-analysis of observational studies provides further evidence that fruit and vegetable intake was protectively associated with depression. This finding supports the current recommendation of increasing fruit and vegetable intake to improve mental health.

KEYWORDS:

RR relative risk; Anxiety; Depression; Fruit; Meta-analyses; Vegetables

 

Excess free fructose, high-fructose corn syrup and adult asthma: the Framingham Offspring Cohort.

DeChristopher LR, Tucker KL.

Br J Nutr. 2018 May;119(10):1157-1167. doi: 10.1017/S0007114518000417. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

PMID: 29587887

Abstract

There is growing evidence that intakes of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), HFCS-sweetened soda, fruit drinks and apple juice - a high-fructose 100 % juice - are associated with asthma, possibly because of the high fructose:glucose ratios and underlying fructose malabsorption, which may contribute to enteral formation of pro-inflammatory advanced glycation end products, which bind receptors that are mediators of asthma. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess associations between intakes of these beverages and asthma risk, with data from the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Diet soda and orange juice - a 100 % juice with a 1:1 fructose:glucose ratio - were included for comparison. Increasing intake of any combination of HFCS-sweetened soda, fruit drinks and apple juice was significantly associated with progressively higher asthma risk, plateauing at 5-7 times/week v. never/seldom, independent of potential confounders (hazard ratio 1·91, P<0·001). About once a day consumers of HFCS-sweetened soda had a 49 % higher risk (P<0·011), moderate apple juice consumers (2-4 times/week) had a 61 % higher risk (P<0·007) and moderate fruit drink consumers had a 58 % higher risk (P<0·009), as compared with never/seldom consumers. There were no associations with diet soda/orange juice. These associations are possibly because of the high fructose:glucose ratios, and fructose malabsorption. Recommendations to reduce consumption may be inadequate to address asthma risk, as associations are evident even with moderate intake of these beverages, including apple juice - a 100 % juice. The juice reductions in the US Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in 2009, and the plateauing/decreasing asthma prevalence (2010-2013), particularly among non-Hispanic black children, may be related. Further research regarding the consequences of fructose malabsorption is needed.

KEYWORDS:

AGE advanced glycation end products; CDC US Centers for Disease Control; EFF excess free fructose; FHS-OS Framingham Heart Study Original-Cohort Study; HFCS high-fructose corn syrup; HR hazard ratio; NHANES (US) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; SSB sugar-sweetened beverages; T2D type 2 diabetes; enFruAGE extracellular newly identified fructose associated advanced glycation end products; Apple juice; Excess free fructose; Fructositis; Fruit drinks; Glycation; High-fructose corn syrup; Receptor of advanced glycation endproducts

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Incidence of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular outcomes and mortality after a 12-month lifestyle intervention: A 9-year follow-up.

Ponzo V, Gentile L, Gambino R, Rosato R, Cioffi I, Pellegrini N, Benso A, Broglio F, Cassader M, Bo S.

Diabetes Metab. 2018 May 8. pii: S1262-3636(18)30085-5. doi: 10.1016/j.diabet.2018.04.008. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

PMID: 29773350

https://sci-hub.tw/

 

Adiposity and risk of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke in 0·5 million Chinese men and women: a prospective cohort study.

Chen Z, Iona A, Parish S, Chen Y, Guo Y, Bragg F, Yang L, Bian Z, Holmes MV, Lewington S, Lacey B, Gao R, Liu F, Zhang Z, Chen J, Walters RG, Collins R, Clarke R, Peto R, Li L; China Kadoorie Biobank collaborative group.

Lancet Glob Health. 2018 Jun;6(6):e630-e640. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30216-X.

PMID: 29773119

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(18)30216-X/fulltext

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

China has high stroke rates despite the population being relatively lean. Uncertainty persists about the relevance of adiposity to risk of stroke types. We aimed to assess the associations of adiposity with incidence of stroke types and effect mediation by blood pressure in Chinese men and women.

METHODS:

The China Kadoorie Biobank enrolled 512 891 adults aged 30-79 years from ten areas (five urban and five rural) during 2004-08. During a median 9 years (IQR 8-10) of follow-up, 32 448 strokes (about 90% confirmed by neuroimaging) were recorded among 489 301 participants without previous cardiovascular disease. Cox regression analysis was used to produce adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for ischaemic stroke (n=25 210) and intracerebral haemorrhage (n=5380) associated with adiposity.

FINDINGS:

Mean baseline body-mass index (BMI) was 23·6 kg/m2 (SD 3·2), and 331 723 (67·8%) participants had a BMI of less than 25 kg/m2. Throughout the range examined (mean 17·1 kg/m2 [sD 0·9] to 31·7 kg/m2 [2·0]), each 5 kg/m2 higher BMI was associated with 8·3 mm Hg (SE 0·04) higher systolic blood pressure. BMI was positively associated with ischaemic stroke, with an HR of 1·30 (95% CI 1·28-1·33 per 5 kg/m2 higher BMI), which was generally consistent with that predicted by equivalent differences in systolic blood pressure (1·25 [1·24-1·26]). The HR for intracerebral haemorrhage (1·11 [1·07-1·16] per 5 kg/m2 higher BMI) was less extreme, and much weaker than that predicted by the corresponding difference in systolic blood pressure (1·48 [1·46-1·50]). Other adiposity measures showed similar associations with stroke types. After adjustment for usual systolic blood pressure, the positive associations with ischaemic stroke were attenuated (1·05 [1·03-1·07] per 5 kg/m2 higher BMI); for intracerebral haemorrhage, they were reversed (0·73 [0·70-0·77]). High adiposity (BMI >23 kg/m2) accounted for 14·7% of total stroke (16·5% of ischaemic stroke and 6·7% of intracerebral haemorrhage).

INTERPRETATION:

In Chinese adults, adiposity was strongly positively associated with ischaemic stroke, chiefly through its effect on blood pressure. For intracerebral haemorrhage, leanness, either per se or through some other factor (or factors), might increase risk, offsetting the protective effects of lower blood pressure.

 

Age-specific association between blood pressure and vascular and non-vascular chronic diseases in 0·5 million adults in China: a prospective cohort study.

Lacey B, Lewington S, Clarke R, Kong XL, Chen Y, Guo Y, Yang L, Bennett D, Bragg F, Bian Z, Wang S, Zhang H, Chen J, Walters RG, Collins R, Peto R, Li L, Chen Z; China Kadoorie Biobank collaborative group.

Lancet Glob Health. 2018 Jun;6(6):e641-e649. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30217-1.

PMID: 29773120

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(18)30217-1/fulltext

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The age-specific association between blood pressure and vascular disease has been studied mostly in high-income countries, and before the widespread use of brain imaging for diagnosis of the main stroke types (ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage). We aimed to investigate this relationship among adults in China.

METHODS:

512 891 adults (59% women) aged 30-79 years were recruited into a prospective study from ten areas of China between June 25, 2004, and July 15, 2008. Participants attended assessment centres where they were interviewed about demographic and lifestyle characteristics, and their blood pressure, height, and weight were measured. Incident disease was identified through linkage to local mortality records, chronic disease registries, and claims to the national health insurance system. We used Cox regression analysis to produce adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) relating systolic blood pressure to disease incidence. HRs were corrected for regression dilution to estimate associations with long-term average (usual) systolic blood pressure.

FINDINGS:

During a median follow-up of 9 years (IQR 8-10), there were 88 105 incident vascular and non-vascular chronic disease events (about 90% of strokes events were diagnosed using brain imaging). At ages 40-79 years (mean age at event 64 years [sD 9]), usual systolic blood pressure was continuously and positively associated with incident major vascular disease throughout the range 120-180 mm Hg: each 10 mm Hg higher usual systolic blood pressure was associated with an approximately 30% higher risk of ischaemic heart disease (HR 1·31 [95% CI 1·28-1·34]) and ischaemic stroke (1·30 [1·29-1·31]), but the association with intracerebral haemorrhage was about twice as steep (1·68 [1·65-1·71]). HRs for vascular disease were twice as steep at ages 40-49 years than at ages 70-79 years. Usual systolic blood pressure was also positively associated with incident chronic kidney disease (1·40 [1·35-1·44]) and diabetes (1·14 [1·12-1·15]). About half of all vascular deaths in China were attributable to elevated blood pressure (ie, systolic blood pressure >120 mm Hg), accounting for approximately 1 million deaths (<80 years of age) annually.

INTERPRETATION:

Among adults in China, systolic blood pressure was continuously related to major vascular disease with no evidence of a threshold down to 120 mm Hg. Unlike previous studies in high-income countries, blood pressure was more strongly associated with intracerebral haemorrhage than with ischaemic stroke. Even small reductions in mean blood pressure at a population level could be expected to have a major impact on vascular morbidity and mortality.

 

Effects of Virgin Olive Oils Differing in Their Bioactive Compound Contents on Metabolic Syndrome and Endothelial Functional Risk Biomarkers in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

Sanchez-Rodriguez E, Lima-Cabello E, Biel-Glesson S, Fernandez-Navarro JR, Calleja MA, Roca M, Espejo-Calvo JA, Gil-Extremera B, Soria-Florido M, de la Torre R, Fito M, Covas MI, Alche JD, Martinez de Victoria E, Gil A, Mesa MD.

Nutrients. 2018 May 16;10(5). pii: E626. doi: 10.3390/nu10050626.

PMID: 29772657

http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/5/626

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of virgin olive oils (VOOs) enriched with phenolic compounds and triterpenes on metabolic syndrome and endothelial function biomarkers in healthy adults. The trial was a three-week randomized, crossover, controlled, double-blind, intervention study involving 58 subjects supplemented with a daily dose (30 mL) of three oils: (1) a VOO (124 ppm of phenolic compounds and 86 ppm of triterpenes); (2) an optimized VOO (OVOO) (490 ppm of phenolic compounds and 86 ppm of triterpenes); and (3) a functional olive oil (FOO) high in phenolic compounds (487 ppm) and enriched with triterpenes (389 ppm). Metabolic syndrome and endothelial function biomarkers were determined in vivo and ex vivo. Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) increased after the OVOO intake. Plasma endothelin-1 levels decreased after the intake of the three olive oils, and in blood cell cultures challenged. Daily intake of VOO enriched in phenolic compounds improved plasma HDLc, although no differences were found at the end of the three interventions, while VOO with at least 124 ppm of phenolic compounds, regardless of the triterpenes content improved the systemic endothelin-1 levels in vivo and ex vivo. No effect of triterpenes was observed after three weeks of interventions. Results need to be confirmed in subjects with metabolic syndrome and impaired endothelial function (Clinical Trials number NCT02520739).

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular diseases; endothelial function; maslinic acid; metabolic syndrome; oleanolic acid; olive oil; olive oil polyphenols; phenolic compounds; triterpenes; virgin olive oil

 

Boron intake, osteocalcin polymorphism and serum level in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Boyacioglu O, Orenay-Boyacioglu S, Yildirim H, Korkmaz M.

J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2018 Jul;48:52-56. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.03.005. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

PMID: 29773193

Abstract

The relationship between daily boron intake and osteocalcin-mediated osteoporosis was studied in boron-exposed postmenopausal women. It is known that boron and osteocalcin are important in bone metabolism, however the effect of boron in bone metabolism has not been fully discovered. The study was performed on 53 postmenopausal women aged 55-60 living in parts of Balikesir, Turkey, where the subjects are naturally exposed to high (≥1 mg/L) or low (<1 mg/L) boron concentration in drinking water. 24-h urine samples were collected from all participants and creatinine clearance was detected. Boron intake levels of the subjects whose clearance levels were between 80-124 mL/min were measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in urine samples. Serum osteocalcin levels of the subjects were measured by osteocalcin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Osteocalcin polymorphism rs1800247 was detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Serum osteocalcin levels in boron-exposed postmenopausal women were significantly higher than that of control group (P ≤ 0.05) and the correlation between the serum osteocalcin level and rs1800247 polymorphism was not significant in both groups (P > 0.05). The differences in the distribution of osteocalcin genotypes and alleles in postmenopausal women were not significant between the boron exposed and the control groups (P > 0.05). Serum osteocalcin level in the CC genotype was significantly higher compared to the TC genotype in boron-exposed group (P ≤ 0.05). Our study suggests that daily boron intake of 1 mg/L may affect bone metabolism in postmenopausal women positively.

KEYWORDS:

Dietary boron; Osteocalcin; Osteoporosis; Polymorphism

 

Lifestyle choices and mental health: a longitudinal survey with German and Chinese students.

Velten J, Bieda A, Scholten S, Wannemüller A, Margraf J.

BMC Public Health. 2018 May 16;18(1):632. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5526-2.

PMID: 29769115

https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-018-5526-2

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A healthy lifestyle can be beneficial for one's mental health. Thus, identifying healthy lifestyle choices that promote psychological well-being and reduce mental problems is useful to prevent mental disorders. The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the predictive values of a broad range of lifestyle choices for positive mental health (PMH) and mental health problems (MHP) in German and Chinese students.

METHOD:

Data were assessed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Samples included 2991 German (Mage = 21.69, SD = 4.07) and 12,405 Chinese (Mage = 20.59, SD = 1.58) university students. Lifestyle choices were body mass index, frequency of physical and mental activities, frequency of alcohol consumption, smoking, vegetarian diet, and social rhythm irregularity. PMH and MHP were measured with the Positive Mental Health Scale and a 21-item version of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. The predictive values of lifestyle choices for PMH and MHP at baseline and follow-up were assessed with single-group and multi-group path analyses.

RESULTS:

Better mental health (higher PMH and fewer MHP) at baseline was predicted by a lower body mass index, a higher frequency of physical and mental activities, non-smoking, a non-vegetarian diet, and a more regular social rhythm. When controlling for baseline mental health, age, and gender, physical activity was a positive predictor of PMH, smoking was a positive predictor of MHP, and a more irregular social rhythm was a positive predictor of PMH and a negative predictor of MHP at follow-up. The good fit of a multi-group model indicated that most lifestyle choices predict mental health comparably across samples. Some country-specific effects emerged: frequency of alcohol consumption, for example, predicted better mental health in German and poorer mental health in Chinese students.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings underline the importance of healthy lifestyle choices for improved psychological well-being and fewer mental health difficulties. Effects of lifestyle on mental health are comparable in German and Chinese students. Some healthy lifestyle choices (i.e., more frequent physical activity, non-smoking, regular social rhythm) are related to improvements in mental health over a 1-year period.

KEYWORDS:

Alcohol; Anxiety; Body mass index; Depression; Lifestyle; Physical activity; Positive mental health; Smoking; Social rhythm; Stress

 

Moderate UV Exposure Enhances Learning and Memory by Promoting a Novel Glutamate Biosynthetic Pathway in the Brain

Hongying Zhu6, Ning Wang6, Lei Yao, Qi Chen, Ran Zhang, Junchao Qian, Yiwen Hou, Weiwei Guo, Sijia Fan, Siling Liu, Qiaoyun Zhao, Feng Du, Xin Zuo, Yujun Guo, Yan Xu, Jiali Li, Tian Xue, Kai Zhong, Xiaoyuan Song, Guangming Huang'Correspondence information about the author Guangming HuangEmail the author Guangming Huang, Wei Xiong7,'Correspondence information about the author Wei XiongEmail the author Wei Xiong

Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.04.014

Highlights

•Single-cell mass spectrometry reveals a novel glutamate biosynthetic pathway in brain

•UV exposure leads to elevated blood and brain levels of urocanic acid in mice

•Urocanic acid promotes glutamate biosynthesis and release in various brain regions

•Moderate UV exposure improves motor learning and object recognition memory in mice

Summary

Sunlight exposure is known to affect mood, learning, and cognition. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that moderate UV exposure elevated blood urocanic acid (UCA), which then crossed the blood-brain barrier. Single-cell mass spectrometry and isotopic labeling revealed a novel intra-neuronal metabolic pathway converting UCA to glutamate (GLU) after UV exposure. This UV-triggered GLU synthesis promoted its packaging into synaptic vesicles and its release at glutamatergic terminals in the motor cortex and hippocampus. Related behaviors, like rotarod learning and object recognition memory, were enhanced after UV exposure. All UV-induced metabolic, electrophysiological, and behavioral effects could be reproduced by the intravenous injection of UCA and diminished by the application of inhibitor or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against urocanase, an enzyme critical for the conversion of UCA to GLU. These findings reveal a new GLU biosynthetic pathway, which could contribute to some of the sunlight-induced neurobehavioral changes.

Keywords:

urocanic acid, glutamate, single cell, mass spectrometry, UV light, sunlight, learning, memory, hippocampus, motor cortex

 

HOME / HEALTH & FITNESS /

If You Can Make It to 2050 You May Be Able to Live Forever — Here’s How

Phillip Francis MORE ARTICLES

May 17, 2018

https://www.cheatsheet.com/health-fitness/if-you-can-make-it-to-2050-you-may-be-able-to-live-forever-heres-how.html/?a=viewall

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Prospective study of coffee consumption and cancer incidence in non-white populations.

Park SY, Freedman ND, Haiman CA, Le Marchand L, Wilkens LR, Setiawan VW.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018 May 18. pii: cebp.0093.2018. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-0093. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29777049

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Coffee intake has been associated with risk of cancers, but the findings, mostly from studies in white populations, are inconsistent. We examined the association of coffee consumption with overall cancer incidence and specific cancer sites in a prospective study of African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos and whites.

METHODS:

167,720 participants of the Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles were included. Baseline coffee intake was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sixteen cancers associated with coffee intake were calculated using Cox regressions.

RESULTS:

During a mean follow-up of 15.3 years, 34,031 incident cancer cases were identified among study participants. Coffee intake was associated inversely with liver (≥4 cups/day vs. none: HR=0.57; 95% CI, 0.38-0.87; Ptrend <0.001), ovarian (HR=0.33; 95% CI, 0.17-0.65; Ptrend = 0.007), and thyroid (HR=0.44; 95% CI, 0.23-0.87; Ptrend = 0.007) cancers and melanoma (HR=0.72; 95% CI, 0.52-0.99; Ptrend = 0.002). Coffee intake was also inversely associated with endometrial cancer among women with a body mass index >30 kg/m2 (HR=0.31; 95% CI, 0.14-0.72; Ptrend = 0.04). The associations were similar across five ethnic groups (Pheterogeneity >0.06) and were mainly observed among those who drank caffeinated coffee.

CONCLUSIONS:

Based on our prospective data in diverse populations, we found a decreased risk of liver, ovarian, thyroid and endometrial cancers and melanoma associated with higher coffee intake.

IMPACTS:

These results suggest that coffee drinking may protect against liver, ovarian, thyroid and endometrial cancers and melanoma.

 

Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio predicts body weight and fat loss success on 24-week diets varying in macronutrient composition and dietary fiber: results from a post-hoc analysis.

Hjorth MF, Blædel T, Bendtsen LQ, Lorenzen JK, Holm JB, Kiilerich P, Roager HM, Kristiansen K, Larsen LH, Astrup A.

Int J Obes (Lond). 2018 May 17. doi: 10.1038/s41366-018-0093-2. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29777234

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

Individuals with high pre-treatment bacterial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides (P/B) ratio have been reported to lose more body weight on diets high in fiber than subjects with a low P/B ratio. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine potential differences in dietary weight loss responses between participants with low and high P/B.

SUBJECTS/METHODS:

Eighty overweight participants were randomized (52 completed) to a 500 kcal/d energy deficit diet with a macronutrient composition of 30 energy percentage (E%) fat, 52 E% carbohydrate and 18 E% protein either high (≈1500 mg calcium/day) or low ( ≤ 600 mg calcium/day) in dairy products for 24 weeks. Body weight, body fat, and dietary intake (by 7-day dietary records) were determined. Individuals were dichotomized according to their pre-treatment P/B ratio derived from 16S rRNA gene sequencing of collected fecal samples to test the potential modification of dietary effects using linear mixed models.

RESULTS:

Independent of the randomized diets, individuals with high P/B lost 3.8 kg (95%CI, 1.8,5.8; P < 0.001) more body weight and 3.8 kg (95% CI, 1.1, 6.5; P = 0.005) more body fat compared to individuals with low P/B. After adjustment for multiple covariates, individuals with high P/B ratio lost 8.3 kg (95% CI, 5.8;10.9, P < 0.001) more body weight when consuming above compared to below 30 g fiber/10MJ whereas this weight loss was 3.2 kg (95% CI, 0.8;5.5, P = 0.008) among individuals with low P/B ratio [Mean difference: 5.1 kg (95% CI, 1.7;8.6, P = 0.003)]. Partial correlation coefficients between fiber intake and weight change was 0.90 (P < 0.001) among individuals with high P/B ratio and 0.25 (P = 0.29) among individuals with low P/B ratio.

CONCLUSIONS:

Individuals with high P/B lost more body weight and body fat compared to individuals with low P/B, confirming that individuals with a high P/B are more susceptible to weight loss on a diet rich in fiber.

 

Perspective: Protein Requirements and Optimal Intakes in Aging: Are We Ready to Recommend More Than the Recommended Daily Allowance?

Traylor DA, Gorissen SHM, Phillips SM.

Adv Nutr. 2018 May 1;9(3):171-182. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmy003.

MID: 29635313

https://sci-hub.hk/

Abstract

The Dietary Reference Intakes set the protein RDA for persons >19 y of age at 0.8 g protein ⋅ kg body weight-1 ⋅ d-1. A growing body of evidence suggests, however, that the protein RDA may be inadequate for older individuals. The evidence for recommending a protein intake greater than the RDA comes from a variety of metabolic approaches. Methodologies centered on skeletal muscle are of paramount importance given the age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) and the degree to which dietary protein could mitigate these declines. In addition to evidence from short-term experimental trials, observational data show that higher protein intakes are associated with greater muscle mass and, more importantly, better muscle function with aging. We are in dire need of more evidence from longer-term intervention trials showing the efficacy of protein intakes that are higher than the RDA in older persons to support skeletal muscle health. We propose that it should be recommended that older individuals consume ≥1.2 g protein · kg-1 · d-1 and that there should be an emphasis on the intake of the amino acid leucine, which plays a central role in stimulating skeletal muscle anabolism. Critically, the often-cited potential negative effects of consuming higher protein intakes on renal and bone health are without a scientific foundation in humans.

 

Milk and risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Cohort Study.

Bakken T, Braaten T, Olsen A, Hjartåker A, Lund E, Skeie G.

Br J Nutr. 2018 Jun;119(11):1274-1285. doi: 10.1017/S0007114518000752.

PMID: 29770759

Abstract

According to World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research, it is 'probable' that dairy products decrease the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, meta-analyses restricted to women have not shown associations between milk intake and risk of CRC. The aim of this study was to examine the association between milk intake and risk of CRC, colon cancer and rectal cancer among women. Data from 81 675 participants in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Cohort Study were included, and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to investigate milk intake using two different analytical approaches: one that included repeated measurements and one that included baseline measurements only (872 and 1084 CRC cases, respectively). A weak inverse association between milk intake and risk of colon cancer may be indicated both in repeated measurements analyses and in baseline data analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) for colon cancer of 0·80 (95 % CI 0·62, 1·03, P trend 0·07) and 0·81 (95 % CI 0·64, 1·01, P trend 0·03) and HR for rectal cancer of 0·97 (95 % CI 0·67, 1·42, P trend 0·92) and 0·71 (95 % CI 0·50, 1·01, P trend 0·03) were found when comparing the high with the no/seldom milk intake group in energy-adjusted multivariable models. Our study indicates that there may be a weak inverse association between milk intake and risk of colon cancer among women. The two analytical approaches yielded different results for rectal cancer and hence CRC. Our study indicates that the use of single or repeated measurements in analyses may influence the results.

KEYWORDS:

CRC colorectal cancer; HR hazard ratios; ICD-7 International Classification of Diseases; NOWAC Norwegian Women and Cancer; Seventh Revision; Colorectal cancer; Milk; Prospective cohorts; Repeated measurements; Women

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Short-Term, Intermittent Fasting Induces Long-Lasting Gut Health and TOR-Independent Lifespan Extension.

Catterson JH, Khericha M, Dyson MC, Vincent AJ, Callard R, Haveron SM, Rajasingam A, Ahmad M, Partridge L.

Curr Biol. 2018 May 8. pii: S0960-9822(18)30443-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.04.015. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29779873

https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(18)30443-3?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0960982218304433%3Fshowall%3Dtrue

Abstract

Intermittent fasting (IF) can improve function and health during aging in laboratory model organisms, but the mechanisms at work await elucidation. We subjected fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) to varying degrees of IF and found that just one month of a 2-day fed:5-day fasted IF regime at the beginning of adulthood was sufficient to extend lifespan. This long-lasting, beneficial effect of early IF was not due to reduced fecundity. Starvation resistance and resistance to oxidative and xenobiotic stress were increased after IF. Early-life IF also led to higher lipid content in 60-day-old flies, a potential explanation for increased longevity. Guts of flies 40 days post-IF showed a significant reduction in age-related pathologies and improved gut barrier function. Improved gut health was also associated with reduced relative bacterial abundance. Early IF thus induced profound long-term changes. Pharmacological and genetic epistasis analysis showed that IF acted independently of the TOR pathway because rapamycin and IF acted additively to extend lifespan, and global expression of a constitutively active S6K did not attenuate the IF-induced lifespan extension. We conclude that short-term IF during early life can induce long-lasting beneficial effects, with robust increase in lifespan in a TOR-independent manner, probably at least in part by preserving gut health.

KEYWORDS:

Drosophila melanogaster; TOR independent; dietary restriction; gut health; gut microbiota; intermittent fasting; lifespan extension; long lasting; memory effect; “2:5” diet

 

Finally, a regimen to extend human life expectancy.

Larrick J, Mendelsohn AR.

Rejuvenation Res. 2018 May 21. doi: 10.1089/rej.2018.2088. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29781380

Abstract

The US has the most expensive healthcare system worldwide. Yet measures of healthspan and life expectancy are well below the major industrialized nations. With the US population aged 65 and older projected to double by mid-century a healthcare crisis is looming. Within this context huge interest and investment has emerged in technologies and drugs to address aging with an expected benefit to healthspan. The thesis being that such basic interventions will reduce morbidity caused by many chronic diseases where biological age itself is the major risk factor. In the light of limited progress to date, a recent study out of the Harvard School of Public Health is quite refreshing: less than half dozen lifestyle interventions can greatly increase healthspan. Perhaps these are familiar: cessation of smoking, >/= 30 minutes of moderate daily exercise, high quality diet (limited processed food), modest alcohol intake and maintenance of an optimal body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2. From age 50, women engaging in all of these behaviors versus those that do zero can expect to have a life expectancy of 43.1 additional years (an extra 14 years) with men gaining 37.6 years (an extra 12.2 years). A regimen to extend life expectancy is at hand. However, there is room for optimization by including the effects of sleep, intermittent fasting and/or caloric restriction. Moreover, the extension of life expectancy by adherence to a healthy lifestyle revises the healthspan threshold for anti-aging treatments under development and should provide a better set of controls for clinical trials investigating novel treatments of aging.

 

Beneficial and Paradoxical Roles of Selenium at Nutritional Levels of Intake in Healthspan and Longevity.

Zhang L, Zeng H, Cheng WH.

Free Radic Biol Med. 2018 May 18. pii: S0891-5849(18)30891-8. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.05.067. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 29782991

Abstract

Accumulation of genome and macromolecule damage is a hallmark of aging, age-associated degeneration, and genome instability syndromes. Although processes of aging are irreversible, they can be modulated by genome maintenance pathways and environmental factors such as diet. Selenium (Se) confers its physiological functions mainly through selenoproteins, but Se compounds and other proteins that incorporate Se nonspecifically also impact optimal health. Bruce Ames proposed that the aging process could be mitigated by a subset of low-hierarchy selenoproteins whose levels are preferentially reduced in response to Se deficiency. Consistent with this notion, results from two selenotranscriptomic studies collectively implicate three low-hierarchy selenoproteins in age or senescence. Experimental evidence generally supports beneficial roles of selenoproteins in the protection against damage accumulation and redox imbalance, but some selenoproteins have also been reported to unexpectedly display harmful functions under sporadic conditions. While longevity and healthspan are usually thought to be projected in parallel, emerging evidence suggests a trade-off between longevity promotion and healthspan deterioration with damage accumulation. We propose that longevity promotion under conditions of Se deficiency may be attributed to 1) stress-response hormesis, an advantageous event of resistance to toxic chemicals at low doses; 2) reduced expression of selenoproteins with paradoxical functions to a lesser extent. In particular, selenoprotein H is an evolutionally conserved nuclear selenoprotein postulated to confer Se functions in redox regulation, genome maintenance, and senescence. This review highlights the need to pinpoint roles of specific selenoproteins and Se compounds in healthspan and lifespan for a better understanding of Se contribution at nutritional levels of intake to healthy aging.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Genome Maintenance; Hormesis; Selenium; Selenoproteins

 

Dose-dependent effects of fish oil on cardio-metabolic biomarkers in healthy middle-aged and elderly Chinese people: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

Song J, Hu M, Li C, Yang B, Ding Q, Wang C, Mao L.

Food Funct. 2018 May 21. doi: 10.1039/c7fo01566f. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29781483

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2018/fo/c7fo01566f

Abstract

n-3PUFA consumption has been widely accepted as a nutritional strategy for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little is known about the dose-response relationship between dietary n-3PUFA and serum biomarkers associated with cardiovascular health in the general population. The present study involved a 12-week double-blind, randomized controlled trial to explore the effects of fish oil with different doses (0.31, 0.62 and 1.24 g d-1 of EPA and DHA) on serum fatty acids and cardio-metabolic biomarkers including adiponectin, inflammatory markers, lipid profiles and fasting glucose in healthy middle-aged and elderly Chinese people. 240 volunteers met our inclusion criteria. A total of 39 subjects dropped out and 201 finally completed the intervention. No significant differences in baseline characteristics and daily intakes of dietary nutrients were detected among all groups. After a 12-week intervention, fish oil dose-dependently enhanced serum EPA, DHA, n-3PUFA and adiponectin (except for 0.31 g d-1), but decreased serum n-6/n-3PUFA, TG and fasting glucose. Changes in the above indicators from the baseline to week 12 in fish oil groups significantly differed from those in the control. Meanwhile, all the doses of EPA and DHA led to decreases in serum CRP; only 1.24 g d-1 led to an increase in HDL-C with a concurrent decrease in TC/HDL-C even though these changes were not significantly different among all groups. All the findings suggested that fish oil dose-dependently regulated serum PUFA and cardio-metabolic biomarkers including adiponectin, CRP, lipid profiles and fasting glucose in healthy middle-aged and elderly Chinese people who consumed insufficient dietary n-3PUFA, and the most desirable changes were observed for 1.24 g d-1.

 

Associations of Whole and Refined Grain Intakes with Adiposity-Related Cancer Risk in the Framingham Offspring Cohort (1991-2013).

Makarem N, Bandera EV, Lin Y, McKeown NM, Hayes RB, Parekh N.

Nutr Cancer. 2018 May 21:1-11. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2018.1470647. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29781707

Abstract

Case-control studies suggest that higher whole grain and lower refined grain intakes are associated with reduced cancer risk, but longitudinal evidence is limited. The objective of this prospective cohort study is to evaluate associations between whole and refined grains and their food sources in relation to adiposity-related cancer risk. Participants were adults from the Framingham Offspring cohort (N = 3,184; ≥18 yr). Diet, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, medical and lifestyle data were collected at exam 5 (1991-95). Between 1991 and 2013, 565 adiposity-related cancers were ascertained using pathology reports. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of whole and refined grains with risk of adiposity-related cancers combined and with risk of breast and prostate cancers in exploratory site-specific analyses. Null associations between whole and refined grains and combined incidence of adiposity-related cancers were observed in multivariable-adjusted models (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.71-1.23 and HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.70-1.38, respectively). In exploratory analyses, higher intakes of whole grains (oz eq/day) and whole grain food sources (servings/day) were associated with 39% and 47% lower breast cancer risk (HR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.38-0.98 and HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.33-0.86, respectively). In conclusion, whole and refined grains were not associated with adiposity-related cancer risk. Whole grains may protect against breast cancer, but findings require confirmation within a larger sample and in other ethnic groups.

 

Clinical, socioeconomic, and behavioural factors at age 50 years and risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity and mortality: A cohort study.

Singh-Manoux A, Fayosse A, Sabia S, Tabak A, Shipley M, Dugravot A, Kivimäki M.

PLoS Med. 2018 May 21;15(5):e1002571. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002571. eCollection 2018 May.

PMID: 29782486

http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1002571&type=printable

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Multimorbidity is increasingly common and is associated with adverse health outcomes, highlighting the need to broaden the single-disease framework that dominates medical research. We examined the role of midlife clinical characteristics, socioeconomic position, and behavioural factors in the development of cardiometabolic multimorbidity (at least 2 of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke), along with how these factors modify risk of mortality.

METHODS AND FINDINGS:

Data on 8,270 men and women were drawn from the Whitehall II cohort study, with mean follow-up of 23.7 years (1985 to 2017). Three sets of risk factors were assessed at age 50 years, each on a 5-point scale: clinical profile (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, overweight/obesity, family history of cardiometabolic disease), occupational position, and behavioural factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity). The outcomes examined were cardiometabolic disease (diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke), cardiometabolic multimorbidity, and mortality. We used multi-state models to examine the role of risk factors in 5 components of the cardiometabolic disease trajectory: from healthy state to first cardiometabolic disease, from first cardiometabolic disease to cardiometabolic multimorbidity, from healthy state to death, from first cardiometabolic disease to death, and from cardiometabolic multimorbidity to death. A total of 2,501 participants developed 1 of the 3 cardiometabolic diseases, 511 developed cardiometabolic multimorbidity, and 1,406 died. When behavioural and clinical risk factors were considered individually, only smoking was associated with all five transitions. In a model containing all 3 risk factor scales, midlife clinical profile was the strongest predictor of first cardiometabolic disease (hazard ratio for the least versus most favourable profile: 3.74; 95% CI: 3.14-4.45) among disease-free participants. Among participants with 1 cardiometabolic disease, adverse midlife socioeconomic (1.54; 95% CI: 1.10-2.15) and behavioural factors (2.00; 95% CI: 1.40-2.85), but not clinical characteristics, were associated with progression to cardiometabolic multimorbidity. Only midlife behavioural factors predicted mortality among participants with cardiometabolic disease (2.12; 95% CI: 1.41-3.18) or cardiometabolic multimorbidity (3.47; 95% CI: 1.81-6.66). A limitation is that the study was not large enough to estimate transitions between each disease and subsequent outcomes and between all possible pairs of diseases.

CONCLUSIONS:

The importance of specific midlife factors in disease progression, from disease-free state to single disease, multimorbidity, and death, varies depending on the disease stage. While clinical risk factors at age 50 determine the risk of incident cardiometabolic disease in a disease-free population, midlife socioeconomic and behavioural factors are stronger predictors of progression to multimorbidity and mortality in people with cardiometabolic disease.

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J-shaped relationship between habitual coffee consumption and 10-year (2002-2012) cardiovascular disease incidence: the ATTICA study.

Kouli GM, Panagiotakos DB, Georgousopoulou EN, Mellor DD, Chrysohoou C, Zana A, Tsigos C, Tousoulis D, Stefanadis C, Pitsavos C.

Eur J Nutr. 2018 Jun;57(4):1677-1685. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1455-6. Epub 2017 Apr 19.

PMID: 28424867

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in the ATTICA study, and whether this is modified by the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) at baseline.

METHODS:

During 2001-2002, 3042 healthy adults (1514 men and 1528 women) living in the greater area of Athens were voluntarily recruited to the ATTICA study. In 2011-2012, the 10-year follow-up was performed in 2583 participants (15% of the participants were lost to follow-up). Coffee consumption was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline (abstention, low, moderate, heavy). Incidence of fatal or non-fatal CVD event was recorded using WHO-ICD-10 criteria and MetS was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment panel III (revised) criteria.

RESULTS:

Overall, after controlling for potential CVD risk factors, the multivariate analysis revealed a J-shaped association between daily coffee drinking and the risk for a first CVD event in a 10-year period. Particularly, the odds ratio for low (<150 ml/day), moderate (150-250 ml/day) and heavy coffee consumption (>250 ml/day), compared to abstention, were 0.44 (95% CI 0.29-0.68), 0.49 (95% CI 0.27-0.92) and 2.48 (95% CI 1.56-1.93), respectively. This inverse association was also verified among participants without MetS at baseline, but not among participants with the MetS.

CONCLUSIONS:

These data support the protective effect of drinking moderate quantities of coffee (equivalent to approximately 1-2 cups daily) against CVD incidents. This protective effect was only significant for participants without MetS at baseline.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular diseases; Coffee; Inflammation; Metabolic syndrome

 

Fish consumption, intake of fats and cognitive decline at middle and older age: the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

Nooyens ACJ, van Gelder BM, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, van Boxtel MPJ, Verschuren WMM.

Eur J Nutr. 2018 Jun;57(4):1667-1675. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1453-8. Epub 2017 May 9.

PMID: 28488130

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To get insight in the impact of fish and fat intake in the prevention of accelerated cognitive decline with ageing, we tested associations between fish and different fat intakes and 5-year change in cognitive functions.

METHODS:

In 2612 men and women of the Doetinchem Cohort Study, aged 43-70 years at baseline, dietary intake (including fish consumption) and cognitive function were assessed at baseline and at 5-year follow-up. Average fish consumption (frequency) and intakes (as energy percentages) of total fat, saturated, mono unsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic, docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic, and a-linolenic acid (ALA), and cholesterol were averaged over baseline and follow-up. Intakes were studied in relation to 5-year change in global cognitive function, memory, information processing speed, and cognitive flexibility, using ANCOVA and multivariate linear regression analyses.

RESULTS:

No consistent association between (fatty) fish consumption and cognitive decline was observed. Higher cholesterol intake was associated with faster cognitive decline (p < 0.05). Higher n-3 PUFA (especially ALA) intake was associated with slower decline in global cognitive function and memory (p < 0.01). Intakes of other fatty acids were not associated with cognitive decline.

CONCLUSIONS:

Higher cholesterol intake was detrimental, while higher ALA intake was beneficial for maintaining cognitive function with ageing, already at middle age.

KEYWORDS:

Cholesterol; Cognitive decline; Fatty acids; Fish consumption; Middle age; n-3 PUFA

 

Alcohol and red wine consumption, but not fruit, vegetables, fish or dairy products, are associated with less endothelial dysfunction and less low-grade inflammation: the Hoorn Study.

van Bussel BCT, Henry RMA, Schalkwijk CG, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Feskens EJM, Stehouwer CDA.

Eur J Nutr. 2018 Jun;57(4):1409-1419. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1420-4. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

PMID: 28349255

https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00394-017-1420-4.pdf

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are key phenomena in the pathobiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Their dietary modification might explain the observed reduction in CVD that has been associated with a healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables and fish, low in dairy products and with moderate alcohol and red wine consumption. We investigated the associations between the above food groups and endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation in a population-based cohort of Dutch elderly individuals.

METHODS:

Diet was measured by food frequency questionnaire (n = 801; women = 399; age 68.5 ± 7.2 years). Endothelial dysfunction was determined (1) by combining von Willebrand factor, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, endothelial selectin and thrombomodulin, using Z-scores, into a biomarker score and (2) by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), and low-grade inflammation by combining C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, tumour necrosis factor α and sICAM-1 into a biomarker score, with smaller FMD and higher scores representing more dysfunction and inflammation, respectively. We used linear regression analyses to adjust associations for sex, age, energy, glucose metabolism, body mass index, smoking, prior CVD, educational level, physical activity and each of the other food groups.

RESULTS:

Moderate [β (95% CI) -0.13 (-0.33; 0.07)] and high [-0.22 (-0.45; -0.003)] alcohol consumption, and red wine [-0.16 (-0.30; -0.01)] consumption, but none of the other food groups, were associated with a lower endothelial dysfunction biomarker score and a greater FMD. The associations for FMD were, however, not statistically significant. Only red wine consumption was associated with a lower low-grade inflammation biomarker score [-0.18 (-0.33; -0.04)].

CONCLUSIONS:

Alcohol and red wine consumption may favourably influence processes involved in atherothrombosis.

KEYWORDS:

Diet; Elderly; Endothelial dysfunction; Inflammation; Red wine

 

Coffee, tea, caffeine, and risk of hypertension: The Singapore Chinese Health Study.

Chei CL, Loh JK, Soh A, Yuan JM, Koh WP.

Eur J Nutr. 2018 Jun;57(4):1333-1342. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1412-4. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

PMID: 28251341

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The relationship between coffee and tea, and risk of hypertension remains controversial in Western populations. We investigated these associations in an Asian population.

METHODS:

The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based prospective cohort that recruited 63,257 Chinese aged 45-74 years and residing in Singapore from 1993 to 1998. Information on consumption of coffee, tea, and other lifestyle factors was collected at baseline, and self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension was assessed during two follow-up interviews (1999-2004, 2006-2010).

RESULTS:

We identified 13,658 cases of incident hypertension after average 9.5 years. Compared to those who drank one cup of coffee/day, the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 0.87 (0.83-0.91) for <weekly drinkers and 0.93 (0.86-1.00) for ≥3 cups/day drinkers. Compared to <weekly drinkers, daily drinkers of black or green tea had slight increase in risk, but these risk estimates were attenuated and became non-significant after adjustment for caffeine. After adjusting for coffee, there was a stepwise dose-response relationship between caffeine intake and hypertension risk; compared to the lowest intake (<50 mg/day), those in the highest intake (≥300 mg/day) had a 16% increase in risk; HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.31 (p trend = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

Drinking coffee <1 cup/week or ≥3 cups/day had lower risk than drinking one cup/day. Caffeine may account for increased risk in daily tea drinkers and in those who drank one cup of coffee/day. The inverse U-shaped association with coffee suggests that at higher doses, other ingredients in coffee may offset the effect of caffeine and confer benefit on blood pressure.

KEYWORDS:

Caffeine; Coffee; Hypertension; Prospective study; Tea

 

 

The role of the microbiome for human health: from basic science to clinical applications.

Mohajeri MH, Brummer RJM, Rastall RA, Weersma RK, Harmsen HJM, Faas M, Eggersdorfer M.

Eur J Nutr. 2018 May 10. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1703-4. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29748817

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00394-018-1703-4

https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00394-018-1703-4.pdf

Abstract

The 2017 annual symposium organized by the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands focused on the role of the gut microbiome in human health and disease. Experts from academia and industry examined interactions of prebiotics, probiotics, or vitamins with the gut microbiome in health and disease, the development of the microbiome in early-life and the role of the microbiome on the gut-brain axis. The gut microbiota changes dramatically during pregnancy and intrinsic factors (such as stress), in addition to extrinsic factors (such as diet, and drugs) influence the composition and activity of the gut microbiome throughout life. Microbial metabolites, e.g. short-chain fatty acids affect gut-brain signaling and the immune response. The gut microbiota has a regulatory role on anxiety, mood, cognition and pain which is exerted via the gut-brain axis. Ingestion of prebiotics or probiotics has been used to treat a range of conditions including constipation, allergic reactions and infections in infancy, and IBS. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) highly effective for treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infections. The gut microbiome affects virtually all aspects of human health, but the degree of scientific evidence, the models and technologies and the understanding of mechanisms of action vary considerably from one benefit area to the other. For a clinical practice to be broadly accepted, the mode of action, the therapeutic window, and potential side effects need to thoroughly be investigated. This calls for further coordinated state-of-the art research to better understand and document the human gut microbiome's effects on human health.

KEYWORDS:

Colonic fermentation; Gut; Gut-brain axis; Inflammatory bowel disease; Irritable bowel syndrome; Microbiota; Obesity; Prebiotics; Probiotics; Vitamins

 

Associations of egg consumption with cardiovascular disease in a cohort study of 0.5 million Chinese adults.

Qin C, Lv J, Guo Y, Bian Z, Si J, Yang L, Chen Y, Zhou Y, Zhang H, Liu J, Chen J, Chen Z, Yu C, Li L; China Kadoorie Biobank Collaborative Group.

Heart. 2018 May 21. pii: heartjnl-2017-312651. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2017-312651. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29785957

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the associations between egg consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD), ischaemic heart disease (IHD), major coronary events (MCE), haemorrhagic stroke as well as ischaemic stroke.

METHODS:

During 2004-2008, over 0.5 million adults aged 30-79 years were recruited from 10 diverse survey sites in China. Participants were asked about the frequency of egg consumption and were followed up via linkages to multiple registries and active investigation. Among 461 213 participants free of prior cancer, CVD and diabetes, a total of 83 977 CVD incident cases and 9985 CVD deaths were documented, as well as 5103 MCE. Stratified Cox regression was performed to yield adjusted hazard ratios for CVD endpoints associated with egg consumption.

RESULTS:

At baseline, 13.1% of participants reported daily consumption (usual amount 0.76 egg/day) and 9.1% reported never or very rare consumption (usual amount 0.29 egg/day). Compared with non-consumers, daily egg consumption was associated with lower risk of CVD (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.92). Corresponding multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for IHD, MCE, haemorrhagic stroke and ischaemic stroke were 0.88 (0.84 to 0.93), 0.86 (0.76 to 0.97), 0.74 (0.67 to 0.82) and 0.90 (0.85 to 0.95), respectively. There were significant dose-response relationships of egg consumption with morbidity of all CVD endpoints (P for linear trend <0.05). Daily consumers also had an 18% lower risk of CVD death and a 28% lower risk of haemorrhagic stroke death compared to non-consumers.

CONCLUSION:

Among Chinese adults, a moderate level of egg consumption (up to <1 egg/day) was significantly associated with lower risk of CVD, largely independent of other risk factors.

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular disease; egg consumption; hemorrhagic stroke; ischemic heart disease; ischemic stroke; major coronary events; prospective study

 

Dietary sugar intake was associated with increased body fatness but decreased cardiovascular mortality in Chinese elderly: an 11-year prospective study of Mr and Ms OS of Hong Kong.

Liu ZM, Tse LA, Chan D, Wong C, Wong SYS.

Int J Obes (Lond). 2018 Apr;42(4):808-816. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2017.292. Epub 2017 Nov 30.

PMID: 29188817

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

Epidemiological studies suggest that sugar intake contributes to weight gain and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, this association is largely undefined in the elderly population. Our aim was to investigate the effect of sugar consumption on the subsequent changes in body fatness and CVD mortality in Chinese elderly.

METHODS:

A total of 2000 men and 2000 women aged ⩾65 years were recruited from 2001 to 2003. Dietary sugar intake was estimated based on a validated 329-item food frequency questionnaire and a local sugar database. Adiposity was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up after 4 years. Mortality was ascertained by local death registry until March 2014. Multivariable linear and Cox regression were conducted to evaluate the association of sugar consumption on the changes in body fatness and CVD mortality.

RESULTS:

A total of 174 CVD deaths were documented within the total 37 999 person-years' follow-up. Significant positive association between sugar intake and increase in body fatness at follow-up after 4 years was found in men but not in women. After adjustment for potential confounders, men who consumed 1% increase in added sugar had an increase in whole body fat by 0.043 kg (P=0.006), central fat by 0.029 kg (P=0.016) and peripheral fat by 0.026 kg (P=0.006). However, in both genders, after an average of 11.1-year follow-up, compared with the lowest quintile, the highest intakes of added sugar were associated with significantly lowered CVD mortality by 74.9% (hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.251(0.070, 0.899)) in a dose-response manner (Ptrend=0.011). This association was attenuated to non-significance by further adjustment of the change in body fatness (Ptrend=0.055).

CONCLUSIONS:

Thus higher sugar intake of the Chinese elderly was associated with increased adiposity in men but decreased CVD mortality. The current World Health Organization recommendation for the elderly should be reviewed.

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