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Impact of the industrial freezing process on selected vegetables - Part I. Structure, texture and antioxidant capacity.

Paciulli M, Ganino T, Pellegrini N, Rinaldi M, Zaupa M, Fabbri A, Chiavaro E.

Food Res Int. 2015 Aug;74:329-337. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2014.04.019. Epub 2014 Apr 24.

PMID: 28411999

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.04.019

Abstract

In this work, the impact of the industrial freezing process on structure, texture and total antioxidant capacity was studied using green asparagus stems, zucchini and green beans. Samples were analysed as raw/uncooked, blanched, raw/boiled and industrially frozen/boiled. A consistent damage of the vegetable tissue was revealed by the histological analysis on vegetables boiled after freezing. The cells appeared to be dehydrated, contracted and separated at different levels depending on the anatomical structure of each vegetable. The initial textural quality was partially retained in all blanched vegetables, and enhanced in cut tested asparagus stems, in relation to the action of phenolic acids at cell wall level. Raw/boiled and industrially frozen/boiled asparagus stems exhibited comparable forces of penetration and cut tests. On the other hand, zucchini, both raw and frozen, completely softened after boiling making the texture measurement impossible. Industrially frozen/boiled green beans showed higher values of cut and penetration forces, probably due to a higher presence of swollen cell walls, in comparison to those raw/boiled. Blanching and boiling significantly increased the ferric reducing antioxidant power values of asparagus stems and green beans compared to uncooked/raw samples, while boiling after the freezing process significantly deprived both vegetables of the initial antioxidant capacity. On the other hand, boiling the frozen zucchini proved to be detrimental to the antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, manufacturers and researchers should join together to develop specific industrial freezing process conditions according to the matrix of each vegetable.

KEYWORDS:

Cooking; Histological structure; Industrial freezing; Texture; Total antioxidant capacity; Vegetables

 

MC4R-dependent suppression of appetite by bone-derived lipocalin 2.

Mosialou I, Shikhel S, Liu JM, Maurizi A, Luo N, He Z, Huang Y, Zong H, Friedman RA, Barasch J, Lanzano P, Deng L, Leibel RL, Rubin M, Nicholas T, Chung W, Zeltser LM, Williams KW, Pessin JE, Kousteni S.

Nature. 2017 Mar 16;543(7645):385-390. doi: 10.1038/nature21697. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

PMID: 28273060

Abstract

Bone has recently emerged as a pleiotropic endocrine organ that secretes at least two hormones, FGF23 and osteocalcin, which regulate kidney function and glucose homeostasis, respectively. These findings have raised the question of whether other bone-derived hormones exist and what their potential functions are. Here we identify, through molecular and genetic analyses in mice, lipocalin 2 (LCN2) as an osteoblast-enriched, secreted protein. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments in mice demonstrate that osteoblast-derived LCN2 maintains glucose homeostasis by inducing insulin secretion and improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. In addition, osteoblast-derived LCN2 inhibits food intake. LCN2 crosses the blood-brain barrier, binds to the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) in the paraventricular and ventromedial neurons of the hypothalamus and activates an MC4R-dependent anorexigenic (appetite-suppressing) pathway. These results identify LCN2 as a bone-derived hormone with metabolic regulatory effects, which suppresses appetite in a MC4R-dependent manner, and show that the control of appetite is an endocrine function of bone.

 

SZT2 dictates GATOR control of mTORC1 signalling.

Peng M, Yin N, Li MO.

Nature. 2017 Mar 16;543(7645):433-437. doi: 10.1038/nature21378. Epub 2017 Feb 15.

PMID: 28199315

Abstract

Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) integrates nutrient signals to control cell growth and organismal homeostasis across eukaryotes. The evolutionarily conserved GATOR complex regulates mTORC1 signalling through Rag GTPases, and GATOR1 displays GTPase activating protein (GAP) activity for RAGA and RAGB (RAGA/B) and GATOR2 has been proposed to be an inhibitor of GATOR1. Furthermore, the metazoan-specific SESN proteins function as guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) for RAGA/B, and interact with GATOR2 with unknown effects. Here we show that SZT2 (seizure threshold 2), a metazoan-specific protein mutated in epilepsy, recruits a fraction of mammalian GATOR1 and GATOR2 to form a SZT2-orchestrated GATOR (SOG) complex with an essential role in GATOR- and SESN-dependent nutrient sensing and mTORC1 regulation. The interaction of SZT2 with GATOR1 and GATOR2 was synergistic, and an intact SOG complex was required for its localization at the lysosome. SZT2 deficiency resulted in constitutive mTORC1 signalling in cells under nutrient-deprived conditions and neonatal lethality in mice, which was associated with failure to inactivate mTORC1 during fasting. Hyperactivation of mTORC1 in SZT2-deficient cells could be partially corrected by overexpression of the GATOR1 component DEPDC5, and by the lysosome-targeted GATOR2 component WDR59 or lysosome-targeted SESN2. These findings demonstrate that SZT2 has a central role in dictating GATOR-dependent nutrient sensing by promoting lysosomal localization of SOG, and reveal an unexpected function of lysosome-located GATOR2 in suppressing mTORC1 signalling through SESN recruitment.

 

KICSTOR recruits GATOR1 to the lysosome and is necessary for nutrients to regulate mTORC1.

Wolfson RL, Chantranupong L, Wyant GA, Gu X, Orozco JM, Shen K, Condon KJ, Petri S, Kedir J, Scaria SM, Abu-Remaileh M, Frankel WN, Sabatini DM.

Nature. 2017 Mar 16;543(7645):438-442. doi: 10.1038/nature21423. Epub 2017 Feb 15.

PMID: 28199306

Abstract

The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central regulator of cell growth that responds to diverse environmental signals and is deregulated in many human diseases, including cancer and epilepsy. Amino acids are a key input to this system, and act through the Rag GTPases to promote the translocation of mTORC1 to the lysosomal surface, its site of activation. Multiple protein complexes regulate the Rag GTPases in response to amino acids, including GATOR1, a GTPase activating protein for RAGA, and GATOR2, a positive regulator of unknown molecular function. Here we identify a protein complex (KICSTOR) that is composed of four proteins, KPTN, ITFG2, C12orf66 and SZT2, and that is required for amino acid or glucose deprivation to inhibit mTORC1 in cultured human cells. In mice that lack SZT2, mTORC1 signalling is increased in several tissues, including in neurons in the brain. KICSTOR localizes to lysosomes; binds and recruits GATOR1, but not GATOR2, to the lysosomal surface; and is necessary for the interaction of GATOR1 with its substrates, the Rag GTPases, and with GATOR2. Notably, several KICSTOR components are mutated in neurological diseases associated with mutations that lead to hyperactive mTORC1 signalling. Thus, KICSTOR is a lysosome-associated negative regulator of mTORC1 signalling, which, like GATOR1, is mutated in human disease.

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Extreme high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is paradoxically associated with high mortality in men and women: two prospective cohort studies.

Madsen CM, Varbo A, Nordestgaard BG.

Eur Heart J. 2017 Apr 12. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehx163. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28419274

Abstract

AIMS:

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations are inversely associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality across a range of concentrations, but genetic evidence suggest that extreme high concentrations may paradoxically lead to more cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that extreme high concentrations of HDL cholesterol are associated with high all-cause mortality in men and women.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

A total of 52 268 men and 64 240 women were included from the two prospective population-based studies, the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study. During 745 452 person-years of follow-up, number of deaths from any cause were 5619 (mortality rate, 17.1/1000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 16.7-17.6)) in men and 5059 (mortality rate, 12.1/1000 person-years (11.8-12.4)) in women. The association between HDL cholesterol concentrations and all-cause mortality was U-shaped for both men and women, with both extreme high and low concentrations being associated with high all-cause mortality risk. The concentration of HDL cholesterol associated with the lowest all-cause mortality was 1.9 mmol/L (95% CI: 1.4-2.0) (73 mg/dL (54-77)) in men and 2.4 mmol/L (1.8-2.5) (93 mg/dL (69-97)) in women. When compared with the groups with the lowest risk, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 1.36 (95% CI: 1.09-1.70) for men with HDL cholesterol of 2.5-2.99 mmol/L (97-115 mg/dL) and 2.06 (1.44-2.95) for men with HDL cholesterol ≥3.0 mmol/L (116 mg/dL). For women, corresponding hazard ratios were 1.10 (0.83-1.46) for HDL cholesterol of 3.0-3.49 mmol/L (116-134 mg/dL) and 1.68 (1.09-2.58) for HDL cholesterol ≥3.5 mmol/L (135 mg/dL).

CONCLUSION:

Men and women in the general population with extreme high HDL cholesterol paradoxically have high all-cause mortality. These findings need confirmation in other studies.

KEYWORDS:

Epidemiology; General population; HDL; Lipids; Lipoproteins; Mortality

 

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of Parkinson Disease: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study.

Chan YE, Bai YM, Hsu JW, Huang KL, Su TP, Li CT, Lin WC, Pan TL, Chen TJ, Tsai SJ, Chen MH.

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017 Mar 23. pii: S1064-7481(17)30272-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jagp.2017.03.012. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28416268

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.jagp.2017.03.012

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Increasing evidence has suggested a relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and neurodegenerative disorder, such as Alzheimer disease. The association between PTSD and Parkinson disease (PD), however, remains unclear.

METHOD:

Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 7,280 subjects (1,456 patients aged ≥45 years with PTSD and 5,824 age-/sex-matched individuals without PTSD) were enrolled between 2002 and 2009 and followed to the end of 2011. Subjects who developed PD during the follow-up period were identified.

RESULTS:

An increased risk of developing PD was found in patients with PTSD (Wald χ2 = 12.061, hazard ratio {HR}: 3.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.72-6.96) compared with individuals without PTSD, after adjusting for demographic data and medical and psychiatric comorbidities. The sensitivity tests after excluding the first year observation (Wald χ2 = 7.948, HR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.40-6.46) and the first 3-year observation (Wald χ2 = 5.099, HR: 3.07, 95% CI: 1.16-8.15) were consistent.

CONCLUSIONS:

Patients with PTSD had an elevated risk of developing PD in later life. Further studies would be required to clarify the exact pathophysiology between PTSD and PD and to investigate whether the prompt intervention for PTSD may reduce this risk.

KEYWORDS:

PTSD; Parkinson disease; psychological trauma; temporal association

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Posttraumatic stress disorder and risk of dementia among US veterans.

Yaffe K, Vittinghoff E, Lindquist K, Barnes D, Covinsky KE, Neylan T, Kluse M, Marmar C.

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 Jun;67(6):608-13. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.61.

PMID: 20530010 Free PMC Article

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent among US veterans because of combat and may impair cognition.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether PTSD is associated with the risk of developing dementia among older US veterans receiving treatment in the Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers.

DESIGN:

A stratified, retrospective cohort study conducted using the Department of Veterans Affairs National Patient Care Database.

SETTING:

Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers in the United States.

PARTICIPANTS:

A total of 181 093 veterans 55 years or older without dementia from fiscal years 1997 through 2000 (53 155 veterans with and 127 938 veterans without PTSD).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

During the follow-up period between October 1, 2000, and December 31, 2007, 31 107 (17.2%) veterans were ascertained to have newly diagnosed dementia according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes.

RESULTS:

The mean baseline age of the veterans was 68.8 years, and 174 806 (96.5%) were men. Veterans with PTSD had a 7-year cumulative incident dementia rate of 10.6%, whereas those without had a rate of 6.6% (P < .001). With age as the time scale, Cox proportional hazards models indicated that patients with PTSD were more than twice as likely to develop incident dementia compared with those without PTSD (hazard ratio, 2.31; 95% confidence interval, 2.24-2.39). After multivariable adjustment, patients with PTSD were still more likely to develop dementia (hazard ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.70-1.85). Results were similar when we excluded those with a history of head injury, substance abuse, or clinical depression.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a predominantly male veteran cohort, those diagnosed as having PTSD were at a nearly 2-fold-higher risk of developing dementia compared with those without PTSD. Mechanisms linking these important disorders need to be identified with the hope of finding ways to reduce the increased risk of dementia associated with PTSD.

 

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and traffic noise and incident hypertension in seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE).

Fuks KB, Weinmayr G, Basagaña X, Gruzieva O, Hampel R, Oftedal B, Sørensen M, Wolf K, Aamodt G, Aasvang GM, Aguilera I, Becker T, Beelen R, Brunekreef B, Caracciolo B, Cyrys J, Elosua R, Eriksen KT, Foraster M, Fratiglioni L, Hilding A, Houthuijs D, Korek M, Künzli N, Marrugat J, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Östenson CG, Penell J, Pershagen G, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Swart WJR, Peters A, Hoffmann B.

Eur Heart J. 2017 Apr 1;38(13):983-990. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw413.

PMID: 28417138

Abstract

AIMS:

We investigated whether traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with incident hypertension in European cohorts.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

We included seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE). We modelled concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10), >2.5, and ≤10 µm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), and nitrogen oxides at the addresses of participants with land use regression. Residential exposure to traffic noise was modelled at the facade according to the EU Directive 2002/49/EC. We assessed hypertension as (i) self-reported and (ii) measured (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg or intake of BP lowering medication (BPLM). We used Poisson regression with robust variance estimation to analyse associations of traffic-related exposures with incidence of hypertension, controlling for relevant confounders, and combined the results from individual studies with random-effects meta-analysis. Among 41 072 participants free of self-reported hypertension at baseline, 6207 (15.1%) incident cases occurred within 5-9 years of follow-up. Incidence of self-reported hypertension was positively associated with PM2.5 (relative risk (RR) 1.22 [95%-confidence interval (CI):1.08; 1.37] per 5 µg/m³) and PM2.5 absorbance (RR 1.13 [95% CI:1.02; 1.24] per 10 - 5m - 1). These estimates decreased slightly upon adjustment for road traffic noise. Road traffic noise was weakly positively associated with the incidence of self-reported hypertension. Among 10 896 participants at risk, 3549 new cases of measured hypertension occurred. We found no clear associations with measured hypertension.

CONCLUSION:

Long-term residential exposures to air pollution and noise are associated with increased incidence of self-reported hypertension.

KEYWORDS:

Air pollution ; Hypertension ; Meta-analysis; Nitrogen oxides ; Particulate matter ; Road traffic noise

 

Aspirin as a potential modality for the chemoprevention of breast cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies from 857,831 participants.

Lu L, Shi L, Zeng J, Wen Z.

Oncotarget. 2017 Mar 17. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.16315. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28418881

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Previous meta-analyses on the relationship between aspirin use and breast cancer risk have drawn inconsistent results. In addition, the threshold effect of different doses, frequencies and durations of aspirin use in preventing breast cancer have yet to be established.

RESULTS:

The search yielded 13 prospective cohort studies (N=857,831 participants) that reported an average of 7.6 cases/1,000 person-years of breast cancer during a follow-up period of from 4.4 to 14 years. With a random effects model, a borderline significant inverse association was observed between overall aspirin use and breast cancer risk, with a summarized RR = 0.94 (P = 0.051, 95% CI 0.87-1.01). The linear regression model was a better fit for the dose-response relationship, which displayed a potential relationship between the frequency of aspirin use and breast cancer risk (RR = 0.97, 0.95 and 0.90 for 5, 10 and 20 times/week aspirin use, respectively). It was also a better fit for the duration of aspirin use and breast cancer risk (RR = 0.86, 0.73 and 0.54 for 5, 10 and 20 years of aspirin use).

METHODS:

We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases through early October 2016 for relevant prospective cohort studies of aspirin use and breast cancer risk. Meta-analysis of relative risks (RR) estimates associated with aspirin intake were presented by fixed or random effects models. The dose-response meta-analysis was performed by linear trend regression and restricted cubic spline regression.

CONCLUSION:

Our study confirmed a dose-response relationship between aspirin use and breast cancer risk. For clinical prevention, long term (>5 years) consistent use (2-7 times/week) of aspirin appears to be more effective in achieving a protective effect against breast cancer.

KEYWORDS:

aspirin; breast cancer; dose-response Meta-analysis

 

Fruit and vegetable intake and prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

Perez-Cornago A, Travis RC, Appleby PN, Tsilidis KK, Tjønneland A, Olsen A, Overvad K, Katzke V, Kühn T, Trichopoulou A, Peppa E, Kritikou M, Sieri S, Palli D, Sacerdote C, Tumino R, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Agudo A, Larrañaga N, Molina-Portillo E, Ardanaz E, Chirlaque MD, Lasheras C, Stattin P, Wennberg M, Drake I, Malm J, Schmidt JA, Khaw KT, Gunter M, Freisling H, Huybrechts I, Aune D, Cross AJ, Riboli E, Key TJ.

Int J Cancer. 2017 Apr 17. doi: 10.1002/ijc.30741. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28419475

Abstract

Several dietary factors have been studied in relation to prostate cancer; however, most studies have not reported on subtypes of fruit and vegetables or tumor characteristics, and results obtained so far are inconclusive. This study aimed to examine the prospective association of total and subtypes of fruit and vegetable intake with the incidence of prostate cancer overall, by grade and stage of disease, and prostate cancer death. Lifestyle information for 142,239 men participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition from 8 European countries was collected at baseline. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up time of 13.9 years, 7,036 prostate cancer cases were identified. Compared with the lowest fifth, those in the highest fifth of total fruit intake had a significantly reduced prostate cancer risk (HR=0.91; 95% CI=0.83-0.99; P-trend=0.01). No associations between fruit subtypes and prostate cancer risk were observed, except for citrus fruits, where a significant trend was found (HR=0.94; 95% CI=0.86-1.02; P-trend=0.01). No associations between total and subtypes of vegetables and prostate cancer risk were observed. We found no evidence of heterogeneity in these associations by tumor grade and stage, with the exception of significant heterogeneity by tumor grade (Pheterogeneity <0.001) for leafy vegetables. No significant associations with prostate cancer death were observed. The main finding of this prospective study was that a higher fruit intake was associated with a small reduction in prostate cancer risk. Whether this association is causal remains unclear.

KEYWORDS:

fruit; prospective; prostate cancer; tumor subtypes; vegetable

 

An exploration of the role of a fish-oriented diet in cognitive decline: a systematic review of the literature.

Zeng LF, Cao Y, Liang WX, Bao WH, Pan JK, Wang Q, Liu J, Liang HD, Xie H, Chai YT, Guan ZT, Cao Q, Li XY, Yang L, Xu WH, Mi SQ, Wang NS.

Oncotarget. 2017 Mar 17. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.16347. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 2841889

[url=http://www.impactjournals.com/oncotarget/index.php?journal=oncotarget&page=article&op=view&path[]=16347&path[]=52291]http://www.impactjournals.com/oncotarget/index.php?journal=oncotarget&page=article&op=view&path[]=16347&path[]=52291

Abstract

Epidemiological studies have presented inconsistent evidence of the correlation between a fish-oriented dietary intake (FDI) and the risk of cognitive decline. To address these controversies, we performed this systematic review of prospective studies published in December 2016 and earlier using PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Two independent researchers conducted the eligibility assessment and data extraction; all discrepancies were solved by discussion with a third researcher. The pooled relative risks (RRs) focused on the incidence of events were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, nine studies containing 28,754 subjects were analyzed. When the highest and lowest categories of fish consumption were compared, the summary RR for dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) was 0.80 (95%CI = 0.65-0.97); i.e., people with a higher intake of fish had a 20% (95%CI = 3-35%) decreased risk of DAT. Additionally, the dose-response synthesized data indicated that a 100-g/week increase in fish intake reduced the risk of DAT by an additional 12% (RR = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.79-0.99). Non-significant results were observed for the risk of dementia of all causes (DAC) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Limited evidence involving heterogeneity was found within subgroups or across studies. In conclusion, this review confirmed that a higher intake of fish could be correlated with a reduced risk of DAT. Further research, especially prospective studies that specifically quantify FDI, will help find a more accurate assessment of the different levels of dietary intake.

KEYWORDS:

cognitive disorders; dementia of Alzheimer type; fish-oriented dietary intake; meta-analysis; risk factors

 

Plasma apolipoproteins and physical and cognitive health in very old individuals.

Muenchhoff J, Song F, Poljak A, Crawford JD, Mather KA, Kochan NA, Yang Z, Trollor JN, Reppermund S, Maston K, Theobald A, Kirchner-Adelhardt S, Kwok JB, Richmond RL, McEvoy M, Attia J, Schofield PW, Brodaty H, Sachdev PS.

Neurobiol Aging. 2017 Mar 1;55:49-60. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.02.017. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28419892

Abstract

Apolipoproteins play a crucial role in lipid metabolism with implications in cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and longevity. We quantified 7 apolipoproteins in plasma in 1067 individuals aged 56-105 using immunoassays and explored relationships with APOE polymorphism ε2/3/4, vascular health, frailty, and cognition. ApoA1, ApoA2, ApoB, ApoC3, ApoE, ApoH, and ApoJ decreased from mid-life, although ApoE and ApoJ had U-shaped trends. Centenarians had the highest ApoE levels and the lowest frequency of APOE ε4 allele relative to younger groups. Apolipoprotein levels trended lower in APOE ε4 homozygotes and heterozygotes compared with noncarriers, with ApoE and ApoJ being significantly lower. Levels of all apolipoproteins except ApoH were higher in females. Sex- and age-related differences were apparent in the association of apolipoproteins with cognitive performance, as only women had significant negative associations of ApoB, ApoE, ApoH, and ApoJ in mid-life, whereas associations at older age were nonsignificant or positive. Our findings suggest levels of some apolipoproteins, especially ApoE, are associated with lifespan and cognitive function in exceptionally long-lived individuals.

KEYWORDS:

APOE phenotype; Centenarian; Cognition; Frailty; Lipids; Longevity

 

Too Old for Surgery? Outcomes of Hip Fracture Surgery in Centenarians.

Ng WX, Kwek EB.

Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2017 Mar;46(3):115-117. No abstract available.

PMID: 28417136

http://www.annals.edu.sg/pdf/46VolNo3Mar2017/V46N3p115.pdf

 

Oral potassium supplementation for management of essential hypertension: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Poorolajal J, Zeraati F, Soltanian AR, Sheikh V, Hooshmand E, Maleki A.

PLoS One. 2017 Apr 18;12(4):e0174967. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174967. eCollection 2017.

PMID: 28419159

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174967

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Increased dietary potassium intake is thought to be associated with low blood pressure (BP). Whether potassium supplementation may be used as an antihypertensive agent is a question that should be answered.

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the effect of oral potassium supplementation on blood pressure in patients with primary hypertension.

SEARCH METHODS:

We searched Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until October 2016. We also screened reference lists of articles and previous reviews. We applied no language restrictions.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

We included randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials addressing the effect of potassium supplementation on primary hypertension for a minimum of 4 weeks.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

We extracted data on systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) at the final follow-up. We explored the heterogeneity across studies using Cochran's test and I2 statistic and assessed the probability of publication bias using Begg's and Egger's tests. We reported the mean difference (MD) of SBP and DBP in a random-effects model.

RESULTS:

We found a total of 9059 articles and included 23 trials with 1213 participants. Compared to placebo, potassium supplementation resulted in modest but significant reductions in both SBP (MD -4.25 mmHg; 95% CI: -5.96 to -2.53; I2 = 41%) and DBP (MD -2.53 mmHg; 95% CI: -4.05 to -1.02; I2 = 65%). According to the change-score analysis, based on 8 out of 23 trials, compared to baseline, the mean changes in SBP (MD -8.89 mmHg; 95% CI: -13.67 to -4.11) and DBP (MD -6.42 mmHg; 95% CI: -10.99 to -1.84) was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings indicated that potassium supplementation is a safe medication with no important adverse effects that has a modest but significant impact BP and may be recommended as an adjuvant antihypertensive agent for patients with essential hypertension.

 

The DASH Diet, 20 Years Later.

Steinberg D, Bennett GG, Svetkey L.

JAMA. 2017 Mar 9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.1628. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

PMID: 28278326

http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2611294

This Viewpoint discusses ways to improve adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which comprises foods rich in protein and fiber, limits foods high in saturated fat and sugar, and was shown in 1997 to lower blood pressure in patients with hypertension and prehypertension.

 

Depression Is the Leading Cause of Disability Around the World

M.J. Friedrich

JAMA. 2017;317(15):1517. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.3826

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1001/jama.2017.3826

The proportion of the global population livingwithdepressionisestimated

tobe322millionpeople—4.4%

of theworld’spopulation—

according to a new report, “Depression and

Other Common Mental Disorders: Global

Health Estimates,” released by the World

Health Organization. The report also includesdataonanxietydisorders,whichaffect

more than 260 million people—3.6% of the

global population. The prevalence of these

common mental disorders is increasing, particularly

in low- and middle-income countries,withmanypeopleexperiencingbothdepressionandanxietydisorderssimultaneously.

According to the report, the number of

people in the world living with depression

has increased by 18.4% between 2005 and

2015, and depressive disorders were the

single largest contributor to nonfatal health

loss globally in 2015. Although depression

can affect anyone at any point in their lives,

it is 1.5 times more common in women than

men. Almost half the number of people livingwith

depression reside inSouth-EastAsia

andWestern Pacific regions.Poverty,unemployment,

lifeevents,and illness increase the

risk of depression.

The prevalence of anxiety disorders,

which include generalized anxiety disorder,

panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder,

and obsessive-compulsive disorder, increased

by 14.9% globally between 2005

and 2015 and was particularly high in the

Americas. Anxiety disorders are now the

sixth largest cause of disability and, as with

depressive disorders, more women than

men are affected.

 

Association Between Midlife Vascular Risk Factors and Estimated Brain Amyloid Deposition.

Gottesman RF, Schneider AL, Zhou Y, Coresh J, Green E, Gupta N, Knopman DS, Mintz A, Rahmim A, Sharrett AR, Wagenknecht LE, Wong DF, Mosley TH.

JAMA. 2017 Apr 11;317(14):1443-1450. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.3090.

PMID: 28399252

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Midlife vascular risk factors have been associated with late-life dementia. Whether these risk factors directly contribute to brain amyloid deposition is less well understood.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine if midlife vascular risk factors are associated with late-life brain amyloid deposition, measured using florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET).

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC)-PET Amyloid Imaging Study, a prospective cohort study among 346 participants without dementia in 3 US communities (Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; and Jackson, Mississippi) who have been evaluated for vascular risk factors and markers since 1987-1989 with florbetapir PET scans in 2011-2013. Positron emission tomography image analysis was completed in 2015.

EXPOSURES:

Vascular risk factors at ARIC baseline (age 45-64 years; risk factors included body mass index ≥30, current smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL) were evaluated in multivariable models including age, sex, race, APOE genotype, and educational level.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were calculated from PET scans and a mean global cortical SUVR was calculated. Elevated florbetapir (defined as a SUVR >1.2) was the dependent variable.

RESULTS:

Among 322 participants without dementia and with nonmissing midlife vascular risk factors at baseline (mean age, 52 years; 58% female; 43% black), the SUVR (elevated in 164 [50.9%] participants) was measured more than 20 years later (median follow-up, 23.5 years; interquartile range, 23.0-24.3 years) when participants were between 67 and 88 (mean, 76) years old. Elevated body mass index in midlife was associated with elevated SUVR (odds ratio [OR], 2.06; 95% CI, 1.16-3.65). At baseline, 65 participants had no vascular risk factors, 123 had 1, and 134 had 2 or more; a higher number of midlife risk factors was associated with elevated amyloid SUVR at follow-up (30.8% [n = 20], 50.4% [n = 62], and 61.2% [n = 82], respectively). In adjusted models, compared with 0 midlife vascular risk factors, the OR for elevated SUVR associated with 1 vascular risk factor was 1.88 (95% CI, 0.95-3.72) and for 2 or more vascular risk factors was 2.88 (95% CI, 1.46-5.69). No significant race × risk factor interactions were found. Late-life vascular risk factors were not associated with late-life brain amyloid deposition (for ≥2 late-life vascular risk factors vs 0: OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.75-3.69).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

An increasing number of midlife vascular risk factors was significantly associated with elevated amyloid SUVR; this association was not significant for late-life risk factors. These findings are consistent with a role of vascular disease in the development of Alzheimer disease.

Edited by AlPater

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How cycling to work could save thousands of lives a year

People who walked to work also gained heart health benefit, according to British study

CBC News Posted: Apr 20, 2017

http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/cycling-commute-public-health-1.4077711

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Editorials

Active commuting is beneficial for health

BMJ 2017; 357 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j1740(Published 19 April 2017)

Cite this as: BMJ 2017;357:j1740

Lars Bo Andersen

http://www.bmj.com/content/357/bmj.j1740

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Association between active commuting and incident

cardiovascular disease, cancer, and mortality: prospective

cohort study

Carlos A Celis-Morales,1

Donald M Lyall,2 Paul Welsh,1

Jana Anderson,2 Lewis Steell,1

Yibing Guo,1

Reno Maldonado,1

Daniel F Mackay,2 Jill P Pell,2 Naveed Sattar,1

Jason M R Gill

BMJ 2017;357:j1456

http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j1456

Accepted: 16 March 2017

http://www.bmj.com/content/bmj/357/bmj.j1456.full.pdf

 

The Scientist » News & Opinion » Daily News

Human Cord Plasma Protein Boosts Cognitive Function in Older Mice

A protein found in human umbilical cord plasma improves synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory in aged mice.

By Abby Olena | April 19, 2017

http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/49232/title/Human-Cord-Plasma-Protein-Boosts-Cognitive-Function-in-Older-Mice/&utm_campaign=NEWSLETTER_TS_The-Scientist-Daily_2016&utm_source=hs_email&utm_medium=email&utm_content=50974893&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-93y0w3-zH-NQVeE_eKCYVlAgEES1a7arGKcJd5g6_wu1_hCDRKQOWuvadzcuYDrxE1yZtXmHzLc89sIJ5y_Wd516kAhQ&_hsmi=50974893

Injecting a protein derived from human umbilical cord plasma—tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2)—into aged mice led to improvements in the rodents’ learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity, researchers reported today (April 19) in Nature.

“Following our previous observations that young mouse plasma can functionally improve the behavior [of old mice], this study now shows that human blood may actually have similar factors,” coauthor Tony Wyss-Coray of the Stanford University School of Medicine in Palo Alto, California, told The Scientist.

The authors “went the extra mile to demonstrate that this protein, TIMP2, is in fact enriched in umbilical cord plasma, but also that it’s a systemic factor that is found in young mice and then decreases in mice with aging,” said Greg Valdez of the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute in Roanoke, who did not participate in the work. “And then they did a series of experiments to demonstrate that this factor, when it is present or when it is reintroduced into aged animals, does provide cognitive benefits.”

Wyss-Coray and colleagues injected human plasma from umbilical cords, young adults, and elderly adults intravenously into older, immunodeficient mice that showed reduced neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive function. The animals that received cord plasma experienced increases in expression of memory- and plasticity-related genes in the hippocampus, as well as in activation of hippocampal cells. The cord plasma–treated mice also showed increased synaptic plasticity and performed better in behavioral tasks that measure learning and memory than did control mice.

The team then analyzed protein changes in human umbilical cord, young adult, and elderly adult plasma, as well as in plasma from mice of different ages, identifying TIMP2 as a candidate plasticity-promoting factor. TIMP2 is elevated in human cord and young mouse plasma, and its levels decrease as mice age, both in plasma and in hippocampal cells.

Next, the team injected older, wild-type mice with radiolabeled TIMP2, which they then detected in the animals’ brains. Recombinant TIMP2 injections in older mice increased synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, and improved learning and memory, the researchers reported.

When they injected young mice with anti-TIMP2 antibodies to neutralize the endogenous protein, the animals’ performance on a spatial memory task deteriorated. Treating young mouse brain slices with anti-TIMP2 antibodies also led to a decrease in synaptic plasticity, the team showed. Finally, injecting TIMP2-depleted human umbilical cord plasma into immunodeficient mice did not lead to improvements in cognitive function, suggesting that the benefits of cord plasma rely on the presence of TIMP2.

“This is exciting,” said Roberta Diaz Brinton of the University of Southern California and the University of Arizona, who was not involved in the work. Brinton said that one open question is whether just one protein is responsible for the cognitive benefits.

“We still believe that there are multiple factors responsible for the effects, but we were surprised to see how prominent of an effect TIMP2 had,” Wyss-Coray told The Scientist. His group plans to investigate whether other proteins are involved, as well as how TIMP2 exerts its influence. Going forward, the team hopes to evaluate whether TIMP2 could be developed into a therapeutic agent.

“It seems to have pro-plasticity effects in these aged mice, which is terrific. Obviously, this is of great interest for the aging population,” Brinton said. But before this work moves into humans, she cautioned, “there are a lot of safety and exposure analyses that have to be done.”

Valdez said that the therapeutic potential could extend beyond TIMP2—to endogenous factors that cause levels of the protein to decrease with aging. “If we can understand the underlying reasons why it’s reduced, maybe we can devise ways to then prevent that natural reduction, to slow age-related cognitive decline,” he said. “That will be a much better intervention because you’re actually working with the endogenous protein, rather than having to administer [TIMP2] and dealing with side effects of too much or too little.”

J.M. Castellano et al., “Human umbilical cord plasma proteins revitalize hippocampal function in aged mice,” Nature, doi:10.1038/nature22067, 2017.

Tags

umbilical cord, mouse research, cognitive science, cognition and aging

 

Characteristics and Incidence of Chronic Illness in Community-Dwelling Predominantly Male U.S. Veteran Centenarians.

Kheirbek RE, Fokar A, Shara N, Bell-Wilson LK, Moore HJ, Olsen E, Blackman MR, Llorente MD.

J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017 Apr 19. doi: 10.1111/jgs.14900. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28422270

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To assess the incidence of chronic illness and its effect on veteran centenarians.

DESIGN:

Retrospective longitudinal cohort study.

SETTING:

United States Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW).

PARTICIPANTS:

Community-dwelling veterans born between 1910 and 1915 who survived to at least age 80 (N = 86,892; 31,121 octogenarians, 52,420 nonagenarians, 3,351 centenarians).

MEASUREMENTS:

The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate cumulative incidence of chronic conditions according to age group. Incidence rates were compared using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate unadjusted hazard ratios.

RESULTS:

Ninety-seven percent of Centenarians were male, 88.0% were white, 31.8% were widowed, 87.5% served in World War II, and 63.9% did not have a service-related disability. The incidence rates of chronic illnesses were higher in octogenarians than centenarians (atrial fibrillation, 15.0% vs 0.6%, P < .001; heart failure, 19.3% vs 0.4%, P < .001; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 17.9% vs 0.6%, P < .001; hypertension, 29.6% vs 3.0%, P < .001; end-stage renal disease, 7.2% vs 0.1%, P < .001; malignancy, 14.1% vs 0.6%, P < .001; diabetes mellitus, 11.1% vs 0.4%, P < .001; stroke, 4.6% vs 0.4%, P < .001) and in nonagenarians than centenarians (atrial fibrillation, 13.2% vs 3.5%, P < .001; heart failure, 15.8% vs 3.3%, P < .001; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 11.8% vs 3.5%, P < .001; hypertension, 27.2% vs 12.8%, P < .001; end-stage renal disease, 11.9% vs 4.5%, P < .001; malignancy, 8.6% vs 2.3%, P < .001; diabetes mellitus, 7.5% vs 2.2%, P < .001; and stroke, 3.5% vs 1.3%, P < .001).

CONCLUSION:

In a large cohort of predominantly male community-dwelling elderly veterans, centenarians had a lower incidence of chronic illness than those in their 80s and 90s, demonstrating similar compression of morbidity and extension of health span observed in other studies.

KEYWORDS:

centenarians; chronic illness; incidence; nonagenarians; octogenarians; veterans

 

Risk of Solid Cancer in Low Dose-Rate Radiation Epidemiological Studies and the Dose-Rate Effectiveness Factor.

Shore R, Walsh L, Azizova T, Rühm W.

Int J Radiat Biol. 2017 Apr 19:1-42. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2017.1319090. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28421857

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Estimated radiation risks used for radiation protection purposes have been based primarily on the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors who received brief exposures at high dose rates, many with high doses. Information is needed regarding radiation risks from low dose-rate (LDR) exposures to low linear-energy-transfer (low-LET) radiation. We conducted a meta-analysis of LDR epidemiologic studies that provide dose-response estimates of total solid cancer risk in adulthood in comparison to corresponding LSS risks, in order to estimate a dose rate effectiveness factor (DREF).

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We identified 22 LDR studies with dose-response risk estimates for solid cancer after minimizing information overlap. For each study, a parallel risk estimate was derived from the LSS risk model using matching values for sex, mean ages at first exposure and attained age, targeted cancer types, and accounting for type of dosimetric assessment. For each LDR study a ratio of the excess relative risk per Gy (ERR Gy-1) to the matching LSS ERR risk estimate (LDR/LSS) was calculated, and a meta-analysis of the risk ratios was conducted. The reciprocal of the resultant risk ratio provided an estimate of the DREF.

RESULTS:

The meta-analysis showed a LDR/LSS risk ratio of 0.36 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14, 0.57) for the 19 studies of solid cancer mortality and 0.33 (95% CI 0.13, 0.54) when three cohorts with only incidence data also were added, implying a DREF with values around 3, but statistically compatible with 2. However, the analyses were highly dominated by the Mayak worker study. When the Mayak study was excluded the LDR/LSS risk ratios increased: 1.12 (95% CI 0.40, 1.84) for mortality and 0.54 (95% CI 0.09, 0.99) for mortality+incidence, implying a lower DREF in the range of 1 to 2. Meta-analyses that included only cohorts in which the mean dose was <100 mGy yielded a risk ratio of 1.06 (95% CI 0.30, 1.83) for solid cancer mortality and 0.58 (95% CI 0.10, 1.06) for mortality+incidence data.

CONCLUSIONS:

The interpretation of a best estimate for a value of the DREF depends on the appropriateness of including the Mayak study. This study indicates a range of uncertainty in the value of DREF between 1 and about 2 after protracted radiation exposure. The LDR data provide direct evidence regarding risk from exposures at low dose rates as an important complement to the LSS risk estimates used for radiation protection purposes.

 

Dried Plums, Prunes and Bone Health: A Comprehensive Review.

Wallace TC.

Nutrients. 2017 Apr 19;9(4). pii: E401. doi: 10.3390/nu9040401. Review.

PMID: 28422064

Abstract

The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing fruit intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Nutrition across the lifespan is pivotal for the healthy development and maintenance of bone. The National Osteoporosis Foundation estimates that over half of Americans age 50+ have either osteoporosis or low bone mass. Dried plums, also commonly referred to as prunes, have a unique nutrient and dietary bioactive profile and are suggested to exert beneficial effects on bone. To further elucidate and summarize the potential mechanisms and effects of dried plums on bone health, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature was conducted. The PubMed database was searched through 24 January 2017 for all cell, animal, population and clinical studies that examined the effects of dried plums and/or extracts of the former on markers of bone health. Twenty-four studies were included in the review and summarized in table form. The beneficial effects of dried plums on bone health may be in part due to the variety of phenolics present in the fruit. Animal and cell studies suggest that dried plums and/or their extracts enhance bone formation and inhibit bone resorption through their actions on cell signaling pathways that influence osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. These studies are consistent with clinical studies that show that dried plums may exert beneficial effects on bone mineral density (BMD). Long-term prospective cohort studies using fractures and BMD as primary endpoints are needed to confirm the effects of smaller clinical, animal and mechanistic studies. Clinical and prospective cohort studies in men are also needed, since they represent roughly 29% of fractures, and likewise, diverse race and ethnic groups. No adverse effects were noted among any of the studies included in this comprehensive review. While the data are not completely consistent, this review suggests that postmenopausal women may safely consume dried plums as part of their fruit intake recommendations given their potential to have protective effects on bone loss.

 

How a Mutation that Slows Aging Can Also Disproportionately Extend End-of-Life Decrepitude.

Podshivalova K, Kerr RA, Kenyon C.

Cell Rep. 2017 Apr 18;19(3):441-450. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.03.062.

PMID: 28423308

Abstract

The goal of aging research is to extend healthy, active life. For decades, C. elegans daf-2 insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor mutants have served as a model for extended lifespan and youthfulness. However, a recent report suggested that their longevity is associated with an undesirable phenotype: a disproportionately long period of decrepitude at the end of life. In the human population, such an outcome would be a burden to society, bringing into question the relevance of daf-2 mutants as a model for life extension. However, here we report that, following an extended period of movement, daf-2 mutants survive longer in a decrepit state because of a beneficial trait: they are resistant to colonization of the digestive tract by dietary bacteria, a condition that leads to premature death in the wild-type and prevents their manifestation of decrepitude. If bacterial colonization is prevented, then daf-2 mutants lead both chronologically and proportionately healthier lives relative to the wild-type.

KEYWORDS:

IGF-1; aging; daf-2; healthspan; lifespan; mortality; pathogenesis

 

The Effect of Salt Intake and Potassium Supplementation on Serum Gastrin Levels in Chinese Adults: A Randomized Trial.

Wang YY, He WW, Liu YC, Lin YF, Hong LF.

Nutrients. 2017 Apr 14;9(4). pii: E389. doi: 10.3390/nu9040389.

PMID: 28420122

Abstract

Excess dietary salt is strongly correlated with cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality. Conversely, potassium likely elicits favorable effects against cardiovascular disorders. Gastrin, which is produced by the G-cells of the stomach and duodenum, can increase renal sodium excretion and regulate blood pressure by acting on the cholecystokinin B receptor. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of altered salt and potassium supplementation on serum gastrin levels in humans. A total of 44 subjects (38-65 years old) were selected from a rural community in northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained on a relatively low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0 g/day of NaCl), a high-salt diet for 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl), and then a high-salt diet supplemented with potassium for another 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl + 4.5 g/day of KCl). The high-salt intake significantly increased serum gastrin levels (15.3 ± 0.3 vs. 17.6 ± 0.3 pmol/L). This phenomenon was alleviated through potassium supplementation (17.6 ± 0.3 vs. 16.5 ± 0.4 pmol/L). Further analyses revealed that serum gastrin was positively correlated with 24 h urinary sodium excretion (r = 0.476, p < 0.001). By contrast, gastrin level was negatively correlated with blood pressure in all dietary interventions (r = -0.188, p = 0.031). The present study indicated that variations in dietary salt and potassium supplementation affected the serum gastrin concentrations in the Chinese subjects.

KEYWORDS:

blood pressure; gastrin; potassium; salt; sodium excretion

 

Association between maternal intake of n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio during pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment at 6 months of age: results of the MOCEH cohort study.

Kim H, Kim H, Lee E, Kim Y, Ha EH, Chang N.

Nutr J. 2017 Apr 18;16(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s12937-017-0242-9.

PMID: 28420388

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are essential for infant neurodevelopment. The nutritional adequacy of dietary LC-PUFAs depends not only on the LC-PUFAs intake but also on the n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio (n-6/n-3 PUFAs). This study aimed to identify the association between the maternal dietary n-6/n-3 PUFAs and motor and cognitive development of infants at 6 months of age.

METHODS:

We used data from 960 participants in the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, which is a multi-center prospective cohort study. Dietary intake of pregnant women was assessed by a one-day 24-h recall method. Food consumption of infants was estimated based on the volume of breast milk and weaning foods. The duration of each feed was used to estimate the likely volume of milk consumed. Dietary intake of infants at 6 months was also assessed by a 24-h recall method. Cognitive and motor development of infants at 6 months of age was assessed by the Korean Bayley scales of infant development edition II (BSID-II) including the mental developmental index (MDI) and the psychomotor developmental index (PDI).

RESULTS:

Maternal intakes of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and linoleic acid (LA)-to-α-linolenic acid (ALA) ratio (LA/ALA) were 9.7 ± 6.3 and 11.12 ± 6.9, respectively. Multiple regression analysis, after adjusting for covariates, showed that n-6/n-3 PUFAs was negatively associated with both the MDI (β = -0.1674, P = 0.0291) and PDI (β = -0.1947, P = 0.0380) at 6 months of age. These inverse associations were also observed between LA/ALA and both the MDI and PDI (MDI; β = -0.1567; P = 0.0310, PDI; β = -0.1855; P = 0.0367). Multiple logistic regression analysis, with the covariates, showed that infants whose mother's LA/ALA were ranked in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartile were at approximately twice the risk with more than twice the risk of delayed performance on the PDI compared to the lowest quartile (1st vs. 2nd; OR = 2.965; 95% CI = 1.376 - 6.390, 1st vs. 3rd; OR = 3.047; 95% CI = 1.374 - 6.756 and 1st vs. 4th; OR = 2.551; 95% CI = 1.160 - 5.607).

CONCLUSIONS:

Both the maternal dietary n-6/n-3 PUFAs and LA/ALA intake were significantly associated with the mental and psychomotor development of infants at 6 months of age. Thus, maintaining low n-6/n-3 PUFAs and LA/ALA is encouraged for women during pregnancy.

KEYWORDS:

Bayley scales of infant development; Infants; Linoleic acid-to-α-linolenic acid ratio; Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; Psychomotor development

 

Legume intake and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Li J, Mao QQ.

Oncotarget. 2017 Apr 3. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.16794. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28423366

[url=http://www.impactjournals.com/oncotarget/index.php?journal=oncotarget&page=article&op=view&path[]=16794&path[]=53727]http://www.impactjournals.com/oncotarget/index.php?journal=oncotarget&page=article&op=view&path[]=16794&path[]=53727

Abstract

Previous studies regarding the relationship between legume intake and risk of prostate cancer have reported inconsistent results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to summarize evidence on this association. A systematic literature search of articles published through June 2016 was performed using PubMed and Web of Science databases. The combined relative risk (RR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest versus the lowest intake of legumes was calculated with a random-effects model. Dose-response meta-analysis was also performed for the studies that provided at least three levels of legume consumption. Ten articles (eight cohorts) reporting 281,034 individuals and 10,234 incident cases were identified. The individuals with high consumption of legumes compared with the reference group experienced a significantly reduced risk for developing prostate cancer (RR: 0.85 [95% CI 0.75-0.96], P = 0.010). Moderate heterogeneity of RRs was observed across these studies (P = 0.064 for heterogeneity, I2 = 45.8 %). Dose-response meta-analysis indicated that the risk of prostate cancer reduced by 3.7% (95% CI 1.5%-5.8%) for each 20 grams per day increment of legume intake. In conclusion, the results from this meta-analysis suggest that a high intake of legumes is associated with a low incidence of prostate cancer.

KEYWORDS:

epidemiology; legume; meta-analysis; prostatic neoplasm

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Cohort study of diet, lifestyle, and prostate cancer in Adventist men.

Mills PK, Beeson WL, Phillips RL, Fraser GE.

Cancer. 1989 Aug 1;64(3):598-604.

PMID: 2743254 Free Article

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1097-0142(19890801)64:3%3C598::AID-CNCR2820640306%3E3.0.CO;2-6/pdf

Abstract

Dietary and lifestyle characteristics were evaluated in relation to subsequent prostatic cancer risk in a cohort of approximately 14,000 Seventh-day Adventist men who completed a detailed lifestyle questionnaire in 1976 and who were monitored for cancer incidence until the end of 1982. During the 6-year follow-up period, 180 histologically confirmed prostatic cancers were detected among some 78,000 man-years of follow-up. Increasing educational attainment was associated with significantly decreased risk of prostate cancer in this study; age at first marriage was also inversely associated with risk, although this was not significant. There was no relationship between body mass index (as measured by Quetelet's Index) and risk. A history of prostate "trouble" was associated with a 60% increase in risk which was highly significant. Although there were suggestive relationships between increasing animal product consumption and increased risk, these results did not persist after accounting for the influence of fruit and vegetable consumption. Nor was exposure to the vegetarian lifestyle during the childhood years associated with alterations in subsequent risk. However, increasing consumption of beans, lentils and peas, tomatoes, raisin, dates, and other dried fruit were all associated with significantly decreased prostate cancer risk.

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Does high soy milk intake reduce prostate cancer incidence? The Adventist Health Study (United States)

Jacobsen BK, Knutsen SF, Fraser GE.

Cancer Causes Control. 1998 Dec;9(6):553-7.

PMID: 10189040

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Recent experimental studies have suggested that isoflavones (such as genistein and daidzein) found in some soy products may reduce the risk of cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between soy milk, a beverage containing isoflavones, and prostate cancer incidence.

METHODS:

A prospective study with 225 incident cases of prostate cancer in 12,395 California Seventh-Day Adventist men who in 1976 stated how often they drank soy milk.

RESULTS:

Frequent consumption (more than once a day) of soy milk was associated with 70 per cent reduction of the risk of prostate cancer (relative risk = 0.3, 95 percent confidence interval 0.1-1.0, p-value for linear trend = 0.03). The association was upheld when extensive adjustments were performed.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study suggests that men with high consumption of soy milk are at reduced risk of prostate cancer. Possible associations between soy bean products, isoflavones and prostate cancer risk should be further investigated.

 

Oxidized LDL, Gamma-Glutamyltransferase and Adverse Outcomes in Older Adults.

Spoto B, Mattace-Raso F, Sijbrands EJ, D'Arrigo G, Tripepi G, Volpato S, Bandinelli S, Ferrucci L, Zoccali C.

J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017 Apr;65(4):e77-e82. doi: 10.1111/jgs.14566.

PMID: 28422277

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1111/jgs.14566

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is a biomarker of liver disease and oxidative stress which was associated with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in the general population and in patients with high risk conditions. This study aims at assessing whether oxLDL modifies the relationship between GGT, all-cause, and CV mortality in elderly individuals from the general population.

DESIGN:

Observational longitudinal study.

SETTING:

Population-based cohort of older individuals (>65 years) free of liver disease.

PARTICIPANTS:

One thousand and thirty-eight individuals from the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) study.

MEASUREMENTS:

Serum GGT level, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), CV comorbidities, all-cause and CV mortality.

RESULTS:

The median age of the study population (n = 1,038) was 74 years (inter-quartile range: 69-79), 152 individuals (15%) had past CV events. During a median follow-up of 9 years, 401 individuals died, 168 of them (42%) for CV causes. In adjusted analyses, GGT predicted all-cause mortality (HR for 20 U/L increase in serum GGT: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.21, P = .02) and CV mortality (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.33; P = .02). Furthermore, in an analysis for interaction circulating oxLDL amplified the effect of GGT on all-cause mortality (P = .003).

CONCLUSION:

Circulating oxLDL amplifies the effect of GGT on mortality in the elderly. The mechanism for this association remains unknown and requires further research, including studying the potential role of GGT in oxidative stress. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of a causal role of GGT in the CV morbidity and mortality in older individuals and indicate that oxLDL plays a crucial role in the interpretation of the link between GGT and the risk of adverse clinical events in this population.

KEYWORDS:

GGT ; CV events; elderly; mortality; oxidized LDL

 

AGEING

Senescent cells cleared out

Nature 543, 593 (30 March 2017) doi:10.1038/543593a

Published online 29 March 2017

Subject terms: Ageing Cell biology

A newly developed molecule causes ageing cells to commit suicide, restoring some signs of health and stamina in old mice.

Damaged cells that stop dividing, called senescent cells, accumulate with age, and are thought to contribute to inflammation, tissue damage and age-related diseases. To find ways to clear these cells, Peter de Keizer at the Erasmus University Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and his colleagues designed a peptide that impairs binding between the proteins FOXO4 and p53 — an interaction that normally inhibits the 'self-destruct' signal in senescent cells. Infusions of the peptide reversed decline in kidney function in aged mice, and eliminated weight loss and liver damage caused in mice by chemotherapy drugs. In mice with a premature-ageing condition, treatment with the peptide caused regrowth of fur that had been lost, and doubled how far the animals could run.

The peptide seemed to have little effect on normal cells, probably because FOXO4 is scarce in non-senescent cells. The researchers are now preparing to test the safety of their molecule in humans.

Cell 169, 132–147 (2017)

 

How fat boosts breast cancer

Nature 543, 593 (30 March 2017) doi:10.1038/543593b

Published online 29 March 2017

Subject terms: Cancer Cell biology

A molecule made by fat cells in human breast tissue increases the growth of certain breast-cancer cells. The finding suggests a potential reason why larger breast size seems to correlate with a higher risk of cancer.

Fat cells are thought to interact with cancer cells in the breast. To learn how, Wen-Hwa Lee at China Medical University in Taiwan and his colleagues grew human breast-cancer cells along with fat cells isolated from human breast tumours that had been surgically removed. The team found that the fat cells promoted the growth of cancer cells that made a protein called MCT2. The researchers pinpointed a small molecule, β-hydroxybutyrate, that is secreted by the fat cells and is transported into tumour cells by MCT2. This molecule upregulated several cancer genes, boosting the growth of human breast-tumour cells that express MCT2.

Nature Commun. 8, 14751 (2017)

Edited by AlPater

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NATURE | NEWS

‘Young poo’ makes aged fish live longer

The gut microbes of young killifish can extend the lifespans of older fish – hinting at the microbiome’s role in ageing.

Ewen Callaway

Nature 544, 147 (13 April 2017) doi:10.1038/nature.2017.21770

https://www.nature.com/news/young-poo-makes-aged-fish-live-longer-1.21770

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Regulation of Life Span by the Gut Microbiota in The Short-Lived African Turquoise Killifish

Patrick Smith, David Willemsen, Miriam Lea Popkes, Franziska Metge, Edson Gandiwa, Martin Reichard, Dario Riccardo Valenzano

doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/120980

http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2017/03/27/120980.full.pdf

Abstract

Gut bacteria occupy the interface between the organism and the external environment, contributing to homeostasis and disease. Yet, the causal role of the gut microbiota during host aging is largely unexplored. Here, using the African turquoise killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri), a naturally short-lived vertebrate, we show that the gut microbiota plays a key role in modulating vertebrate life span. Recolonizing the gut of middle-age individuals with bacteria from young donors resulted in life span extension and delayed behavioral decline. This intervention prevented the decrease in microbial diversity associated with host aging and maintained a young-like gut bacterial community, characterized by overrepresentation of the key genera Exiguobacterium, Planococcus, Propionigenium and Psychrobacter. Our findings demonstrate that the natural microbial gut community of young individuals can causally induce long-lasting beneficial systemic effects that lead to life span extension in a vertebrate model.

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https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2017/04/gut-microbes-from-younger-killifish-extend-life-in-older-killifish/

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http://joshmitteldorf.scienceblog.com/2017/04/10/prolonging-life-with-fecal-transplants/

 

Therapeutic reduction of ataxin-2 extends lifespan and reduces pathology in TDP-43 mice.

Becker LA, Huang B, Bieri G, Ma R, Knowles DA, Jafar-Nejad P, Messing J, Kim HJ, Soriano A, Auburger G, Pulst SM, Taylor JP, Rigo F, Gitler AD.

Nature. 2017 Apr 20;544(7650):367-371. doi: 10.1038/nature22038. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

PMID: 28405022

Abstract

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by motor neuron loss and that leads to paralysis and death 2-5 years after disease onset. Nearly all patients with ALS have aggregates of the RNA-binding protein TDP-43 in their brains and spinal cords, and rare mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43 can cause ALS. There are no effective TDP-43-directed therapies for ALS or related TDP-43 proteinopathies, such as frontotemporal dementia. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and RNA-interference approaches are emerging as attractive therapeutic strategies in neurological diseases. Indeed, treatment of a rat model of inherited ALS (caused by a mutation in Sod1) with ASOs against Sod1 has been shown to substantially slow disease progression. However, as SOD1 mutations account for only around 2-5% of ALS cases, additional therapeutic strategies are needed. Silencing TDP-43 itself is probably not appropriate, given its critical cellular functions. Here we present a promising alternative therapeutic strategy for ALS that involves targeting ataxin-2. A decrease in ataxin-2 suppresses TDP-43 toxicity in yeast and flies, and intermediate-length polyglutamine expansions in the ataxin-2 gene increase risk of ALS. We used two independent approaches to test whether decreasing ataxin-2 levels could mitigate disease in a mouse model of TDP-43 proteinopathy. First, we crossed ataxin-2 knockout mice with TDP-43 (also known as TARDBP) transgenic mice. The decrease in ataxin-2 reduced aggregation of TDP-43, markedly increased survival and improved motor function. Second, in a more therapeutically applicable approach, we administered ASOs targeting ataxin-2 to the central nervous system of TDP-43 transgenic mice. This single treatment markedly extended survival. Because TDP-43 aggregation is a component of nearly all cases of ALS, targeting ataxin-2 could represent a broadly effective therapeutic strategy.

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Antisense oligonucleotide therapy for spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.

Scoles DR, Meera P, Schneider MD, Paul S, Dansithong W, Figueroa KP, Hung G, Rigo F, Bennett CF, Otis TS, Pulst SM.

Nature. 2017 Apr 20;544(7650):362-366. doi: 10.1038/nature22044. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

PMID: 28405024

Abstract

There are no disease-modifying treatments for adult human neurodegenerative diseases. Here we test RNA-targeted therapies in two mouse models of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), an autosomal dominant polyglutamine disease. Both models recreate the progressive adult-onset dysfunction and degeneration of a neuronal network that are seen in patients, including decreased firing frequency of cerebellar Purkinje cells and a decline in motor function. We developed a potential therapy directed at the ATXN2 gene by screening 152 antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). The most promising oligonucleotide, ASO7, downregulated ATXN2 mRNA and protein, which resulted in delayed onset of the SCA2 phenotype. After delivery by intracerebroventricular injection to ATXN2-Q127 mice, ASO7 localized to Purkinje cells, reduced cerebellar ATXN2 expression below 75% for more than 10 weeks without microglial activation, and reduced the levels of cerebellar ATXN2. Treatment of symptomatic mice with ASO7 improved motor function compared to saline-treated mice. ASO7 had a similar effect in the BAC-Q72 SCA2 mouse model, and in both mouse models it normalized protein levels of several SCA2-related proteins expressed in Purkinje cells, including Rgs8, Pcp2, Pcp4, Homer3, Cep76 and Fam107b. Notably, the firing frequency of Purkinje cells returned to normal even when treatment was initiated more than 12 weeks after the onset of the motor phenotype in BAC-Q72 mice. These findings support ASOs as a promising approach for treating some human neurodegenerative diseases.

 

Prostate Cancer Screening - A Perspective on the Current State of the Evidence.

Pinsky PF, Prorok PC, Kramer BS.

N Engl J Med. 2017 Mar 30;376(13):1285-1289. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsb1616281. No abstract available.

PMID: 28355509

Controversy continues to roil around the role of PSA screening in prostate cancer. The authors review the available data and its quality and conclude that the evidence does not indicate that the benefits outweigh the harms.

 

Body-Weight Fluctuations and Outcomes in Coronary Disease.

Bangalore S, Fayyad R, Laskey R, DeMicco DA, Messerli FH, Waters DD.

N Engl J Med. 2017 Apr 6;376(14):1332-1340. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1606148.

PMID: 28379800

Abstract

Background Body-weight fluctuation is a risk factor for death and coronary events in patients without cardiovascular disease. It is not known whether variability in body weight affects outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods We determined intraindividual fluctuations in body weight from baseline weight and follow-up visits and performed a post hoc analysis of the Treating to New Targets trial, which involved assessment of the efficacy and safety of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with atorvastatin. The primary outcome was any coronary event (a composite of death from coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, revascularization, or angina). Secondary outcomes were any cardiovascular event (a composite of any coronary event, a cerebrovascular event, peripheral vascular disease, or heart failure), death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Results Among 9509 participants, after adjustment for risk factors, baseline lipid levels, mean body weight, and weight change, each increase of 1 SD in body-weight variability (measured according to average successive variability and used as a time-dependent covariate) was associated with an increase in the risk of any coronary event (2091 events; hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.07; P=0.01), any cardiovascular event (2727 events; hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.07; P<0.001), and death (487 events; hazard ratio,1.09; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.12; P<0.001). Among patients in the quintile with the highest variation in body weight, the risk of a coronary event was 64% higher, the risk of a cardiovascular event 85% higher, death 124% higher, myocardial infarction 117% higher, and stroke 136% higher than it was among those in the quintile with the lowest variation in body weight in adjusted models. Conclusions Among participants with coronary artery disease, fluctuation in body weight was associated with higher mortality and a higher rate of cardiovascular events independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. (Funded by Pfizer

 

Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.

Rawshani A, Rawshani A, Franzén S, Eliasson B, Svensson AM, Miftaraj M, McGuire DK, Sattar N, Rosengren A, Gudbjörnsdottir S.

N Engl J Med. 2017 Apr 13;376(15):1407-1418. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1608664.

PMID: 28402770

Abstract

Background Long-term trends in excess risk of death and cardiovascular outcomes have not been extensively studied in persons with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. Methods We included patients registered in the Swedish National Diabetes Register from 1998 through 2012 and followed them through 2014. Trends in deaths and cardiovascular events were estimated with Cox regression and standardized incidence rates. For each patient, controls who were matched for age, sex, and county were randomly selected from the general population. Results Among patients with type 1 diabetes, absolute changes during the study period in the incidence rates of sentinel outcomes per 10,000 person-years were as follows: death from any cause, -31.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], -56.1 to -6.7); death from cardiovascular disease, -26.0 (95% CI, -42.6 to -9.4); death from coronary heart disease, -21.7 (95% CI, -37.1 to -6.4); and hospitalization for cardiovascular disease, -45.7 (95% CI, -71.4 to -20.1). Absolute changes per 10,000 person-years among patients with type 2 diabetes were as follows: death from any cause, -69.6 (95% CI, -95.9 to -43.2); death from cardiovascular disease, -110.0 (95% CI, -128.9 to -91.1); death from coronary heart disease, -91.9 (95% CI, -108.9 to -75.0); and hospitalization for cardiovascular disease, -203.6 (95% CI, -230.9 to -176.3). Patients with type 1 diabetes had roughly 40% greater reduction in cardiovascular outcomes than controls, and patients with type 2 diabetes had roughly 20% greater reduction than controls. Reductions in fatal outcomes were similar in patients with type 1 diabetes and controls, whereas patients with type 2 diabetes had smaller reductions in fatal outcomes than controls. Conclusions In Sweden from 1998 through 2014, mortality and the incidence of cardiovascular outcomes declined substantially among persons with diabetes, although fatal outcomes declined less among those with type 2 diabetes than among controls.

 

Screening for Colorectal Neoplasia.

N Engl J Med. 2017 Apr 20;376(16):

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Screening+for+Colorectal+Neoplasia+N+Engl+J+Med+2017

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc1702535

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[i could not access the full-texts of the two below papers.]

Phenolic Compounds and Its Bioavailability: In Vitro Bioactive Compounds or Health Promoters?

Ferreira ICFR, Martins N, Barros L.

Adv Food Nutr Res. 2017;82:1-44. doi: 10.1016/bs.afnr.2016.12.004. Epub 2017 Jan 11.

PMID: 28427530

Abstract

Botanical preparations present a widespread and secular history of use. In fact, natural matrices possess a rich pool of phytochemicals, with promising biological effects. Among them, phenolic compounds have revealed to confer very important attributes to improve the well-being and longevity of worldwide population. Numerous in vitro studies have been carried out evaluating the wide spectrum of bioactivities of phenolic compounds, including its health effects, but through in vivo experiments some of these previous results cannot be properly confirmed, and considerable variations are observed. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including the assessment of bioavailability and bioefficacy of phenolic compounds, still continue to be largely investigated and considered a great hot topic among the food science and technology researchers. Thus, based on these crucial aspects, this chapter aims to provide an extensive approach about the question of the bioavailability of phenolic compounds, describing its biosynthetic routes and related mechanisms of action; to focus on the current facts and existing controversies, highlighting the importance of in vivo studies and the impact of phenolic compounds on the quality of life and longevity.

KEYWORDS:

Bioavailability; Bioefficacy; Health-promoting effects; Phenolic compounds

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Health Risks of Food Oxidation.

Estévez M, Li Z, Soladoye OP, Van-Hecke T.

Adv Food Nutr Res. 2017;82:45-81. doi: 10.1016/bs.afnr.2016.12.005. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

PMID: 28427536

Abstract

The impact of dietary habits on our health is indisputable. Consumer's concern on aging and age-related diseases challenges scientists to underline the potential role of food on the extension and guarantee of lifespan and healthspan. While some dietary components and habits are generally regarded as beneficial for our health, some others are being found to exert potential toxic effects and hence, contribute to the onset of particular health disorders. Among the latter, lipid and protein oxidation products formed during food production, storage, processing, and culinary preparation have been recently identified as potentially harmful to humans. Upon intake, food components are further degraded and oxidized during the subsequent digestion phases and the pool of compounds formed in the lumen is in close contact with the lamina propria of the intestines. Some of these oxidation products have been found to promote inflammatory conditions in the gut (i.e., bowel diseases) and are also reasonably linked to the onset of carcinogenic processes. Upon intestinal uptake, some species are distributed by the bloodstream causing an increase in oxidative stress markers and impairment of certain physiological processes through alteration of specific gene expression pathways. This chapter summarizes the most recent discoveries on this topic with particular stress on challenges that we face in the near future: understanding the molecular basis of disease, the suitability of using living animals vs in vitro model systems and the necessity of using massive genomic techniques and versatile mass spectrometric technology.

KEYWORDS:

4-Hydroxy-nonenal; Malondialdehyde; Oxidative stress; Pathological conditions; Protein carbonyls; Thiols

 

Association Between Serum Vitamin D and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Death in a General Japanese Population - The Hisayama Study.

Umehara K, Mukai N, Hata J, Hirakawa Y, Ohara T, Yoshida D, Kishimoto H, Kitazono T, Hoka S, Kiyohara Y, Ninomiya T.

Circ J. 2017 Apr 20. doi: 10.1253/circj.CJ-16-0954. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28428487

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Few studies have investigated the association between serum vitamin D levels and mortality in general Asian populations.Methods and Results:We examined the association of serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) levels with the risk of all-cause and cause-specific death in an average 9.5-year follow-up study of 3,292 community-dwelling Japanese subjects aged ≥40 years (2002-2012). The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause death increased significantly with lower serum 1,25(OH)2D levels (HR 1.54 [95% confidence interval, 1.18-2.01] for the lowest quartile, 1.31 [0.99-1.73] for the 2nd quartile, 0.94 [0.70-1.25] for the 3rd quartile, 1.00 [Ref.] for highest quartile; P for trend <0.001). A similar association was observed for cardiovascular and respiratory infection death (both P for trend <0.01), but not for cancer death or death from other causes. In the stratified analysis, the association between lower serum 1,25(OH)2D levels and the risk of respiratory infection death was stronger in subjects with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2than in those with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2; there was a significant heterogeneity in the association between eGFR levels (P for heterogeneity=0.04).

CONCLUSIONS:

The findings suggested that a lower serum 1,25(OH)2D level is a potential risk factor for all-cause death, especially cardiovascular and respiratory infection death, in the general Japanese population, and that lower serum 1,25(OH)2D levels greatly increase the risk of respiratory infection death in subjects with kidney dysfunction.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular death; General population; Prospective cohort study; Respiratory infection death; Vitamin D

 

Consumption of fruits and vegetables and risk of renal cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

Zhang S, Jia Z, Yan Z, Yang J.

Oncotarget. 2017 Mar 2. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.15841. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28427188

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There have been inconsistent results about the association between consumption of fruits and vegetables and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk. We conducted a meta-analysis of the published observational studies to explore this association.

RESULTS:

Nineteen observational studies (4 cohort, 1 pooled and 14 case-control studies), involving 10,215 subjects with RCC were part of this meta-analysis. The SRR for the highest vs. the lowest intake of vegetables was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.63-0.85; Pheterogeneity = 0.004, I2 = 53.5%), whereas for fruits it was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.75-0.98; Pheterogeneity = 0.012, I2 = 47.4%). Linear dose-response analysis also showed similar results, e.g., for per 1 serving/day increment of vegetables, the SRR was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.84-0.96) and for fruits it was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.93-1.01). Nonlinear association was only observed for vegetables (Pnonlinearity = 0.001), but not for fruits (Pnonlinearity = 0.221).

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Eligible studies up to August 31, 2016 were identified and retrieved by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases along with manual review of the reference list from the retrieved studies. Quality of included studies was evaluated using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS). Random-effects model was used to calculate summary relative risk (SRR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI).

CONCLUSIONS:

This meta-analysis indicated a protective effect of consumption of vegetables and fruits on RCC risk. Further studies are warranted with prospective designs that use validated questionnaires and control for important confounders.

KEYWORDS:

fruits and vegetables; meta-analysis; relative risk; renal cell carcinoma

 

Increased Rate of Adenoma Detection Associates With Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Death.

Kaminski MF, Wieszczy P, Rupinski M, Wojciechowska U, Didkowska J, Kraszewska E, Kobiela J, Franczyk R, Rupinska M, Kocot B, Chaber-Ciopinska A, Pachlewski J, Polkowski M, Regula J.

Gastroenterology. 2017 Apr 17. pii: S0016-5085(17)35441-0. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.04.006. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28428142

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Quality of endoscopists' performance of colonoscopy is measured by adenoma detection rate (ADR). Although ADR is inversely associated with interval colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer death, the effects of increasing ADR have not been demonstrated. We investigated whether increasing ADRs from individual endoscopists associates with reduced risks of interval colorectal cancer and subsequent death METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of individuals who underwent screening colonoscopy within the National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program in Poland, from January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2008. We collected data from 146,860 colonoscopies performed by 294 endoscopists, with each endoscopist having participated at least twice in annual editions of primary colonoscopy screening. We used annual feedback and quality benchmark indicators to improve colonoscopy performance. We used ADR quintiles in the whole dataset to categorize the annual ADRs for each endoscopist. An increased ADR was defined as an increase by at least 1 quintile category, or the maintenance of the highest category in subsequent screening years. Multivariate frailty models were used to evaluate the effects of increased ADR on the risk of interval colorectal cancer and death.

RESULTS:

Throughout the enrollment period, 219 endoscopists (74.5%) increased their annual ADR category. During 895,916 person-years of follow-up through the National Cancer Registry, we identified 168 interval colorectal cancers and 44 interval cancer deaths. An increased ADR was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio for interval colorectal cancer of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.45-0.88; P=.006), and for cancer death of 0.50 (95% CI, 0.27-0.95; P=.035). Compared with no increase in ADR, reaching or maintaining the highest quintile ADR category (such as and ADR above 24.56%) lowered the adjusted hazard ratios for interval colorectal cancer to 0.27 (95% CI, 0.12-0.63; P=.003), and 0.18 (95% CI, 0.06-0.56; P=.003), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a prospective study of individuals who underwent screening colonoscopy within a National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program, we associated increased ADR with reduced risk of interval colorectal cancer and death.

KEYWORDS:

colon cancer; early detection; efficacy; tumor

 

High-quality Diets Associate With Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer: Analyses of Diet Quality Indexes in the Multiethnic Cohort.

Park SY, Boushey CJ, Wilkens LR, Haiman CA, Le Marchand L.

Gastroenterology. 2017 Apr 17. pii: S0016-5085(17)35439-2. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.04.004. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28428143

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Healthy eating patterns assessed by diet quality indexes (DQIs) have been related to lower risk of colorectal cancer-mostly among whites. We investigated the associations between 4 DQI scores (the Healthy Eating Index 2010 [HEI-2010], the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 [AHEI-2010], the alternate Mediterranean diet score [aMED], and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score) and colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort.

METHODS:

We analyzed data from 190,949 African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos and whites, 45-75 years old, who entered the Multiethnic Cohort study from 1993 through 1996. During an average 16 years of follow up, 4770 invasive colorectal cancer cases were identified.

RESULTS:

Scores from all 4 DQIs associated inversely with colorectal cancer risk; higher scores associated with decreasing colorectal cancer risk (all P's for trend ≤ .003). Associations were not significant for AHEI-2010 and aMED scores in women after adjustment for covariates: for the highest vs lowest quintiles, the hazard ratio for the for the HEI-2010 score in men was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.59-0.80) and in women was 0.82 (95% CI , 0.70-0.96); for the AHEI-2010 score the hazard ratio in men was 0.75 (95% CI , 0.65-0.85) and in women was 0.90 (95% CI , 0.78-1.04); for the aMED score the hazard ratio in men was 0.84 (95% CI , 0.73-0.97) and in women was 0.96 (95% CI , 0.82-1.13); for the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score the hazard ratio in men was 0.75 (95% CI , 0.66-0.86) and in women was 0.86 (95% CI , 0.75-1.00). Associations were limited to the left colon and rectum for all indexes. The inverse associations were less strong in African Americans than in the other 4 racial/ethnic groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Based on an analysis of data from the Multiethnic Cohort Study, high-quality diets are associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer in most racial/ethnic subgroups.

KEYWORDS:

DASH; colon cancer; food; nutrition

 

 

Sugar- and Artificially Sweetened Beverages and the Risks of Incident Stroke and Dementia: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Pase MP, Himali JJ, Beiser AS, Aparicio HJ, Satizabal CL, Vasan RS, Seshadri S, Jacques PF.

Stroke. 2017 Apr 20. pii: STROKEAHA.116.016027. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.016027. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28428346

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Sugar- and artificially-sweetened beverage intake have been linked to cardiometabolic risk factors, which increase the risk of cerebrovascular disease and dementia. We examined whether sugar- or artificially sweetened beverage consumption was associated with the prospective risks of incident stroke or dementia in the community-based Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort.

METHODS:

We studied 2888 participants aged >45 years for incident stroke (mean age 62 [sD, 9] years; 45% men) and 1484 participants aged >60 years for incident dementia (mean age 69 [sD, 6] years; 46% men). Beverage intake was quantified using a food-frequency questionnaire at cohort examinations 5 (1991-1995), 6 (1995-1998), and 7 (1998-2001). We quantified recent consumption at examination 7 and cumulative consumption by averaging across examinations. Surveillance for incident events commenced at examination 7 and continued for 10 years. We observed 97 cases of incident stroke (82 ischemic) and 81 cases of incident dementia (63 consistent with Alzheimer's disease).

RESULTS:

After adjustments for age, sex, education (for analysis of dementia), caloric intake, diet quality, physical activity, and smoking, higher recent and higher cumulative intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks were associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, all-cause dementia, and Alzheimer's disease dementia. When comparing daily cumulative intake to 0 per week (reference), the hazard ratios were 2.96 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-6.97) for ischemic stroke and 2.89 (95% confidence interval, 1.18-7.07) for Alzheimer's disease. Sugar-sweetened beverages were not associated with stroke or dementia.

CONCLUSIONS:

Artificially sweetened soft drink consumption was associated with a higher risk of stroke and dementia.

KEYWORDS:

Framingham Heart Study; dementia; soft drinks; stroke; sugar

 

Red and processed meat consumption and gastric cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Zhao Z, Yin Z, Zhao Q.

Oncotarget. 2017 Feb 25. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.15699. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 28430644

http://www.impactjournals.com/oncotarget/index.php?journal=oncotarget&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=15699&path%5B%5D=50207

Abstract

The associations between red and processed meat consumption and gastric cancer risk have remained inconclusive. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze these associations. We searched PubMed and EMBASE to identify studies published from inception through October 2016. Subtype analyses of gastric cancer (gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and gastric non-cardiac adenocarcinoma) and dose-response analyses were performed. We finally selected 42 eligible studies. The summary relative risks of highest versus lowest consumption were positive for case-control studies with 1.67 (1.36-2.05) for red meat and 1.76 (1.51-2.05) for processed meat, but negative for cohort studies with 1.14 (0.97-1.34) for red meat and 1.23 (0.98-1.55) for processed meat. Subtype analyses of cohort studies suggested null results for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (red meat, P = 0.79; processed meat, P = 0.89) and gastric non-cardiac adenocarcinoma (red meat, P = 0.12; processed meat, P = 0.12). In conclusion, the present analysis suggested null results between red and processed meat consumption and gastric cancer risk in cohort studies, although case-control studies yielded positive associations. Further well-designed prospective studies are needed to validate these findings.

KEYWORDS:

diet; gastric cancer; meta-analysis; processed meat; red meat

 

Effect modification of green tea on the association between rice intake and the risk of diabetes mellitus: a prospective study in Japanese men and women.

Hirata A, Ohnaka K, Tashiro N, Wang Z, Kohno M, Kiyohara C, Kono S, Takayanagi R.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017 May;26(3):545-555. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.042016.04.

PMID: 28429922

http://apjcn.nhri.org.tw/server/apjcn/26/3/0357.pdf

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Recent observational studies have suggested a positive association of white rice and protective associations of green tea and coffee with the risk of diabetes. However, none have examined the interaction between these dietary factors on the risk of diabetes. We prospectively investigated the effect modification of green tea and coffee on the association between rice and incident diabetes in elderly Japanese men and women.

METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN:

Among subjects who participated in the baseline survey (2004-2007), 11717 (91 %) subjects responded to the follow-up survey (2010-2012). By using multiple logistic regression analysis, ORs of incident diabetes were calculated according to categories of cereal food, green tea, and coffee intakes, examining also the effect modification of green tea and coffee.

RESULTS:

464 new cases of diabetes were identified. Women, but not men, showed a positive association of rice intake (trend p=0.008) and an inverse association of green tea intake (trend p=0.02) with incident diabetes. Coffee showed no association with incident diabetes either in men or women. In the analysis stratified by green tea intake, the association between rice and diabetes disappeared among women with an intake of >=7 cups/d of green tea (interaction p=0.08).

CONCLUSIONS:

Rice intake was associated with an increased risk of diabetes only in women, and women with a higher intake of green tea had a lower risk of diabetes. A high intake of green tea may be protective against increased risk of diabetes with a higher intake of rice in women.

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Safety of Adding Oats to a Gluten-free Diet for Patients with Celiac Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Clinical and Observational Studies.

Pinto-Sánchez MI, Causada-Calo N, Bercik P, Ford AC, Murray JA, Armstrong D, Semrad C, Kupfer SS, Alaedini A, Moayyedi P, Leffler DA, Verdú EF, Green P.

Gastroenterology. 2017 Apr 18. pii: S0016-5085(17)35474-4. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.04.009. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28431885

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Patients with celiac disease should maintain a gluten-free diet (GFD), excluding wheat, rye, and barley. Oats might increase the nutritional value of a GFD, but their including is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the safety of oats as part of a GFD in patients with celiac disease.

METHODS:

We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases for clinical trials and observational studies of the effects of including oats in GFD of patients with celiac disease. The studies reported patients' symptoms, results from serology tests, and findings from histologic analyses. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence.

RESULTS:

We identified 433 studies; 28 were eligible for analysis. Of these, 6 were randomized and 2 were not-randomized controlled trials comprising a total of 661 patients-the remaining studies were observational. All randomized controlled trials used pure/uncontaminated oats. Oat consumption for 12 months did not affect symptoms (standardized mean difference: reduction in symptom scores in patients who did and did not consumed oats, -0.22; 95% CI: -0.56 to 0.13; P=.22), histologic scores (relative risk for histologic findings in patients who consumed oats, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.01 to 4.8; P=.35), intraepithelial lymphocyte counts (standardized mean difference: 0.21; 95% CI, reduction of 1.44 to increase in 1.86), or results from serologic tests. Subgroup analyses of adults vs children did not reveal differences. The overall quality of evidence was low.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found no evidence that addition of oats to a GFD affects symptoms, histology, immunity, or serologic features of patients with celiac disease. However, there were few studies for many endpoints, as well as limited geographic distribution and low quality of evidence. Rigorous double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trials, using commonly available oats sourced from different regions, are needed.

KEYWORDS:

gluten sensitivity; histology; nutrition; symptoms

 

Increased blood cadmium levels were not associated with increased fracture risk but with increased total mortality in women: the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study.

Moberg L, Nilsson PM, Samsioe G, Sallsten G, Barregard L, Engström G, Borgfeldt C.

Osteoporos Int. 2017 Apr 21. doi: 10.1007/s00198-017-4047-7. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28432383

http://paperity.org/p/79501892/increased-blood-cadmium-levels-were-not-associated-with-increased-fracture-risk-but-with

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate if high levels of blood cadmium at baseline were associated with increased fracture risk during follow-up in middle-aged women. No increased fracture risk was observed during follow-up, but women with higher levels of cadmium had an increased overall mortality.

INTRODUCTION:

Exposure to high levels of cadmium has been associated with an increased fracture risk. The aim was to investigate a perceived association between low levels of blood cadmium (B-Cd) at baseline and risk of first incident fracture.

METHODS:

From the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study Cardiovascular cohort, 2920 middle-aged women with available background questionnaire and B-Cd measurements were included. Women were divided into quartiles (Q) according to their cadmium levels (Cd-Q1 <0.18 μg/L, Cd-Q2 0.18-0.28 μg/L, Cd-Q3 0.28-0.51 μg/L, and Cd-Q4 >0.51 μg/L). National registries were analysed for prospective risk of fractures or death. Associations between B-Cd and fracture risk were assessed by survival analysis (Cox regression analysis).

RESULTS:

In total, 998 first incident fractures occurred in women during a follow-up lasting 20.2 years (median) (12.5-21.2 years) (25th-75th percentile). Women in Cd-Q4 were more often current smokers than in Cd-Q1 78.4 vs. 3.3% (p < 0.001) and the number of cigarettes smoked per day correlated with B-Cd (r = 0.49; p < 0.001). The risk of fracture was not associated with baseline B-Cd in adjusted models. The hazard ratio (HR) Cd-Q4 vs. Cd-Q1 was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-1.27). In the multivariate Cox regression, independent variables for increased fracture risk were history of gastric ulcer and increasing age, whereas increasing body mass index (BMI) lowered fracture risk. Overall mortality was significantly higher for women with high B-Cd, HR 2.06 (95% CI 1.57-2.69).

CONCLUSIONS:

Higher blood levels of cadmium did not increase fracture risk in middle-aged women but reduced overall survival.

KEYWORDS:

Cadmium; Diabetes mellitus; Fracture risk; Gastric ulcer; Mortality; Women

 

Systolic Blood Pressure Trajectory, Frailty and All-Cause Mortality Over 80 Years of Age. Cohort Study Using Electronic Health Records.

Ravindrarajah R, Hazra NC, Hamada S, Charlton J, Jackson SHD, Dregan A, Gulliford MC.

Circulation. 2017 Apr 21. pii: CIRCULATIONAHA.116.026687. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.026687. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28432148

Abstract

Background -Clinical trials show benefit from lowering systolic blood pressure in people aged ≥80 years but non-randomised epidemiological studies suggest lower systolic blood pressure may be associated with higher mortality. This study aimed to evaluate associations of SBP with all-cause mortality by frailty category over 80 years of age and to evaluate SBP trajectories before death. Methods -A population-based cohort study was conducted using electronic health records of 144,403 participants aged 80 and older registered with family practices in the United Kingdom from 2001 to 2014. Participants were followed for up to five years. Clinical records of systolic blood pressure (SBP) were analysed. Frailty status was classified, using the e-Frailty Index, into the categories of 'fit', 'mild', 'moderate' and 'severe' frailty. All-cause mortality was evaluated by frailty status and mean SBP in Cox proportional hazards models. SBP trajectories were evaluated using person months as observations, with mean SBP and antihypertensive treatment status estimated for each person month. Fractional polynomial models were used to estimate SBP trajectories over five years before death.

Results -There were 51,808 deaths during follow-up. Mortality rates increased with frailty level and were greatest at SBP <110 mm Hg. In 'fit' women, mortality was 7.7 per 100 person years at SBP 120-139 mm Hg, 15.2 at SBP 110-119 mm Hg and 22.7 at SBP <110 mm Hg; for women with 'severe' frailty, rates were 16.8, 25.2 and 39.6 respectively. SBP trajectories showed an accelerated decline in the last two years of life. The relative odds of SBP<120 mm Hg were higher in the last three months of life than five years previously both in treated (odds ratio 6.06, 95% confidence interval 5.40 to 6.81) and untreated patients (6.31, 5.30 to 7.52). There was no evidence of intensification of antihypertensive therapy in the final two years of life. Conclusions -A terminal decline of SBP in the final two years of life suggests that non-randomized epidemiological associations of low SBP with higher mortality may be accounted for by reverse causation, if participants with lower blood pressure values are closer, on average, to the end of life.

 

Does Supplementation with Omega-3 PUFAs Add to the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease?

Rizos EC, Elisaf MS.

Curr Cardiol Rep. 2017 Jun;19(6):47. doi: 10.1007/s11886-017-0856-8. Review.

PMID: 28432658

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1007/s11886-017-0856-8

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Omega-3 fatty acids are increasingly used for the protection of cardiovascular disease. The main but not the sole mechanism of action is the reduction of triglyceride levels. In this review, we summarize the effect of omega-3 supplements on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke from the relevant randomized controlled trials.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Twenty-one randomized controlled trials assessed omega-3 supplementation on mortality and cardiovascular-related outcomes. From these studies, as well as from the relevant meta-analyses, we found that omega-3 supplements do not exert a consistent benefit for cardiovascular protection. There is uncertainty of a clear profit from omega-3 supplementation in cardiovascular disease.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular; Death; Fish oil; Myocardial infarction; Omega 3; Polyunsaturated fatty acids

 

Cumulative Exposure to Systolic Blood Pressure During Young Adulthood Through Midlife and the Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio at Midlife.

Kramer H, Colangelo L, Lewis CE, Jacobs DR Jr, Pletcher M, Bibbins-Domingo K, Chang A, Siscovick D, Shlipak M, Peralta CA, Bansal N, Muntner P, Liu K.

Am J Hypertens. 2017 May 1;30(5):502-509. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpx012.

PMID: 28338726

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Higher blood pressure during young adulthood may increase cardiovascular and kidney disease risk later in life. This study examined the association of cumulative systolic blood pressure (SBP) exposure during young adulthood through midlife with urine albumin-to-creatinine ratios (ACR) measured during midlife.

METHODS:

We used data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a biracial cohort recruited in 4 urban areas during years 1985-1986. Cumulative SBP was calculated as the average SBP between 2 exams multiplied by years between exams over 20 year years. ACR was measured 20 years after baseline when participants were age 43-50 years (midlife). A generalized additive model was used to examine the association of log ACR as a function of cumulative SBP with adjustment for covariates including SBP measured concurrently with ACR.

RESULTS:

Cumulative SBP ranged from a low of 1,671 to a high of 3,260 mm Hg. Participants in the highest cumulative SBP quartile were more likely to be male (61.4% vs. 20.7%; P < 0.001), Black (61.5% vs. 25.6%; P < 0.001) and have elevated ACR (18.7% vs. 4.8%; P < 0.001) vs. lowest quartile. Spline regression curves of ACR vs. cumulative SBP demonstrated an inflection point in ACR with cumulative SBP levels >2,350 mm Hg with linear increases in ACR above this threshold. Adjusted geometric mean ACR values were significantly higher with cumulative SBP ≥2,500 vs. <2500 (9.18 [1.06] vs. 6.92 [1.02]; P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSION:

Higher SBP during young adulthood through midlife is associated with higher ACR during midlife.

KEYWORDS:

albumin-to-creatinine ratios; blood pressure; chronic kidney disease; hypertension; microalbuminuria; midlife; race; risk factors; systolic blood pressure; urine albumin excretion; young adulthood; young adulthood.

 

Lysosomal cholesterol activates mTORC1.

Ray LB.

Science. 2017 Mar 24;355(6331):1277-1279. doi: 10.1126/science.355.6331.1277-q. Epub 2017 Mar 23. No abstract available.

PMID: 28336650

The mTORC1 kinase is a master nutrient sensor that governs cellular metabolism. When dysregulated, this kinase drives several human diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Recent work has delineated a pathway through which amino acids regulate mTORC1. In contrast, little is known about how sterols may affect mTORC1 signaling. Castellano et al. provide detailed mechanistic evidence for how cholesterol, derived from the processing of low-density lipoprotein in the lysosomal lumen, drives mTORC1 signaling. They identify the key players that couple lysosomal cholesterol levels to mTORC1 activation. Unexpectedly, the putative amino acid transporter SLC38A9, which is implicated in mTORC1 regulation by arginine, is essential for mTORC1 activation by cholesterol. Furthermore, the authors uncover a physical and functional interaction between SLC38A9 and the major lysosomal cholesterol transporter, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein. The SLC38A9-NPC1 complex is key to the ability of mTORC1 to respond to variations in dietary lipid supply.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Lysosomal cholesterol activates mTORC1 via an SLC38A9-Niemann-Pick C1 signaling complex.

Castellano BM, Thelen AM, Moldavski O, Feltes M, van der Welle RE, Mydock-McGrane L, Jiang X, van Eijkeren RJ, Davis OB, Louie SM, Perera RM, Covey DF, Nomura DK, Ory DS, Zoncu R.

Science. 2017 Mar 24;355(6331):1306-1311. doi: 10.1126/science.aag1417.

PMID: 28336668

A cholesterol-mTORC1 axis may play a role in metabolic homeostasis in normal and disease states.

Abstract

The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) protein kinase is a master growth regulator that becomes activated at the lysosome in response to nutrient cues. Here, we identify cholesterol, an essential building block for cellular growth, as a nutrient input that drives mTORC1 recruitment and activation at the lysosomal surface. The lysosomal transmembrane protein, SLC38A9, is required for mTORC1 activation by cholesterol through conserved cholesterol-responsive motifs. Moreover, SLC38A9 enables mTORC1 activation by cholesterol independently from its arginine-sensing function. Conversely, the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein, which regulates cholesterol export from the lysosome, binds to SLC38A9 and inhibits mTORC1 signaling through its sterol transport function. Thus, lysosomal cholesterol drives mTORC1 activation and growth signaling through the SLC38A9-NPC1 complex.

 

NAD+ binding modulates protein interactions.

Ray LB.

Science. 2017 Mar 24;355(6331):1277-1279. doi: 10.1126/science.355.6331.1277-r. Epub 2017 Mar 23. No abstract available.

PMID: 28336651

An unexpected function of the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) could underlie some effects of aging and propensity to age-related diseases. Li et al. found that the protein DBC1 (deleted in breast cancer 1) contains a domain that specifically binds NAD+. Binding of NAD+ inhibited the interaction of DBC1 with PARP1 [poly(adenosine diphosphate–ribose) polymerase 1], an enzyme important in DNA repair. Activity of PARP1 is inhibited by interaction with DBC1. Thus, the reduced abundance of NAD+ associated with aging may decrease PARP1 activity by promoting the interaction of PARP1 with DBC1. This mechanism could help explain the reported rejuvenating actions of NAD+ supplementation in older animals.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

A conserved NAD<sup>+</sup> binding pocket that regulates protein-protein interactions during aging.

Li J, Bonkowski MS, Moniot S, Zhang D, Hubbard BP, Ling AJ, Rajman LA, Qin B, Lou Z, Gorbunova V, Aravind L, Steegborn C, Sinclair DA.

Science. 2017 Mar 24;355(6331):1312-1317. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8242.

PMID: 28336669

NAD+ can influence DNA repair by modulating protein interactions.

Abstract

DNA repair is essential for life, yet its efficiency declines with age for reasons that are unclear. Numerous proteins possess Nudix homology domains (NHDs) that have no known function. We show that NHDs are NAD+ (oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) binding domains that regulate protein-protein interactions. The binding of NAD+ to the NHD domain of DBC1 (deleted in breast cancer 1) prevents it from inhibiting PARP1 [poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase], a critical DNA repair protein. As mice age and NAD+ concentrations decline, DBC1 is increasingly bound to PARP1, causing DNA damage to accumulate, a process rapidly reversed by restoring the abundance of NAD+ Thus, NAD+ directly regulates protein-protein interactions, the modulation of which may protect against cancer, radiation, and aging.

 

Stronger pancreas through starvation.

Ray LB.

Science. 2017 Mar 24;355(6331):1278. doi: 10.1126/science.355.6331.1278-c. No abstract available.

PMID: 28336658

Starvation stresses an animal and can cause tissue loss. Regeneration after refeeding seems to mimic developmental activation of cells and replenishes depleted tissues. Cheng et al. tested the effects on mice of a low-calorie (low in carbohydrates and protein) but high-fat diet that resembles the metabolic effects of fasting but is easier for humans to tolerate. In models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, mice on this diet showed improved insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. The diet promoted signaling and transcriptional changes reminiscent of those that occur during the development of pancreatic endocrine cells. The findings raise the possibility of reprogramming endogenous cells in the pancreas to restore function lost in diabetes.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Fasting-Mimicking Diet Promotes Ngn3-Driven β-Cell Regeneration to Reverse Diabetes.

Cheng CW, Villani V, Buono R, Wei M, Kumar S, Yilmaz OH, Cohen P, Sneddon JB, Perin L, Longo VD.

Cell. 2017 Feb 23;168(5):775-788.e12. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.01.040.

PMID: 28235195

https://www.crsociety.org/topic/11800-als-cr-updates/page-7?hl=28235195&do=findComment&comment=20817

 

Influence of diet on the gut microbiome and implications for human health.

Singh RK, Chang HW, Yan D, Lee KM, Ucmak D, Wong K, Abrouk M, Farahnik B, Nakamura M, Zhu TH, Bhutani T, Liao W.

J Transl Med. 2017 Apr 8;15(1):73. doi: 10.1186/s12967-017-1175-y. Review.

PMID: 28388917 Free PMC Article

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5385025/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5385025/pdf/12967_2017_Article_1175.pdf

Abstract

Recent studies have suggested that the intestinal microbiome plays an important role in modulating risk of several chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. At the same time, it is now understood that diet plays a significant role in shaping the microbiome, with experiments showing that dietary alterations can induce large, temporary microbial shifts within 24 h. Given this association, there may be significant therapeutic utility in altering microbial composition through diet. This review systematically evaluates current data regarding the effects of several common dietary components on intestinal microbiota. We show that consumption of particular types of food produces predictable shifts in existing host bacterial genera. Furthermore, the identity of these bacteria affects host immune and metabolic parameters, with broad implications for human health. Familiarity with these associations will be of tremendous use to the practitioner as well as the patient.

KEYWORDS:

Diet; Health; Metabolism; Microbiome; Microbiota; Nutrition

 

Genes, environment, and "bad luck".

Nowak MA, Waclaw B.

Science. 2017 Mar 24;355(6331):1266-1267. doi: 10.1126/science.aam9746. No abstract available.

PMID: 28336626

Explaining cancer risk in a statistical sense

Summary

It is a human trait to search for explanations for catastrophic events and rule out mere “chance” or “bad luck.” When it comes to human cancer, the issue of natural causes versus bad luck was raised by Tomasetti and Vogelstein about 2 years ago (1). Their study, which was widely misinterpreted as saying that most cancers are due neither to genetic inheritance nor environmental factors but simply bad luck, sparked controversy. To date, a few hundred papers have been written in response, including (2–6), with some [e.g., (2)] coming to opposite conclusions. What is this controversy about? Tomasetti and Vogelstein concluded that 65% of the differences in the risk of certain cancers is linked to stem cell divisions in the various cancerous tissues examined (1). On page 1330 of this issue, Tomasetti et al. (7) provide further evidence that this is not specific to the United States.

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Stem cell divisions, somatic mutations, cancer etiology, and cancer prevention.

Tomasetti C, Li L, Vogelstein B.

Science. 2017 Mar 24;355(6331):1330-1334. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf9011.

PMID: 28336671

Abstract

Cancers are caused by mutations that may be inherited, induced by environmental factors, or result from DNA replication errors ®. We studied the relationship between the number of normal stem cell divisions and the risk of 17 cancer types in 69 countries throughout the world. The data revealed a strong correlation (median = 0.80) between cancer incidence and normal stem cell divisions in all countries, regardless of their environment. The major role of R mutations in cancer etiology was supported by an independent approach, based solely on cancer genome sequencing and epidemiological data, which suggested that R mutations are responsible for two-thirds of the mutations in human cancers. All of these results are consistent with epidemiological estimates of the fraction of cancers that can be prevented by changes in the environment. Moreover, they accentuate the importance of early detection and intervention to reduce deaths from the many cancers arising from unavoidable R mutations.

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The Scientist » The Nutshell

An Epigenetic Aging Clock for Mice

By Diana Kwon | April 21, 2017

http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/49250/title/An-Epigenetic-Aging-Clock-for-Mice/&utm_campaign=NEWSLETTER_TS_The-Scientist-Daily_2016&utm_source=hs_email&utm_medium=email&utm_content=51147910&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-9HLzPW5uDwiMmljMuuLIOGQ_P49mrxEfj0FUnuWr00_J7Bp2Pz21ipkXLlBml0h1pp-jkDCC0rXuz8Ip94ut77157dFQ&_hsmi=51147910

Scientists predict rodents’ ages by assessing DNA methylation markers in various tissues.

>>>>>>

Multi-tissue DNA methylation age predictor in mouse.

Stubbs TM, Bonder MJ, Stark AK, Krueger F; BI Ageing Clock Team., von Meyenn F, Stegle O, Reik W.

Genome Biol. 2017 Apr 11;18(1):68. doi: 10.1186/s13059-017-1203-5.

PMID: 28399939 Free PMC Article

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5389178/

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

DNA methylation changes at a discrete set of sites in the human genome are predictive of chronological and biological age. However, it is not known whether these changes are causative or a consequence of an underlying ageing process. It has also not been shown whether this epigenetic clock is unique to humans or conserved in the more experimentally tractable mouse.

RESULTS:

We have generated a comprehensive set of genome-scale base-resolution methylation maps from multiple mouse tissues spanning a wide range of ages. Many CpG sites show significant tissue-independent correlations with age which allowed us to develop a multi-tissue predictor of age in the mouse. Our model, which estimates age based on DNA methylation at 329 unique CpG sites, has a median absolute error of 3.33 weeks and has similar properties to the recently described human epigenetic clock. Using publicly available datasets, we find that the mouse clock is accurate enough to measure effects on biological age, including in the context of interventions. While females and males show no significant differences in predicted DNA methylation age, ovariectomy results in significant age acceleration in females. Furthermore, we identify significant differences in age-acceleration dependent on the lipid content of the diet.

CONCLUSIONS:

Here we identify and characterise an epigenetic predictor of age in mice, the mouse epigenetic clock. This clock will be instrumental for understanding the biology of ageing and will allow modulation of its ticking rate and resetting the clock in vivo to study the impact on biological age.

KEYWORDS:

Ageing/aging; Biological age; Chronological age; DNA methylation; Epigenetic clock; Epigenetics; High fat diet; Model; Ovariectomy; Prediction

 

Slow gait speed as a predictor of 1-year cognitive decline in a veterans' retirement community in southern Taiwan.

Hsu CL, Liang CK, Liao MC, Chou MY, Lin YT.

Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2017 Apr;17 Suppl 1:14-19. doi: 10.1111/ggi.13034.

PMID: 28436187

Abstract

AIM:

Slow gait speed has been associated with mortality, poor physical function and disability in older people. Our aim was to evaluate the association between slow gait speed and rapid cognitive decline among oldest-old men in Taiwan.

METHODS:

We carried out a longitudinal cohort study in a veterans' retirement community, and enrolled 249 male residents aged 80 years and older. Slow gait speed was defined as <1 m/s, and rapid cognitive decline was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) decline of ≥3 points over 1 year. Body mass index, Charlson's Comorbidity Index, handgrip strength, gait speed and Mini-Mental State Examination datasets were collected, and a logistic regression model was built to evaluate the association between fast cognitive decline and slow gait speed.

RESULTS:

In all, 249 residents (mean age 86.4 ± 4.01 years) were recruited, including 58 (23.3%) with rapid cognitive decline. Univariate analysis showed that slow gait speed could predict rapid cognitive decline (OR 4.10, 95% CI 1.20-14.00, P = 0.024). After adjusting for age, Charlson's Comorbidity Index, polypharmacy, psychiatric drug usage, cigarette smoking experience, baseline cognitive function, depressive mood, handgrip strength, nutritional status and history of fall, slow gait speed was still independently associated with rapid cognitive decline (adjusted OR 4.58, 95% CI 1.22-17.2, P = 0.024).

CONCLUSIONS:

Slow gait speed was thus an independent predictor of rapid cognitive decline in oldest-old men in a veterans' retirement community in Taiwan.

KEYWORDS:

dynapenia; old people; rapid cognitive decline; slow gait speed

 

[Obesity gets short-shrifted by the medical community.]

https://www.pressreader.com/canada/vancouver-sun/20170425/281698319634931

 

Pathways from Religion to Health: Mediation by Psychosocial and Lifestyle Mechanisms.

Morton KR, Lee JW, Martin LR.

Psycholog Relig Spiritual. 2017 Feb;9(1):106-117. doi: 10.1037/rel0000091. Epub 2016 Aug 15.

PMID: 28435513

Abstract

Religiosity, often measured as attendance at religious services, is linked to better physical health and longevity though the mechanisms linking the two are debated. Potential explanations include: a healthier lifestyle, increased social support from congregational members, and/or more positive emotions. Thus far, these mechanisms have not been tested simultaneously in a single model though they likely operate synergistically. We test this model predicting all-cause mortality in Seventh-day Adventists, a denomination that explicitly promotes a healthy lifestyle. This allows the more explicit health behaviors linked to the religious doctrine (e.g., healthy diet) to be compared with other mechanisms not specific to religious doctrine (e.g., social support and positive emotions). Finally, this study examines both Church Activity (including worship attendance and church responsibilities) and Religious Engagement (coping, importance, and intrinsic beliefs). Religious Engagement is more is more inner-process focused (vs. activity-based) and less likely to be confounded with age and its associated functional status limitations, although it should be noted that age is controlled in the present study. The findings suggest that Religious Engagement and Church Activity operate through the mediators of health behavior, emotion, and social support to decrease mortality risk. All links between Religious Engagement and mortality are positive but indirect through positive Religious Support, Emotionality, and lifestyle mediators. However, Church Activity has a direct positive effect on mortality as well as indirect effects through, Religious Support, Emotionality, and lifestyle mediators (diet and exercise). The models were invariant by gender and for both Blacks and Whites.

KEYWORDS:

emotionality; lifestyle; mortality; physical health; religious engagement; social support; worship

 

Reduction by coffee consumption of prostate cancer risk: Evidence from the Moli-sani cohort and cellular models.

Pounis G, Tabolacci C, Costanzo S, Cordella M, Bonaccio M, Rago L, D'Arcangelo D, Filippo Di Castelnuovo A, de Gaetano G, Donati MB, Iacoviello L, Facchiano F; Moli-sani study investigators..

Int J Cancer. 2017 Apr 24. doi: 10.1002/ijc.30720. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28436066

Abstract

Meta-analytic data on the effect of coffee in prostate cancer risk are controversial. Caffeine as a bioactive compound of coffee has not yet been studied in deep in vitro. Our study aimed at evaluating in a population cohort the effect of Italian-style coffee consumption on prostate cancer risk and at investigating in vitro the potential antiproliferative and antimetastatic activity of caffeine on prostate cancer cell lines. 6,989 men of the Moli-sani cohort aged ≥50 years were followed for a mean of 4.24 ± 1.35 years and 100 new prostate cancer cases were identified. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Food Frequency Questionnaire was used for the dietary assessment and the evaluation of Italian-style coffee consumption. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and DU145, were tested with increasing concentrations of caffeine, and their proliferative/metastatic features were evaluated. The newly diagnosed prostate cancer participants presented lower coffee consumption (60.1 ± 51.3 g/day) compared to the disease-free population (74.0 ± 51.7 g/day) (p < 0.05). Multiadjusted analysis showed that the subjects at highest consumption (>3 cups/day) had 53% lower prostate cancer risk as compared to participants at the lowest consumption (0-2 cups/day) (p = 0.02). Both human prostate cancer cell lines treated with caffeine showed a significant reduction in their proliferative and metastatic behaviors (p < 0.05). In conclusion, reduction by Italian-style coffee consumption of prostate cancer risk (>3 cups/day) was observed in epidemiological level. Caffeine appeared to exert both antiproliferative and antimetastatic activity on two prostate cancer cell lines, thus providing a cellular confirmation for the cohort study results.

KEYWORDS:

antineoplastic activity; caffeine; coffee; prostate cancer

 

Incidence of First Stroke in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age: A Population-Based Cohort Study From England.

Ban L, Sprigg N, Abdul Sultan A, Nelson-Piercy C, Bath PM, Ludvigsson JF, Stephansson O, Tata LJ.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Apr 21;6(4). pii: e004601. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.116.004601.

PMID: 28432074 Free Article

http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/6/4/e004601?etoc=

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Pregnant women may have an increased risk of stroke compared with nonpregnant women of similar age, but the magnitude and the timing of such risk are unclear. We examined the risk of a first stroke event in women of childbearing age and compared the risk during pregnancy and in the early postpartum period with the background risk outside these periods.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

We conducted an open cohort study of 2 046 048 women aged 15 to 49 years between April 1, 1997, and March 31, 2014, using linked primary (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) and secondary (Hospital Episode Statistics) care records in England. Risk of first stroke was assessed by calculating the incidence rate of stroke in antepartum, peripartum (2 days before until 1 day after delivery), and early (first 6 weeks) and late (second 6 weeks) postpartum periods compared with nonpregnant time using a Poisson regression model with adjustment for maternal age, socioeconomic group, and calendar time. A total of 2511 women had a first stroke. The incidence rate of stroke was 25.0 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 24.0-26.0) in nonpregnant time. The rate was lower antepartum (10.7 per 100 000 person-years, 95% CI 7.6-15.1) but 9-fold higher peripartum (161.1 per 100 000 person-years, 95% CI 80.6-322.1) and 3-fold higher early postpartum (47.1 per 100 000 person-years, 95% CI 31.3-70.9). Rates of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke both increased peripartum and early postpartum.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although the absolute risk of first stroke is low in women of childbearing age, healthcare professionals should be aware of a considerable increase in relative risk during the peripartum and early postpartum periods.

KEYWORDS:

epidemiology; pregnancy and postpartum; stroke; women

 

Bilirubin Prevents Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice by Inhibiting Endothelial VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 Signaling.

Vogel ME, Idelman G, Konaniah ES, Zucker SD.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Apr 1;6(4). pii: e004820. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.116.004820.

PMID: 28365565 Free Article

http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/6/4/e004820.long

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Numerous epidemiological studies support an inverse association between serum bilirubin levels and the incidence of cardiovascular disease; however, the mechanism(s) by which bilirubin may protect against atherosclerosis is undefined. The goals of the present investigations were to assess the ability of bilirubin to prevent atherosclerotic plaque formation in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/- ) mice and elucidate the molecular processes underlying this effect.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Bilirubin, at physiological concentrations (≤20 μmol/L), dose-dependently inhibits THP-1 monocyte migration across tumor necrosis factor α-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers without altering leukocyte binding or cytokine production. A potent antioxidant, bilirubin effectively blocks the generation of cellular reactive oxygen species induced by the cross-linking of endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) or intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). These findings were validated by treating cells with blocking antibodies or with specific inhibitors of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 signaling. When administered to Ldlr-/- mice on a Western diet, bilirubin (30 mg/kg intraperitoneally) prevents atherosclerotic plaque formation, but does not alter circulating cholesterol or chemokine levels. Aortic roots from bilirubin-treated animals exhibit reduced lipid and collagen deposition, decreased infiltration of monocytes and lymphocytes, fewer smooth muscle cells, and diminished levels of chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine, without changes in VCAM-1 or ICAM-1 expression.

CONCLUSIONS:

Bilirubin suppresses atherosclerotic plaque formation in Ldlr-/- mice by disrupting endothelial VCAM-1- and ICAM-1-mediated leukocyte migration through the scavenging of reactive oxygen species signaling intermediaries. These findings suggest a potential mechanism for the apparent cardioprotective effects of bilirubin.

KEYWORDS:

adhesion molecule; atherosclerosis; bilirubin; intercellular adhesion molecule 1; monocyte; vascular cell adhesion molecule 1; vascular endothelium

 

Alcohol intake and risk of rosacea in US women.

Li S, Cho E, Drucker AM, Qureshi AA, Li WQ.

J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017 Apr 1. pii: S0190-9622(17)30292-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2017.02.040. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28434611

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The epidemiologic association between alcohol and rosacea is unclear and inconsistent based on the previous cross-sectional or case-control studies.

OBJECTIVE:

We conducted a cohort study to determine the association between alcohol intake and the risk of rosacea in women.

METHODS:

A total of 82,737 women were included from the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2005). Information on alcohol intake was collected every 4 years during follow-up. Information on history of clinician-diagnosed rosacea and year of diagnosis was collected in 2005.

RESULTS:

Over 14 years of follow-up, we identified 4945 cases of rosacea. Compared with never drinkers, increased alcohol intake was associated with a significantly increased risk of rosacea (Ptrend <.0001). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.12 (95% CI 1.05-1.20) for alcohol intake of 1-4 g/day and 1.53 (1.26-1.84) for ≥30 g/day. The associations remained consistent across categories of smoking status. Further examination of types of alcoholic beverage consumed revealed that white wine (Ptrend <.0001) and liquor intake (Ptrend = .0006) were significantly associated with a higher risk of rosacea.

LIMITATIONS:

This was an epidemiologic study without examination into etiologic mechanisms.

CONCLUSIONS:

Alcohol intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of rosacea in women.

KEYWORDS:

alcohol intake; cohort studies; dose-response relationship; epidemiology; rosacea; smoking

 

Clinical Efficacy of 1-Year Intensive Systematic Dietary Manipulation as Complementary and Alternative Medicine Therapies on Female Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome Patients.

Oh-Oka H.

Urology. 2017 Apr 20. pii: S0090-4295(17)30375-8. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2017.02.053. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28435032

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intensive systematic dietary manipulation (ISDM) for female patients with interstitial cystitis (IC)/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) in stable condition who were followed in our hospital.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In cooperation with the nutrition control team, we created a basic IC/BPS diet menu for 1 month. Data regarding daily food intake and food-related symptoms were collected by detailed interview of each patient, we set meal menu to control IC/BPS symptoms and advised the patients to reduce the intake of specific food items to the maximum possible extent. The following food items were removed from or restricted in the diet of patients: tomatoes, tomato products, soybean, tofu product, spices, excessive potassium, citrus, high-acidity-inducing substances, etc. We evaluated the following factors 3 months and 1 year after the start of the intervention: O'Leary-Sant symptom index, O'Leary-Sant problem index, urgency visual analogue scale score, bladder or pelvic pain visual analogue scale score, and numerical patient-reported quality of life index.

RESULTS:

All evaluated factors improved statistically significant compared to non-intensive group (baseline to 3month and 3 month to 1 year ISDM, p < 0.05, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:

ISDM was found to alleviate the symptoms of IC/BPS in almost 3 months and continued clinical efficacy for at least 1 year. ISDM as one of the conservative treatment modality for IC/BPS should be attempted more strictly because of its non-invasiveness, without alterations to the other treatments.

KEYWORDS:

1-year follow-up; complementary and alternative medicine therapies; female interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome; intensive systematic dietary manipulation

 

Calycosin promotes lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans through insulin signaling pathway via daf-16, age-1 and daf-2.

Lu L, Zhao X, Zhang J, Li M, Qi Y, Zhou L.

J Biosci Bioeng. 2017 Apr 20. pii: S1389-1723(16)30470-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2017.02.021. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28434978

Abstract

The naturally occurring calycosin is a known antioxidant that prevents redox imbalance in organisms. However, calycosin's effect on lifespan and its physiological molecular mechanisms are not yet well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that calycosin could prolong the lifespan of Caenorhabditiselegans, and that such extension was associated with its antioxidant capability as well as its ability to enhance stress resistance and reduce ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation. To explore mechanisms of this longevity effect, we assessed the impact of calycosin on lifespans of insulin-signaling impaired worms: daf-2, age-1, and daf-16 mutants. We found that calycosin did not alter the lifespan of all three mutants, thereby suggesting that calycosin requires insulin signaling to promote lifespan extension. On the other hand, we observed that calycosin could enhance the nuclear translocation of the core transcription factor DAF-16/FoXO instead of the conserved stress-responsive transcription factor SKN-1/Nrf-2. This observation is consistent with the understanding that the nuclear localized DAF-16 up-regulates its downstream targets sod-3, ctl-1, and hsp-16.2. Lastly, it is also noteworthy that the longevity effect of calycosin is likely not associated with the calorie restriction mechanism. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that calycosin could function as an antioxidant to extend the lifespan of C. elegans by enhancing nucleus translocation of DAF-16 through the insulin-signaling pathway.

KEYWORDS:

Caenorhabditis elegans; Calycosin; DAF-16; Insulin-signaling pathway; Lifespan; Reactive oxygen species

 

PressReader - Calgary Herald: 2017-04-24 - WILTED SALAD MAY BE HEALTHIER THAN FRESH GREENS

https://www.pressreader.com/canada/calgary-herald/20170424/281883003226522

6 hours ago - Levels of cancer-fighting nutrients in supermarket arugula leaves peak between 5-7 days after being processed, says a study at the University of Reading in England.

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Comparison of general obesity and measures of body fat distribution in older adults in relation to cancer risk: meta-analysis of individual participant data of seven prospective cohorts in Europe.

Freisling H, Arnold M, Soerjomataram I, O'Doherty MG, Ordóñez-Mena JM, Bamia C, Kampman E, Leitzmann M, Romieu I, Kee F, Tsilidis K, Tjønneland A, Trichopoulou A, Boffetta P, Benetou V, Bueno-de-Mesquita HBA, Huerta JM, Brenner H, Wilsgaard T, Jenab M.

Br J Cancer. 2017 Apr 25. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2017.106. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28441380

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We evaluated the associations of anthropometric indicators of general obesity (body mass index, BMI), an established risk factor of various cancer, and body fat distribution (waist circumference, WC; hip circumference, HC; and waist-to-hip ratio, WHR), which may better reflect metabolic complications of obesity, with total obesity-related and site-specific (colorectal and postmenopausal breast) cancer incidence.

METHODS:

This is a meta-analysis of seven prospective cohort studies participating in the CHANCES consortium including 18 668 men and 24 751 women with a mean age of 62 and 63 years, respectively. Harmonised individual participant data from all seven cohorts were analysed separately and alternatively for each anthropometric indicator using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS:

After a median follow-up period of 12 years, 1656 first-incident obesity-related cancers (defined as postmenopausal female breast, colorectum, lower oesophagus, cardia stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, endometrium, ovary, and kidney) had occurred in men and women. In the meta-analysis of all studies, associations between indicators of adiposity, per s.d. increment, and risk for all obesity-related cancers combined yielded the following summary hazard ratios: 1.11 (95% CI 1.02-1.21) for BMI, 1.13 (95% CI 1.04-1.23) for WC, 1.09 (95% CI 0.98-1.21) for HC, and 1.15 (95% CI 1.00-1.32) for WHR. Increases in risk for colorectal cancer were 16%, 21%, 15%, and 20%, respectively per s.d. of BMI, WC, HC, and WHR. Effect modification by hormone therapy (HT) use was observed for postmenopausal breast cancer (Pinteraction<0.001), where never HT users showed an ∼20% increased risk per s.d. of BMI, WC, and HC compared to ever users.

CONCLUSIONS:

BMI, WC, HC, and WHR show comparable positive associations with obesity-related cancers combined and with colorectal cancer in older adults. For postmenopausal breast cancer we report evidence for effect modification by HT use.

 

http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/energy-drinks-heart-1.4087058

"The multiple ingredients in energy drinks, such as tauranine, L-cartinine and panax ginseng, can alter heart rhythms"

>>>>>>

http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/6/5/e004448

"participants were assigned to consume either a 1‐time 32‐ounce (946 mL) dose of a commercially available energy drink (containing 108 g of sugar, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, and a proprietary energy blend of taurine, panax ginseng extract, L‐carnitine, caffeine [320 mg], glucuronolactone, inositol, guarana extract, and maltodextrin) or a matching 32‐ounce (946 mL) control drink containing 320 mg of caffeine, 40 mL of lime juice, and 140 mL of cherry syrup in carbonated water (Figure 1). Other than the caffeine, all added ingredients in the control group were expected to have no impact on any end points and were simply added to match the active drink."

 

Pass the butter: Cutting saturated fat does not reduce heart disease risk, cardiologists say

Focus should instead be on eating 'real food,' walking and reducing stress

CBC News Posted: Apr 25, 2017

http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/pass-the-butter-cutting-saturated-fat-does-not-reduce-heart-disease-risk-cardiologists-say-1.4085453

http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/early/2017/03/31/bjsports-2016-097285

http://www.cochrane.org/CD011737/VASC_effect-of-cutting-down-on-the-saturated-fat-we-eat-on-our-risk-of-heart-disease

http://www.sciencemediacentre.org/expert-reaction-to-editorial-on-saturated-fat-and-heart-disease/

 

Brain metabolism in health, aging, and neurodegeneration.

Camandola S, Mattson MP.

EMBO J. 2017 Apr 24. pii: e201695810. doi: 10.15252/embj.201695810. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 28438892

Abstract

Brain cells normally respond adaptively to bioenergetic challenges resulting from ongoing activity in neuronal circuits, and from environmental energetic stressors such as food deprivation and physical exertion. At the cellular level, such adaptive responses include the "strengthening" of existing synapses, the formation of new synapses, and the production of new neurons from stem cells. At the molecular level, bioenergetic challenges result in the activation of transcription factors that induce the expression of proteins that bolster the resistance of neurons to the kinds of metabolic, oxidative, excitotoxic, and proteotoxic stresses involved in the pathogenesis of brain disorders including stroke, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Emerging findings suggest that lifestyles that include intermittent bioenergetic challenges, most notably exercise and dietary energy restriction, can increase the likelihood that the brain will function optimally and in the absence of disease throughout life. Here, we provide an overview of cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate brain energy metabolism, how such mechanisms are altered during aging and in neurodegenerative disorders, and the potential applications to brain health and disease of interventions that engage pathways involved in neuronal adaptations to metabolic stress.

KEYWORDS:

aging; brain energetics; ketone bodies; metabolism

 

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Familial longevity is characterized by high circadian rhythmicity of serum cholesterol in healthy elderly individuals.

van den Berg R, Noordam R, Kooijman S, Jansen SWM, Akintola AA, Slagboom PE, Pijl H, Rensen PCN, Biermasz NR, van Heemst D.

Aging Cell. 2017 Apr;16(2):237-243. doi: 10.1111/acel.12547. Epub 2016 Nov 19.

PMID: 28440906

Abstract

The biological clock, whose function deteriorates with increasing age, determines bodily circadian (i.e. 24h) rhythms, including that of cholesterol metabolism. Dampening of circadian rhythms has been associated with aging and disease. Therefore, we hypothesized that individuals with a familial predisposition for longevity have a higher amplitude circadian serum cholesterol concentration rhythm. The aim of this study was to investigate circadian rhythmicity of serum cholesterol concentrations in offspring of nonagenarian siblings and their partners. Offspring from nonagenarian siblings (n = 19), and their partners as controls (n = 18), were recruited from the Leiden Longevity Study. Participants (mean age 65 years) were studied in a controlled in-hospital setting over a 24-h period, receiving three isocaloric meals at 9:00 h, 12:00 h and 18:00 h. Lights were off between 23:00 h and 8:00 h. Serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C and triglycerides (TG) were determined every 30 min over a 24-h period. Serum TC concentrations were higher during day than during night in offspring (5.2 vs. 4.7 mm, P < 0.001) and in controls (5.3 vs. 5.0 mm, P < 0.001). The difference in TC concentrations between day and night tended to be greater in offspring than in controls (0.5 vs. 0.3 mm, P = 0.109), reaching statistical significance in females (P = 0.045). Notably, the day-night serum differences in non-HDL-C were twofold greater in offspring than in controls (0.43 vs. 0.21 mm, P = 0.044) and most explicit in females (0.53 vs. 0.22, P = 0.078). We conclude that familial longevity is characterized by a high circadian rhythmicity of non-HDL-C in healthy elderly offspring from nonagenarian siblings.

KEYWORDS:

aging; biological clock; cholesterol; circadian rhythm; longevity

 

The Obesity Paradox in Kidney Disease: How to Reconcile it with Obesity Management.

Kalantar-Zadeh K, Rhee CM, Chou J, Ahmadi SF, Park J, Chen JL, Amin AN.

Kidney Int Rep. 2017 Mar;2(2):271-281. doi: 10.1016/j.ekir.2017.01.009. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

PMID: 28439569

Abstract

Obesity, a risk factor for de novo chronic kidney disease (CKD), confers survival advantages in advanced CKD. This so-called obesity paradox is the archetype of the reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risks, in addition to the lipid, blood pressure, adiponectin, homocysteine, and uric acid paradoxes. These paradoxical phenomena are in sharp contradistinction to the known epidemiology of cardiovascular risks in the general population. In addition to advanced CKD, the obesity paradox has also been observed in heart failure, chronic obstructive lung disease, liver cirrhosis, and metastatic cancer, as well as in the elderly. These are populations in whom protein-energy wasting and inflammation are strong predictors of early death. Both larger muscle mass and higher body fat provide longevity in these patients, whereas thinner body habitus and weight loss are associated with higher mortality. Muscle mass appears to be superior to body fat in conferring an even greater survival. The obesity paradox may be the result of a time discrepancy between competing risk factors, i.e., overnutrition as the long-term killer versus undernutrition as the short-term killer. Hemodynamic stability of obesity, lipoprotein defense against circulating endotoxins, protective cytokine profiles, toxin sequestration of fat mass, and antioxidation of muscle may play important roles. Despite claims that obesity paradox is a statistical fallacy and a result of residual confounding, the consistency of data and other causality clues suggest a high biologic plausibility. Examining the causes and consequences of the obesity paradox may help discover important pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to improved outcomes in patients with CKD.

KEYWORDS:

Obesity paradox; biologic plausibility; body mass index; fat mass; muscle mass; protein-energy wasting; reverse epidemiology

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

J Ren Nutr. 2013 Mar;23(2):77-90. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2013.01.001.

Etiology of the protein-energy wasting syndrome in chronic kidney disease: a consensus statement from the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM).

Carrero JJ1, Stenvinkel P, Cuppari L, Ikizler TA, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Kaysen G, Mitch WE, Price SR, Wanner C, Wang AY, ter Wee P, Franch HA.

Abstract

Protein-energy wasting (PEW), a term proposed by the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM), refers to the multiple nutritional and catabolic alterations that occur in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associate with morbidity and mortality. To increase awareness, identify research needs, and provide the basis for future work to understand therapies and consequences of PEW, ISRNM provides this consensus statement of current knowledge on the etiology of PEW syndrome in CKD. Although insufficient food intake (true undernutrition) due to poor appetite and dietary restrictions contribute, other highly prevalent factors are required for the full syndrome to develop. These include uremia-induced alterations such as increased energy expenditure, persistent inflammation, acidosis, and multiple endocrine disorders that render a state of hypermetabolism leading to excess catabolism of muscle and fat. In addition, comorbid conditions associated with CKD, poor physical activity, frailty, and the dialysis procedure per se further contribute to PEW.

PMID: 23428357

 

Folic acid therapy reduces the risk of mortality associated with heavy proteinuria among hypertensive patients.

Li Y, Qin X, Luo L, Wang B, Huo Y, Hou FF, Xu X.

J Hypertens. 2017 Jun;35(6):1302-1309. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001292.

PMID: 28441699

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We aimed to evaluate whether proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels can modify the efficacy of folic acid therapy on the risk of all-cause mortality among hypertensive patients in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, a randomized, double-blind, and controlled trial.

METHODS:

A total of 20 702 hypertensive patients without a history of major cardiovascular diseases were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment of a single tablet containing 10-mg enalapril and 0.8-mg folic acid (n = 10 348), or 10-mg enalapril alone (n = 10 354). All-cause mortality, a prespecified endpoint of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, was the main outcome in this analysis.

RESULTS:

Over a median treatment duration of 4.5 years, in the enalapril alone group, both heavy proteinuria [vs. absent, 10.8 vs. 2.7%; hazard ratio = 3.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.10-5.18] and lower eGFR levels (<60 vs. ≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m, 13.0 vs. 2.2%; hazard ratio = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.19-3.12) were significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. Folic acid supplementation significantly reduced the risk of all-cause mortality in patients with heavy proteinuria (6.4% in the enalapril-folic acid vs. 10.8% in the enalapril alone group, hazard ratio = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26-0.94), but not in those with absent or mild proteinuria (2.8 vs. 2.9%, hazard ratio = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.84-1.17; P for interaction = 0.040). However, eGFR levels did not significantly modify the effect of folic acid supplementation in reducing the risk of all-cause mortality (P for interaction = 0.228).

CONCLUSION:

Among hypertensive patients without a history of major cardiovascular diseases, folic acid therapy could reduce the mortality risk associated with heavy proteinuria.

 

An acute intake of theobromine does not change postprandial lipid metabolism, whereas a high-fat meal lowers chylomicron particle number.

Smolders L, Mensink RP, Plat J.

Nutr Res. 2017 Apr 2. pii: S0271-5317(16)30659-5. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2017.03.007. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28438412

Abstract

Postprandial responses predict cardiovascular disease risk. However, only a few studies have compared acute postprandial effects of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LF) meal with a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HF) meal. Furthermore, theobromine has favorably affected fasting lipids, but postprandial effects are unknown. Because both fat and theobromine have been reported to increase fasting apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) concentrations, the main hypothesis of this randomized, double-blind crossover study was that acute consumption of an HF meal and a theobromine meal increased postprandial apoA-I concentrations, when compared with an LF meal. Theobromine was added to the LF meal. Nine healthy men completed the study. After meal intake, blood was sampled frequently for 4hours. Postprandial apoA-I concentrations were comparable after intake of the 3 meals. Apolipoprotein B48 curves, however, were significantly lower and those of triacylglycerol were significantly higher after HF as compared with LF consumption. Postprandial free fatty acid concentrations decreased less, and glucose and insulin concentrations increased less after HF meal consumption. Except for an increase in the incremental area under the curve for insulin, theobromine did not modify responses of the LF meal. These data show that acute HF and theobromine consumption does not change postprandial apoA-I concentrations. Furthermore, acute HF consumption had divergent effects on postprandial apolipoprotein B48 and triacylglycerol responses, suggesting the formation of less, but larger chylomicrons after HF intake. Finally, except for an increase in the incremental area under the curve for insulin, acute theobromine consumption did not modify the postprandial responses of the LF meal.

KEYWORDS:

Dietary fat; Human; Metabolism; Postprandial; Theobromine

 

Restricted feeding modulates the daily variations of liver glutamate dehydrogenase activity, expression, and histological location.

Vázquez-Martínez O, Méndez I, Turrubiate I, Valente-Godínez H, Pérez-Mendoza M, García-Tejada P, Díaz-Muñoz M.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2017 May;242(9):945-952. doi: 10.1177/1535370217699533. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

PMID: 28440738

Abstract

Glutamate dehydrogenase is an important enzyme in the hepatic regulation of nitrogen and energy metabolism. It catalyzes one of the most relevant anaplerotic reactions. Although its relevance in liver homeostasis has been widely described, its daily pattern and responsiveness to restricted feeding protocols has not been studied. We explored the daily variations of liver glutamate dehydrogenase transcription, protein, activity, and histochemical and subcellular location in a protocol of daytime food synchronization in rats. Restricted feeding involved food access for 2 h each day for three weeks. Control groups included food ad libitum as well as acute fasting (21 h fasting) and refeeding (22 h fasting followed by 2 h of food access). Glutamate dehydrogenase mRNA, protein, activity, and histological location were measured every 3 h by qPCR, Western blot, spectrophotometry, and immunohistochemistry, respectively, to generate 24-h profiles. Restricted feeding promoted higher levels of mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase protein and activity, as well as a loss of 24-h rhythmicity, in comparison to ad libitum conditions. The rhythmicity of glutamate dehydrogenase activity detected in serum was changed. The data demonstrated that daytime restricted feeding enhanced glutamate dehydrogenase protein and activity levels in liver mitochondria, changed the rhythmicity of its mRNA and serum activity, but without effect in its expression in hepatocytes surrounding central and portal veins. These results could be related to the adaptation in nitrogen and energy metabolism that occurs in the liver during restricted feeding and the concomitant expression of the food entrainable oscillator. Impact statement For the first time, we are reporting the changes in daily rhythmicity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) mRNA, protein and activity that occur in the liver during the expression of the food entrained oscillator (FEO). These results are part of the metabolic adaptations that modulate the hepatic timing system when the protocol of daytime restricted feeding is applied. As highlight, it was demonstrated higher GDH protein and activity in the mitochondrial fraction. These results contribute to a better understanding of the influence of the FEO in the energy and nitrogen handling in the liver. They could also be significant in the pathophysiology of hepatic diseases related with circadian abnormalities.

KEYWORDS:

Glutamate dehydrogenase; daily variations; food synchronization; mitochondria

 

Commensal bacteria and essential amino acids control food choice behavior and reproduction.

Leitão-Gonçalves R, Carvalho-Santos Z, Francisco AP, Fioreze GT, Anjos M, Baltazar C, Elias AP, Itskov PM, Piper MDW, Ribeiro C.

PLoS Biol. 2017 Apr 25;15(4):e2000862. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2000862. eCollection 2017 Apr.

PMID: 28441450

Abstract

Choosing the right nutrients to consume is essential to health and wellbeing across species. However, the factors that influence these decisions are poorly understood. This is particularly true for dietary proteins, which are important determinants of lifespan and reproduction. We show that in Drosophila melanogaster, essential amino acids (eAAs) and the concerted action of the commensal bacteria Acetobacter pomorum and Lactobacilli are critical modulators of food choice. Using a chemically defined diet, we show that the absence of any single eAA from the diet is sufficient to elicit specific appetites for amino acid (AA)-rich food. Furthermore, commensal bacteria buffer the animal from the lack of dietary eAAs: both increased yeast appetite and decreased reproduction induced by eAA deprivation are rescued by the presence of commensals. Surprisingly, these effects do not seem to be due to changes in AA titers, suggesting that gut bacteria act through a different mechanism to change behavior and reproduction. Thus, eAAs and commensal bacteria are potent modulators of feeding decisions and reproductive output. This demonstrates how the interaction of specific nutrients with the microbiome can shape behavioral decisions and life history traits.

 

Does dual-task coordination performance decline in later life?

Sebastián MV, Mediavilla R.

Psicothema. 2017 May;29(2):223-228. doi: 10.7334/psicothema2016.274.

PMID: 28438246

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This cross-sectional study examined whether changes occur in people's capacity to coordinate two simultaneous tasks (dual-task) when transitioning from adulthood to later life. The central executive, Baddeley's working memory model component, is responsible for this coordination. Contradictory results have been reported regarding the relationship between ageing and dual-task performance; but these seem to be related to methodological issues that have been addressed in this study.

METHODS:

Nine hundred and seventy-two participants, aged between 35 and 90 years old, volunteered to carry out a verbal digit span task, followed by single and concurrent (dual-task) tests: first, a box crossing task, then, the digit recall task in relation to their memory span, and finally, both these tests simultaneously.

RESULTS:

We found no difference in people's capacity to coordinate their attention when doing two tasks in adulthood or healthy later life, including those in the oldest age groups. Furthermore, gender and educational level were not related to dual-task performance.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results support the normal functioning of the central executive in very old people. These data contrast with research with patients suffering from different types of dementia, which show a decrease in their dual-task performance.

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Improvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea With Weight Loss is Dependent on Body Position During Sleep.

Joosten SA, Khoo JK, Edwards BA, Landry SA, Naughton MT, Dixon JB, Hamilton GS.

Sleep. 2017 Apr 21. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsx047. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28444355

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVES:

Weight loss fails to resolve obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in most patients, however it is unknown as to whether weight loss differentially affects OSA in the supine compared to non-supine sleeping positions. We aimed to determine if weight loss in obese OSA patients results in a greater reduction in the non-supine Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) compared to the supine AHI, thus converting subjects into supine predominant OSA.

METHODS:

Post hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of weight loss (bariatric surgery vs medical weight loss) on OSA in 60 obese subjects (body mass index: >35 and <55) with recently diagnosed (<6 months) OSA and AHI of ≥ 20 events/hour. Patients were randomized to very low calorie diet with regular review (n=30) or to laproscopic adjustable gastric banding (n=30) with follow-up sleep study at 2-years.

RESULTS:

8/37 (22%) patients demonstrated a normal non-supine AHI (<5events/hr) on follow-up, compared to 0/37 (0%) patients at baseline (P=0.003). These patients were younger (40.0±9.6years vs. 48.4±6.5years, P=0.007) and lost significantly more weight (percentage weight change -23.0 [-21.0,-31.6]% vs -6.9 [1.9,-17.4], P=0.001). The percentage change in non-supine AHI was greater than the percentage change in supine AHI (-54.0[-15.4 to -87.9]% vs -33.1[-1.8 to -69.1]%, P=0.05). However, the change in absolute non-supine AHI was not related to change in absolute supine AHI (P=0.23).

CONCLUSIONS:

Following weight loss a significant proportion (22%) of obese patients have normalization of the non-supine AHI. For these patients supine sleep avoidance may cure their OSA.

KEYWORDS:

obesity; obstructive sleep apnea; ventilation

 

Starvation signals in yeast are integrated to coordinate metabolic reprogramming and stress response to ensure longevity.

Zhang N, Cao L.

Curr Genet. 2017 Apr 25. doi: 10.1007/s00294-017-0697-4. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 28444510

Abstract

Studies on replicative and chronological aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have greatly advanced our understanding of how longevity is regulated in all eukaryotes. Chronological lifespan (CLS) of yeast is defined as the age-dependent viability of non-dividing cell populations. A number of nutrient sensing and signal transduction pathways (mainly TOR and PKA) have been shown to regulate CLS, yet it is poorly understood how the starvation signals transduced via these pathways lead to CLS extension. Using reporters whose expressions are induced by glucose starvation, we have screened the majority of the 'signaling' mutants in the yeast genome and identified many genes that are necessary for stress response. Subsequent analyses of the 'signaling' mutants not only revealed novel regulators of CLS, such as the GSK-3 ortholog Mck1, but also demonstrated that starvation signals transmitted by SNF1/AMPK, PKC1 and those negatively regulated by TOR/PKA, including Rim15, Yak1 and Mck1 kinases, are integrated to enable metabolic reprogramming and the acquisition of stress resistance. Coordinated metabolic reprogramming ensures the accumulation of storage carbohydrates for quiescent cells to maintain viability. We provide new evidence that Yak1, Rim15 and Mck1 kinases cooperate to activate H2O2-scanvenging activities, thus limiting the levels of ROS in cells entering quiescence. These findings support the recent advances in higher organisms that the flexibility of metabolic reprogramming and the balance between energetics and stress resistance are the unifying principles of lifespan extension. Future work to reveal how the metabolic switch and stress response is coordinated will help delineate the molecular mechanisms of aging in yeast and shed novel insight into aging/anti-aging principles in higher organisms.

KEYWORDS:

Chronological lifespan; Energy storage; Metabolic reprogramming; Signaling pathways; Stress resistance

 

Vitamin D and food allergies in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Willits EK, Wang Z, Jin J, Patel B, Motosue M, Bhagia A, Almasri J, Erwin PJ, Kumar S, Joshi AY.

Allergy Asthma Proc. 2017 May 1;38(3):21-28. doi: 10.2500/aap.2017.38.4043.

PMID: 28441981

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Vitamin D insufficiency has been associated with immune dysfunction and linked to the epidemic of atopic diseases in the Western hemisphere, yet there are studies with conflicting results, and the risk has not been quantified uniformly across studies.

OBJECTIVE:

To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate and quantify if vitamin D deficiency is associated with the presence and persistence of food allergy.

METHODS:

A systematic review was undertaken to assess for the association between food allergy and vitamin D status in children.

RESULTS:

A total of 368 citations relevant to this systematic review were identified. In the whole review, 5105 children were included. We did not find a significant association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and risk of food allergy in children (odds ratio [OR] 1.35 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.79-2.29]; p = 0.27, I2 = 58.3%). We conducted subgroup analyses based on different cutoffs of the 25(OH)D status (20 versus 30 ng/mL). Only one study used 30 ng/mL and found that children with <30 ng/mL were more likely to report food allergy than children with a 25(OH)D status of ≥30 ng/mL (OR 2.04 [95% CI, 1.02-4.04]; p = 0.04). Four studies compared children with a 25(OH)D status of <20 ng/mL to children with a 25(OH)D status of ≥20 ng/mL and found no significant differences (OR 1.18 [95% CI, 0.62-2.27]; p = 0.62, I2 = 62.7%).

CONCLUSION:

Based on the studies analyzed, this systematic review did not identify a significant association between vitamin D status and food allergy. Interpretation of the included studies was limited by a lack of a standard definition for vitamin D deficiency and insufficient knowledge regarding the optimal vitamin D status needed to impact immune function. Longitudinal studies are warranted to assess if vitamin D might contribute to the development of food allergy.

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J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 May;127(5):1195-202. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.01.017. Epub 2011 Feb 16.

Vitamin D levels and food and environmental allergies in the United States: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

Sharief S, Jariwala S, Kumar J, Muntner P, Melamed ML.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Previous research supports a possible link between low vitamin D levels and atopic disease. However, the association between low vitamin D levels and total and allergen-specific IgE levels has not been studied.

OBJECTIVE:

We sought to test the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) deficiency (<15 ng/mL) and insufficiency (15-29 ng/mL) and allergic sensitization measured by serum IgE levels in a US nationally representative sample of 3136 children and adolescents and 3454 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

METHODS:

The association of 25(OH)D deficiency with 17 different allergens was assessed after adjustment for potential confounders, including age; sex; race/ethnicity; obesity, low socioeconomic status; frequency of milk intake; daily hours spent watching television, playing videogames, or using a computer; serum cotinine levels; and vitamin D supplement use.

RESULTS:

In children and adolescents allergic sensitization to 11 of 17 allergens was more common in those with 25(OH)D deficiency. Compared with sufficient vitamin D levels of greater than 30 ng/mL, after multivariate adjustment, 25(OH)D levels of less than 15 ng/mL were associated with peanut (odds ratio [OR], 2.39; 95% CI, 1.29-4.45), ragweed (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.20-2.80), and oak (OR, 4.75; 95% CI, 1.53-4.94) allergies (P < .01 for all). Eight other allergens were associated with 25(OH)D deficiency, with P values of less than .05 but greater than .01. There were no consistent associations seen between 25(OH)D levels and allergic sensitization in adults.

CONCLUSION:

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher levels of IgE sensitization in children and adolescents. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.

PMID: 21329969 PMCID: PMC3085636 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.01.017 Free PMC Article

 

Short-Term Effects of Lupin vs. Whey Supplementation on Glucose and Insulin Responses to a Standardized Meal in a Randomized Cross-Over Trial.

Schopen K, Ewald AC, Johannes BW, Bloch W, Rittweger J, Frings-Meuthen P.

Front Physiol. 2017 Apr 10;8:198. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00198. eCollection 2017.

PMID: 28443026

Abstract

Background: Whey protein is known to reduce postprandial glycaemia in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lupin as a vegetable source of protein could be considered as an alternative, as the percentage of vegetarian and vegan consumers is raising. The present study compares the acute glycemic effects of whey and lupin in healthy volunteers following a carbohydrate-rich reference meal. Methods In cross-over design, three standardized meals (reference meal; reference meal + whey; reference meal + lupin) were provided to 12 healthy male and female volunteers, aged between 23 and 33, in a balanced, randomized order. Volunteers' blood glucose and insulin concentrations were analyzed at baseline and at seven time points following the ingestion of the meals. Results: The supplementation of whey or lupin significantly blunted the postprandial increase in blood glucose concentrations compared to the reference meal (p < 0.001). In the overall statistical analysis, this effect was comparable for whey and lupin [Δ AUC whey-lupin = 8%, 0-60 min area under the curve (0-60 min AUC), p = 0.937], with a blunting effect of -46% by whey (p = 0.005, 0-60 min AUC) and of -54% by lupin (p < 0.001, 0-60 min AUC). When comparing whey and lupin data only, the insulin increase was found to be more pronounced for whey protein than for lupin supplementation (Δ AUC whey-lupin = 39%, 0-60 min AUC, p = 0.022). However, when comparing the insulin response of each supplementation to the one of the reference meal, no differences could be detected (whey p = 0.259, 0-60 min AUC; lupin p = 0.275, 0-60 min AUC). Conclusions: Results suggest that lupin and whey can both lower the increase of postprandial blood glucose concentrations to a comparable extent, implying the usability of lupin to reduce postprandial glycaemia. However, the insulin response following the supplementations to a carbohydrate-rich meal seems to differ for these two protein sources.

KEYWORDS:

Lupinus albus; blood glucose; dietary protein; glycemic control; lupin; postprandial responses; serum insulin; whey

 

Turmeric Supplementation Improves Serum Glucose Indices and Leptin Levels in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases.

Navekar R, Rafraf M, Ghaffari A, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Khoshbaten M.

J Am Coll Nutr. 2017 Apr 26:1-7. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2016.1267597. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28443702

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Insulin and leptin resistance are important risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There is limited evidence regarding the effects of turmeric on NAFLD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of turmeric supplementation on glycemic status and serum leptin levels in patients with NAFLD.

METHODS:

This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 46 patients with NAFLD (21males and 25 females) aged 20-60 years old and body mass index (BMI) between 24.9 and 40 kg/m2. The turmeric group (n = 23) was given six turmeric capsules daily for 12 weeks. Each capsule contained 500 mg turmeric powder (6×500 mg). The placebo group (n = 23) was given six placebo capsules daily for the same period. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and physical activity levels were collected at the baseline and at the end of the study. Daily dietary intakes also were obtained throughout the study. Data were analyzed by independent t test, paired t test and analysis of covariance.

RESULTS:

Turmeric consumption decreased serum levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and leptin (by 1.22, 17.69, 19.48 and 21.33% respectively, p < 0.05 for all) over 12 weeks compared with those variables in the placebo group. Changes in weight, BMI and liver enzymes were not significant compared to the placebo group.

CONCLUSIONS:

Turmeric supplementation improved glucose indexes and serum leptin levels and may be useful in the control of NAFLD complications.

KEYWORDS:

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; body mass index; insulin resistance; leptin; turmeric

 

Free leucine supplementation during an 8-week resistance training program does not increase muscle mass and strength in untrained young adult subjects.

Aguiar AF, Grala AP, da Silva RA, Soares-Caldeira LF, Pacagnelli FL, Ribeiro AS, da Silva DK, de Andrade WB, Balvedi MCW.

Amino Acids. 2017 Apr 25. doi: 10.1007/s00726-017-2427-0. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28444456

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of free leucine supplementation on changes in skeletal muscle mass and strength during a resistance training (RT) program in previously untrained, young subjects. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 20 healthy young (22 ± 2 years) participants were assigned to two groups: a placebo-supplement group (PLA, N = 10) or a leucine-supplement group (LEU, N = 10). Both groups underwent an 8-week hypertrophic RT program (2 days/week), consuming an equivalent amount of leucine (3.0 g/day in a single post-training dose) or placebo (cornstarch). Quadriceps muscle strength, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vastus lateralis (VL), and rectus femoris (RF), as well as the habitual dietary intake were assessed before and after the 8-week intervention period. There was a similar improvement in muscle strength (Leg press, LEU: +33% vs. PLA: +37%; P > 0.05, and knee extension, LEU: +31% vs. PLA: 34%; P > 0.05) and CSA (VL, LEU: 8.9% vs. PLA: 9.6%; P > 0.05, and RF, LEU: +21.6% vs. PLA: + 16.4%; P > 0.05) in the both groups from pre- to post-training. In addition, there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in daily dietary intake between the LEU and PLA groups before and after the intervention period. Free leucine supplementation (3.0 g/day post-training) does not increase muscle strength or CSA during RT in healthy young subjects consuming adequate dietary protein intake.

KEYWORDS:

Cross-sectional area; Ergogenic; Hypertrophy; Nutritional supplementation; Skeletal muscle

 

Vitamin K intake and the risk of fractures: A meta-analysis.

Hao G, Zhang B, Gu M, Chen C, Zhang Q, Zhang G, Cao X.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Apr;96(17):e6725. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000006725.

PMID: 28445289

Abstract

The association between dietary vitamin K intake and the risk of fractures is controversial. Therefore we perform a meta-analysis of cohort or nested case-control studies to investigate the relationship between dietary vitamin K intake and the risk of fractures. A comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE (to July 11, 2016) was performed to identify cohort or nested case-control studies providing quantitative estimates between dietary vitamin K intake and the risk of fractures. Summary relative risk (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled by using a random-effects model. Four cohort studies and one nested case-control study, with a total of 1114 fractures cases and 80,982 participants, were included in our meta-analysis. Vitamin K intake in all included studies refers exclusively to the intake of phylloquinone (vitamin K1), which is the predominant form of vitamin K in foods. We observed a statistically significant inverse association between dietary vitamin K intake and risk of fractures (highest vs. the lowest intake, RR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.56-0.99; I = 59.2%, P for heterogeneity = .04). Dose-response analysis indicated that the pooled RR of fracture for an increase of 50 μg dietary vitamin K intake per day was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.99) without heterogeneity among studies (I = 25.9%, P for heterogeneity = .25). When stratified by follow-up duration, the RR of fracture for dietary vitamin K intake was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.58-0.93) in studies with more than 10 years of follow-up. Our study suggests that higher dietary vitamin K intake may moderately decrease the risk of fractures.

 

Dietary patterns and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese men and women: The Japan public health center-based prospective study.

Nanri A, Mizoue T, Shimazu T, Ishihara J, Takachi R, Noda M, Iso H, Sasazuki S, Sawada N, Tsugane S; Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study Group..

PLoS One. 2017 Apr 26;12(4):e0174848. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174848. eCollection 2017.

PMID: 28445513

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

A meta-analysis showed an inverse association of a prudent/healthy dietary pattern with all-cause mortality and no association of a western/unhealthy dietary pattern. However, the association of distinctive dietary patterns of Japanese population with mortality remains unclear. We prospectively investigated the association between dietary patterns and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality among Japanese adults.

METHODS:

Participants were 36,737 men and 44,983 women aged 45-74 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (1995-1998) and who had no history of serious disease. Dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis of the consumption of 134 food and beverage items ascertained by a food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios of death from the second survey to December 2012 were estimated using cox proportional hazard regression analysis.

RESULTS:

A prudent dietary pattern, which was characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruit, soy products, potatoes, seaweed, mushrooms, and fish, was significantly associated with decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality for the highest versus lowest quartile of the prudent dietary pattern score were 0.82 (0.77 to 0.86) and 0.72 (0.64 to 0.79), respectively (P for trend <0.001 in both). A Westernized dietary pattern, characterized by high intake of meat, processed meat, bread, and dairy products, was also inversely associated with risk of all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality. A traditional Japanese dietary pattern was not associated with these risks.

CONCLUSIONS:

The prudent and Westernized dietary patterns were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese adults.

 

What foods to eat if you want to live a long life

Sue Dunlevy, National Health Reporter, News Corp Australia Network

April 25, 2017 6:00am

http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/lifestyle/food/what-foods-to-eat-if-you-want-to-live-a-long-life/news-story/dc22cec98801ab772718cd433e321226

CARBS are good and so is starvation, if you want to live longer. And to add some extra years, stay away from red meat, sweets and big nights out.

The Australian Biology of Ageing Conference in Sydney will be told that in order for Australians to live longer — we need to start living like the Greeks.

Or at least adopting their diet.

The gathering today will hear the wellbeing of Greek and Italian migrants suffered when they ate the food recommended in the Australian dietary guidelines.

They had more illnesses, they took more medications and they were frailer.

The Mediterranean diet includes more tomatoes, legumes, seafood and unsaturated fat and less dairy than recommended by the Australian dietary guidelines.

Also black-listed are: polyunsaturated fats like vegetable oils, safflower and sunflower oils commonly used to make margarines, cakes, biscuits, burgers, pizza and chips.

Saturated fats may not be the enemy new research claims. Picture istock

Instead, healthier fats from nuts, olive oil avocado oil and oily fish like salmon, tuna, mackerel and sardines have been given a big tick.

The finding comes as another report revealed starvation is linked to longevity.

But te good news is that a high carbohydrate diet could also be the key to long life.

Mediterranean diet expert Dr Catherine Itsiopoulos from La Trobe University says for the average punter this means:

* Use extra virgin olive oil as the main added fat;

* Eat vegetables with every meal;

* Include at least two legumes meals per week;

* Eat at least two servings of oily fish like salmon, canned sardines

* Eat smaller portions of meat (beef, lamb, pork and chicken) and no more than once or twice a week;

* Eat fresh fruit every day and dried fruit and nuts as snacks or dessert;

* Eat yoghurt and cheese (preferably goats cheese) in moderation

* Include wholegrain breads (sourdough rather than pasta) and cereals with meals;

* Consume wine in moderation with meals

* Have sweets or sweet drinks for special occasions only.

Italian and Greek migrants fared better on their native Mediterranean diet. Picture: iStock

The findings come as experts engage in another fat war with a new meta-analysis finding the widely held belief that saturated fats clog up the arteries, and so cause coronary heart disease, is just “plain wrong”.

Researchers say in the British Journal of Sports Medicine that coronary heart disease is caused by chronic inflammation, which can be lowered with a Mediterranean style diet rich in nuts, extra virgin olive oil, vegetables and oily fish.

RELATED: Mediterranean diet can beat depression

A study of around 800 men in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men project run out of Concord Hospital in Sydney found when Greek or Italian men tried to follow the Australian dietary guidelines “they didn’t do so well,” says researcher Rosilene Waern from the University of Sydney’s Charles Perkins Centre

Ms Waern’s research found older men who followed the dietary guidelines were in better health than those who didn’t.

However, migrants of Italian and Greek origin in the study had an overall a lower dietary intake of all the key nutrients as recommended by the Australian dietary guidelines.

One reason they may have appeared to do worse on the Aussie diet was they only started following Australian dietary guidelines on the advice of health professionals after they became ill.

It may have been the illness rather than the diet that was the problem but the findings suggest the need for further research on the advantages of the Mediterranean diet over our dietary guidelines, she says.

The conference – hosted by the University of Sydney’s Charles Perkins Centre - will also hear from Rafael de Cabo from the National Institute on Aging, in the United States about how reducing calorie intake is a proven way of living longer.

Monkeys on a 30 per cent calorie restriction diet lived much longer than those not subject to calorie restriction and one lived to age 43 a longevity record for the species his research found.

But the good news is that a high carbohydrate diet could also be the key to long life.

Mice fed a low protein high carbohydrate diet lived longer and Ms Waern is currently recruiting people who will participate in a new study that will pit high carbohydrate low fat diets against high fat low carbohydrate diets.

The meal delivery program will manipulate the amount of plant- versus animal foods on low-moderate protein diets.

Monkeys lived longer when they were put on a calories restricted diet. Picture: Istock

Experts at the conference will also reveal how a the polyamine “spermidine” found in beans, fermented cheeses, meats, fruits, vegetables and mushrooms can help you live longer.

Polyamines are involved helping cells remove damaged bits and in keeping DNA subscription and translation stable and in regulating planned cell death.

Yeast, flies and worms lived longer when fed spermidine and it also delayed age related memory loss and motor impairment in flies.

Humans given spermidine had lower markers of cardiac failure.

Other compounds linked to longevity in rodents include the diabetes drugs metformin and acarbose and resveratrol a chemical found in red wine.

Rapamycin, a drug used to prevent organ rejection after kidney transplantation and in cardiac stents has been found to extend lifespan by suppressing cancers.

News Corp reported recently that middle aged mice given a vitamin, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), that helps cells repair DNA damage lived 20 per cent longer and were able to run faster.

“The cells of the old mice were indistinguishable from the young mice, after just one week of treatment,” said Professor David Sinclair of UNSW School of Medical Sciences and Harvard Medical School Boston.

The conference starts as experts go to war again over whether the saturated fats our dietary guidelines warn against are really the enemy.

The authors argue it’s time to shift the focus away from lowering blood fats and cutting out dietary saturated fat, to eating well, taking a brisk 30 minute walk three times a week and minimising stress to stave off heart disease.

Edited by AlPater

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The effects of reduced rpd3 levels on fly physiology.

Woods JK, Ziafazeli T, Rogina B.

Nutr Healthy Aging. 2017 Mar 31;4(2):169-179. doi: 10.3233/NHA-160016.

PMID: 28447071

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Rpd3 is a conserved histone deacetylase that removes acetyl groups from lysine residues within histones and other proteins. Reduction or inhibition of Rpd3 extends longevity in yeast, worms, and flies. Previous studies in flies suggest an overlap with the mechanism of lifespan extension by dietary restriction. However, the mechanism of rpd3's effects on longevity remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: In this study we investigated how rpd3 reduction affects fly spontaneous physical activity, fecundity, and stress resistance. METHODS: We examined the effects of rpd3 reduction on fly spontaneous physical activity by using population monitors, we determined female fecundity by counting daily egg laying, and we determined fly survivorship in response to starvation and paraquat. RESULTS: In flies, rpd3 reduction increases peak spontaneous physical activity of rpd3 def male flies at a young age but does not affect total 24 hour activity. Male and female rpd3 def mutants are more resistant to starvation on low and high calorie diets. In addition, increased resistance to paraquat was observed in females of one allele. A decrease in rpd3 levels does not affect female fecundity. CONCLUSIONS: A decrease in rpd3 levels mirrors some but not all changes associated with calorie restriction, illustrated by an increased peak of spontaneous activity in rpd3 def /+ heterozygous male flies but no effect on total spontaneous activity and fecundity.

KEYWORDS:

Drosophila melanogaster; aging; dietary restriction; rpd3

 

A randomized trial of the effects of the no-carrageenan diet on ulcerative colitis disease activity.

Bhattacharyya S, Shumard T, Xie H, Dodda A, Varady KA, Feferman L, Halline AG, Goldstein JL, Hanauer SB, Tobacman JK.

Nutr Healthy Aging. 2017 Mar 31;4(2):181-192. doi: 10.3233/NHA-170023.

PMID: 28447072

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Carrageenan is a very common food additive in Western diets, but predictably causes inflammation in thousands of cell-based and animal experiments. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of carrageenan exposure on the interval to relapse in patients with ulcerative colitis in remission. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, clinical trial was conducted to assess if patients with ulcerative colitis in remission would have a longer interval to relapse if they followed a diet with no carrageenan. All participants were instructed in the no-carrageenan diet and were randomized to either placebo capsules or carrageenan-containing capsules. The carrageenan in the capsules was less than the average daily carrageenan intake from the diet. Relapse was defined as an increase of two or more points on the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) and intensification of treatment for ulcerative colitis. Participants were followed by telephone calls every two weeks until relapse or one year of participation. The occurrence of relapse and inflammatory biomarkers were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Twelve patients completed study questionnaires. Three patients who received carrageenan-containing capsules relapsed, and none of the patients who received placebo-containing capsules relapsed (p = 0.046, log-rank test). Laboratory tests showed increases in Interleukin-6 (p = 0.02, paired t-test, two-tailed) and fecal calprotectin (p = 0.06; paired t-test, two-tailed) between the beginning and the end of study participation in the carrageenan-exposed group, but not in the placebo-group. CONCLUSION: Carrageenan intake contributed to earlier relapse in patients with ulcerative colitis in remission. Restriction of dietary carrageenan may benefit patients with ulcerative colitis.

KEYWORDS:

Colitis; Interleukin-6; carrageenan; food additive; inflammation

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ellagic_acid#In_food

"The highest levels of ellagic acid are found in walnuts, pecans, cranberries, raspberries, strawberries, and grapes, as well as distilled beverages.[9] It is also found in peach,[10] and other plant foods."

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Neuroprotective effects of ellagic acid on cuprizone-induced acute demyelination through limitation of microgliosis, adjustment of CXCL12/IL-17/IL-11 axis and restriction of mature oligodendrocytes apoptosis.

Sanadgol N, Golab F, Tashakkor Z, Taki N, Moradi Kouchi S, Mostafaie A, Mehdizadeh M, Abdollahi M, Taghizadeh G, Sharifzadeh M.

Pharm Biol. 2017 Dec;55(1):1679-1687. doi: 10.1080/13880209.2017.1319867.

PMID: 28447514

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural phenol antioxidant with various therapeutic activities. However, the efficacy of EA has not been examined in neuropathologic conditions.

OBJECTIVE:

In vivo neuroprotective effects of EA on cuprizone (cup)-induced demyelination were evaluated.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

C57BL/6 J mice were fed with chow containing 0.2% cup for 4 weeks to induce oligodendrocytes (OLGs) depletion predominantly in the corpus callosum (CC). EA was administered at different doses (40 or 80 mg/kg body weight/day/i.p.) from the first day of cup diet. Oligodendrocytes apoptosis [TUNEL assay and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG+)/caspase-3+ cells), gliosis (H&E staining, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP+) and macrophage-3 (Mac-3+) cells) and inflammatory markers (interleukin 17 (IL-17), interleukin 11 (IL-11) and stromal cell-derived factor 1 α (SDF-1α) or CXCL12] during cup intoxication were examined.

RESULTS:

High dose of EA (EA-80) increased mature oligodendrocytes population (MOG+ cells, p < 0.001), and decreased apoptosis (p < 0.05) compared with the cup mice. Treatment with both EA doses did not show any considerable effects on the expression of CXCL12, but significantly down-regulated the expression of IL-17 and up-regulated the expression of IL-11 in mRNA levels compared with the cup mice. Only treatment with EA-80 significantly decreased the population of active macrophage (MAC-3+ cells, p < 0.001) but not reactive astrocytes (GFAP+ cells) compared with the cup mice.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:

In this model, EA-80 effectively reduces lesions via reduction of neuroinflammation and toxic effects of cup on mature OLGs. EA is a suitable therapeutic agent for moderate brain damage in neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

KEYWORDS:

Antioxidant; multiple sclerosis; neurodegeneration; neuroinflammation; toxic demyelination

 

FT3 IS HIGHER IN MALES THAN IN FEMALES AND DECREASES OVER THE LIFESPAN.

Strich D, Karavani G, Edri S, Chay C, Gillis D.

Endocr Pract. 2017 Apr 27. doi: 10.4158/EP171776.OR. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28448759

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Normal changes in Free triiodothyronine (FT3), Free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels over the lifespan and differences between genders are not well documented, mainly because even the largest-scale studies available include relatively small cohorts. The aim of this study was to define age-related trends including gender differences based on reliable data.

METHODS:

A large database including serum thyroid tests drawn in community clinics was studied. Free T3 (FT3), free T4 (FT4) and TSH levels from 527,564 sera taken from patients age 1 year or greater were included. After highly extensive exclusion criteria applied in order to remove all samples that may have been taken from unhealthy people, 27,940 samples remained. These were stratified by decades of age and by gender.

RESULTS:

FT3 decreases throughout life, significantly more so among females, with equalization between genders in the elderly. FT4 declines, to a lesser extent, also more among females than among males. Among the extreme elderly, females have higher levels of FT4. In contrast, TSH declines until age 50 years and then increases slightly among both genders.

CONCLUSION:

This study provides reliable data regarding trends in hormonal levels by age and gender with the major finding being higher FT3 in males throughout life except in the very young and very old. These results have important implications for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid conditions.

KEYWORDS:

Thyroid hormones; elderly; trends

 

Overweight and Abdominal Obesity Association with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in the Elderly Aged 80 and Over: A Cohort Study.

David CN, Mello RB, Bruscato NM, Moriguchi EH.

J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21(5):597-603. doi: 10.1007/s12603-016-0812-0.

PMID: 28448093

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the association between overweight and abdominal obesity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the elderly aged 80 and over.

DESIGN:

A prospective cohort study.

SETTING:

A population-based study of community-dwelling very elderly adults in a city in southern Brazil.

PARTICIPANTS:

236 very elderly adults, number that represents 85% of the population aged 80 and over living in the city in the period (mean age 83.4 ± 3.2).

MEASUREMENTS:

Overweight and abdominal obesity were assessed using recommended cut-off points for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR). The association between these anthropometric measurements and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were independently estimated by Cox proportional hazards model. Kaplan-Meier was used to assess survival time.

RESULTS:

Increased WC (>80cm F and >94cm M) and WHtR (>0.53 F and >0.52 M) were associated with lower all-cause mortality, but only WHtR remained associated even after controlling for residual confounding (HR 0.55 CI95% 0.36-0.84; p<0.001). Additionally increased WC was independently associated with lower mortality from cardiovascular diseases (HR 0.57 CI95% 0.34-0.95; p<0.030). BMI and WHR did not show significant independent association with mortality in the main analysis.

CONCLUSION:

Greater abdominal fat accumulation, as estimated by WC and WHtR, presented an association with lower allcause and cardiovascular mortality in the elderly aged 80 and over, but not by BMI and WHR.

KEYWORDS:

Aged 80 and over; abdominal obesity; anthropometry; mortality; overweight

 

Fresh fruit consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank.

Du H, Li L, Bennett D, Yang L, Guo Y, Key TJ, Bian Z, Chen Y, Walters RG, Millwood IY, Chen J, Wang J, Zhou X, Fang L, Li Y, Li X, Collins R, Peto R, Chen Z; China Kadoorie Biobank study..

Int J Epidemiol. 2017 Apr 24. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyx042. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28449053

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Higher fruit consumption is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Substantial uncertainties remain, however, about the associations of fruit consumption with all-cause mortality and mortality from subtypes of CVD and major non-vascular diseases, especially in China.

METHODS:

In 2004-08, the nationwide China Kadoorie Biobank Study recruited > 0.5 million adults aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse localities in China. Fresh fruit consumption was estimated using an interviewer-administered electronic questionnaire, and mortality data were collected from death registries. Among the 462 342 participants who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline, 17 894 deaths were recorded during ∼ 7 years of follow-up. Cox regression yielded adjusted rate ratios (RRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality associated with fruit consumption.

RESULTS:

At baseline, 28% of participants reported consuming fruit ≥ 4 days/week (regular consumers) and 6% reported never/rarely consuming fruit (non-consumers). Compared with non-consumers, regular consumers had 27% [RR = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.76] lower all-cause mortality, 34% lower CVD mortality ( n  = 6166; RR = 0.66, 0.61-0.71), 17% lower cancer mortality ( n  = 6796; RR = 0.83, 0.78-0.89) and 42% lower mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ( n  = 1119; RR = 0.58, 0.47-0.71). For each of the above, there was an approximately log-linear dose-response relationship with amount consumed. For mortality from site-specific cancers, fruit consumption was inversely associated with digestive tract cancer ( n  = 2265; RR = 0.72, 0.64-0.81), particularly oesophageal cancer ( n  = 801; RR = 0.65, 0.50-0.83), but not with cancer of lung or liver.

CONCLUSIONS:

Among Chinese adults, higher fresh fruit consumption was associated with significantly lower mortality from several major vascular and non-vascular diseases. Given the current low population level of fruit consumption, substantial health benefits could be gained from increased fruit consumption in China.

KEYWORDS:

China; Fruit; cohort studies; mortality; prospective studies

 

Television viewing time as a risk factor for frailty and functional limitations in older adults: results from 2 European prospective cohorts.

García-Esquinas E, Andrade E, Martínez-Gómez D, Caballero FF, López-García E, Rodríguez-Artalejo F.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017 Apr 26;14(1):54. doi: 10.1186/s12966-017-0511-1.

PMID: 28446189

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Sedentariness is an important risk factor for poor health. The main objective of this work was to examine the prospective association between television viewing time and indicators of physical function, mobility, agility, and frailty.

METHODS:

Data came from two independent cohorts of community-dwelling older adults: the Seniors-ENRICA (n = 2392, 3.5 year follow-up), and the ELSA (n = 3989, 3.9 year follow-up). At baseline, television viewing and other sedentary behaviors were ascertained using interviewer-administered questionnaires. In the Seniors-ENRICA cohort overall physical function at baseline and follow-up was assessed using the physical component summary (PCS) of the SF-12 Health Survey. Measures for incident mobility and agility limitations in both cohorts were based on standardized questions, and incident frailty was measured with the Fried criteria. Analyses were adjusted for the main confounders, including physical activity at baseline. Results across cohorts were pooled using a random effects model.

RESULTS:

Lower (worse) scores in the PCS were observed among those in the highest (vs. the lowest) tertile of television viewing time (b-coefficient:-1.66; 95% confidence interval:-2.81,-0.52; p-trend = 0.01). Moreover, the pooled odds ratios (95% CIs) for mobility limitations for the second and third (vs. the lowest) tertile of television viewing were 1.00 (0.84, 1.20) and 1.17 (1.00, 1.38); p-trend = 0.12, respectively. The corresponding results for agility limitations were 1.18 (0.97, 1.44) and 1.25 (1.03, 1.51); p-trend = 0.02. Results for incident frailty were 1.10 (0.80, 1.51) and 1.47 (1.09, 1.97); p-trend = 0.03. No association between other types of sedentary behavior (time seated at the computer, while commuting, lying in the sun, listening to music/reading, internet use) and risk of functional limitations was found.

CONCLUSIONS:

Among older adults, longer television viewing time is prospectively associated with limitations in physical function independently of physical activity.

KEYWORDS:

Frailty; Physical function; Sedentary behavior

 

A pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increased risk of developing hypertension among middle-aged women.

Vissers LET, Waller M, van der Schouw YT, Hébert JR, Shivappa N, Schoenaker DAJM, Mishra GD.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017 Mar 29. pii: S0939-4753(17)30061-3. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2017.03.005. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28446366

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.numecd.2017.03.005

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

A pro-inflammatory diet is thought to lead to hypertension through oxidative stress and vessel wall inflammation. We therefore investigated the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and developing hypertension in a population-based cohort of middle-aged women.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health included 7169 Australian women, aged 52 years (SD 1 year) at baseline in 2001, who were followed up through 4 surveys until 2013. The DII, a literature-derived dietary index that has been validated against several inflammatory markers, was calculated based on data collected via a validated food-frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Hypertension was defined as new onset of doctor-diagnosed hypertension, ascertained through self-report between 2001 and 2013. Generalised Estimating Equation analyses were used to investigate the association between the DII and incident hypertension. The analyses were adjusted for demographic and hypertension risk factors. During 12-years follow-up we identified 1680 incident cases of hypertension. A more pro-inflammatory diet was associated with higher risk of hypertension in dichotomised analyses with an ORfully adjusted of 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.45.

CONCLUSION:

A pro-inflammatory diet might lead to a higher risk of developing hypertension. These results need to be replicated in other studies.

KEYWORDS:

Diet; Hypertension; Inflammation

 

A Pooled Analysis of 15 Prospective Cohort Studies on the Association Between Fruit, Vegetable, and Mature Bean Consumption and Risk of Prostate Cancer.

Petimar J, Wilson KM, Wu K, Wang M, Albanes D, van den Brandt PA, Cook MB, Giles GG, Giovannucci EL, Goodman GG, Goodman PJ, Håkansson N, Helzlsouer K, Key TJ, Kolonel LN, Liao LM, Männistö S, McCullough ML, Milne RL, Neuhouser ML, Park Y, Platz EA, Riboli E, Sawada N, Schenk JM, Tsugane S, Verhage B, Wang Y, Wilkens LR, Wolk A, Ziegler RG, Smith-Warner SA.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017 Apr 26. pii: cebp.1006.2016. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-1006. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28446545

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Relationships between fruit, vegetable, and mature bean consumption and prostate cancer risk are unclear.

METHODS:

We examined associations between fruit and vegetable groups, specific fruits and vegetables, and mature bean consumption and prostate cancer risk overall, by stage and grade, and for prostate cancer mortality in a pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohorts, including 52,680 total cases and 3,205 prostate cancer deaths among 842,149 men. Diet was measured by a food frequency questionnaire or similar instrument at baseline. We calculated study-specific relative risks using Cox proportional hazards regression, and then pooled these estimates using a random effects model.

RESULTS:

We did not observe any statistically significant associations for advanced prostate cancer or prostate cancer mortality with any food group (including total fruits and vegetables, total fruits, total vegetables, fruit and vegetable juice, cruciferous vegetables, and tomato products), nor specific fruit and vegetables. Additionally, we observed few statistically significant results for other prostate cancer outcomes. Pooled multivariable relative risks comparing the highest versus lowest quantiles across all fruit and vegetable exposures and prostate cancer outcomes ranged from 0.89 to 1.09. There was no evidence of effect modification for any association by age or body mass index.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPACT:

Results from this large, international, pooled analysis do not support a strong role of fruits, vegetables (including cruciferous vegetables and tomato products, although few studies assessed tomato sources of more bioavailable lycopene, the potential cancer preventive agent in tomatoes), or mature beans in prostate cancer.

 

Ratios of soluble and insoluble dietary fibers on satiety and energy intake in overweight pre- and postmenopausal women.

Burton-Freeman B, Liyanage D, Rahman S, Edirisinghe I.

Nutr Healthy Aging. 2017 Mar 31;4(2):157-168. doi: 10.3233/NHA-160018.

PMID: 28447070

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Fibers' properties impact different mechanisms involved in satiety and energy intake regulation and metabolic outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of fiber types and menopausal status on satiety and metabolic responses in overweight women. METHODS: In a randomized within-subjects design, 19 overweight/obese women [9 premenopausal and 10 postmenopausal] consumed 3 preloads that varied by fiber content and source: 1) 3:1 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (SF), 2) 1:3 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (IF), 3) no fiber control (NFC). Subjective satiety, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG) were measured for 3 h post-preload followed by in-lab ad libitum test meal and 32 hour food intake monitoring. RESULTS: Significant preload, time and preload by menopausal status interaction was apparent for hunger and fullness (p < 0.05 for both) with SF preload predominantly more satiating in postmenopausal women. CCK and insulin were significantly lower after SF preload (p < 0.0001 for both). Post-preload glucose responses differed by menopausal status: postmenopausal women distinguished between fiber types unlike premenopausal women (p = 0.02). TG was significantly elevated after the IF preload compared to NFC and SF (p = 0.007 and p = 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Customized/personalized dietary recommendations for women during their premenopausal and postmenopausal years can help maximize metabolic and appetite control.

KEYWORDS:

CCK; Soluble fiber; food intake; insoluble fiber; menopausal status; subjective satiety

 

"the results generated from this study also have some practical implication in human adulthood nutrition and health."

Effects of dietary lysine levels on the concentrations of selected nutrient metabolites in blood plasma of late-stage finishing pigs.

Regmi N, Wang T, Crenshaw MA, Rude BJ, Liao SF.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2017 Apr 26. doi: 10.1111/jpn.12714. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28447366

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.sci-hub.cc/doi/10.1111/jpn.12714/abstract;jsessionid=55FCC7C5AC1DF520F0CFF3827274F942.f02t03

Abstract

Lysine is the first-limiting amino acid (AA) in typical swine diets and plays very important roles in promoting growth performance of pigs. This research was conducted to study the effects of dietary lysine on blood plasma concentrations of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolites of pigs. Eighteen crossbred finishing pigs (nine barrows and nine gilts; initial BW 92.3 ± 6.9 kg) were individually penned in an environment controlled barn. Pigs were assigned to three dietary treatments according to a randomized complete block design with gender as block and pig as experimental unit (6 pigs/treatment). Three corn and soybean meal-based diets were formulated to contain total lysine at 0.43%, 0.71%, and 0.98% (as-fed basis) for Diets I (lysine deficient), II (lysine adequate), and III (lysine excess) respectively. After 4 weeks on trial, jugular vein blood was collected and plasma was separated. The plasma concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea nitrogen (UN), triglyceride, total cholesterol, and glucose were determined using an ACE Clinical Chemistry System (Alfa Wassermann, Inc., West Caldwell, NJ, USA). Data were analysed using the GLM Procedure with PDIFF (adjust = T) option of SAS. No differences (p > 0.10) were found between barrows and gilts for any of the metabolites measured. While there were no differences (p > 0.10) between pigs fed Diets II and III in plasma concentrations of UN, albumin, and total cholesterol, the concentration of albumin in these pigs was higher (p < .05) than that of pigs fed Diet I, and the concentrations of UN and total cholesterol in these pigs were lower (p < .05) than that of pigs fed Diet I. There were no differences (p > 0.10) among the three dietary treatments in plasma concentrations of total protein, triglycerides, and glucose. These findings indicated that the plasma metabolite profile can be affected by changing dietary lysine content only. Thorough understanding how the plasma metabolite profile is alternated by dietary lysine will facilitate nutrient management for more sustainable swine production.

 

[The below paper is pdf-availed.]

Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, assessment of the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements in prehypertension.

Pelliccia F, Pasceri V, Marazzi G, Arrivi A, Cacciotti L, Pannarale G, Speciale G, Greco C, Gaudio C.

J Hum Hypertens. 2017 Apr 27. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2017.35. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28447625

Abstract

We aimed to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of a protocol including lifestyle modifications and a novel combination of dietary supplements in prehypertension. A prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 176 subjects (103 men, aged 52±10 years), with blood pressure (BP) of 130-139 mm Hg systolic and/or 85-89 mm Hg diastolic entered. After a single-blind run-in period, participants were randomised to twice daily placebo (n=88) or a commercially available combination pill (n=88). Primary endpoints were the differences in clinic BP between the two groups at the end of the trial. Secondary endpoints included intragroup differences in clinic BP during the study period and response rates (that is, BP <130/85 mm Hg or a BP reduction >5 mm Hg on week 12). Baseline characteristics were similar among the treatment groups. At 12 weeks, the supplement group had lower systolic BP (124±9 versus 132±7 mm Hg, P<0.0001) and similar diastolic BP (81±8 versus 82±7 mm Hg, P=0.382) compared to the placebo group. With respect to baseline measures, changes in BP with supplements were statistically significant for systolic (-9.3±4.2 mm Hg, P<0.0001) and diastolic values (-4.2±3.6 mm Hg, P<0.0001). Changes versus baseline in systolic and diastolic BP, conversely, were not different on placebo. The overall response rate at week 12 was significantly greater with supplements than placebo (58% (51 of 88) and 25% (22 of 88), respectively, P<0.0001). This randomised trial shows that combination of supplements with BP-lowering effect is an effective additional treatment to conventional lifestyle modifications for a better control of systolic BP in prehypertension.

"Both active and matched placebo capsules were supplied at no cost by FMC srl (Ferentino, Italy), which did not have any role in concept, design or conduct of the trial or in data analysis or interpretation of results. Dietary supplements were in the form of a commercially available combined capsule containing Allium sativum (250 mg), Crataegus (250 mg), Ortosiphon (150 mg) and Hibiscus (125 mg). Placebo pills contained only inactive substance (starch). All the qualifying subjects received one capsule once daily for 1 week (dietary supplements or respective placebo) and then were titrated to one pill twice daily for the remaining 11 weeks of the double-blind treatment period (dietary supplements or respective placebo). All procedures of the trial were carried out between 0700 and 1000 hours."

 

Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and All-Cause Mortality Risk in an Elderly Italian Population: Data from the ILSA Study.

Limongi F, Noale M, Gesmundo A, Crepaldi G, Maggi S.

J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21(5):505-513. doi: 10.1007/s12603-016-0808-9.

PMID: 28448080

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) and its association with all-cause mortality in an elderly Italian population.

DESIGN:

Data analysis of a longitudinal study of a representative, age stratified, population sample.

SETTING:

Study data is based upon the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging (ILSA) a prospective, community-based cohort study. The baseline evaluation was carried out in 1992 and the follow-up in 1996 and 2000.

PARTICIPANT:

Participant food intake assessment was available at baseline for 4,232 subjects; information on survival was available for 2,665 at the 2000 follow-up.

MEASUREMENTS:

Adherence to the MD was evaluated with an a priori score based on the Mediterranean pyramid components. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the relationship between the MD score and all-cause mortality. Six hundred and sixty five subjects had died at the second follow-up (identified up to the first and second follow-up together; mean follow-up: 7.1±2.6 years).

RESULTS:

At the 2000 follow-up, adjusting for other confounding factors, participants with a high adherence to MD (highest tertile of the MD score distribution) had an all-cause mortality risk that was of 34% lower with respect to the subjects with low adherence (Hazard Ratio=0.66; 95% CI: 0.49-0.90; p=0.0144).

CONCLUSION:

According to study results, a higher adherence to the MD was associated with a low all-cause mortality risk in an elderly Italian population.

KEYWORDS:

ILSA study; Mediterranean diet adherence; all-cause mortality; elderly subjects

 

Are Dietary Supplements and Nutraceuticals Effective for Musculoskeletal Health and Cognitive Function? A Scoping Review.

Iolascon G, Gimigliano R, Bianco M, De Sire A, Moretti A, Giusti A, Malavolta N, Migliaccio S, Migliore A, Napoli N, Piscitelli P, Resmini G, Tarantino U, Gimigliano F.

J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21(5):527-538. doi: 10.1007/s12603-016-0823-x.

PMID: 28448083

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1007/s12603-016-0823-x

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of our scoping review was to summarize the state of the art regarding micronutrients in order to identify which of them might effectively improve health status in the areas typically impaired in older people: bone, skeletal muscle, and cognitive function.

DESIGN:

Scoping review.

METHODS:

The Italian Study Group on Healthy Aging by Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements (HANDS) performed this scoping review, based on the following steps: doing a list of micronutrients related with musculoskeletal or cognitive functions, included in dietary supplements and nutraceuticals commercialized in Italy; planning a research on PubMed, according to an evidence-based approach, in order to the most relevant positive study for each micronutrient into each of the three areas involved (bone, skeletal muscle and cognitive function); identifying the micronutrients effective in maintaining or achieving an adequate health status in older people, specifying the effective and safe daily doses, according to the selected studies.

RESULTS:

In literature we found 12 relevant positive studies (1 international society guidelines/recommendations, 1 systematic review, 7 randomized controlled trials, and 3 prospective cohort studies). We showed that only 16 micronutrients resulted to have appropriate scientific evidences in terms of improving musculoskeletal health and/or cognitive function in older people: beta-alanine, calcium, creatine, fluorides, leucine, magnesium, omega-3 fatty acids, potassium, vitamin B6, vitamin B9, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K2, and zinc.

CONCLUSION:

This scoping review showed that selected micronutrients in adequate doses might have an ancillary role in musculoskeletal health and cognitive functions in older people.

KEYWORDS:

Dietary supplements; aging; cognitive function; musculoskeletal; nutraceuticals

 

Etiologic effects and optimal intakes of foods and nutrients for risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses from the Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group (NutriCoDE).

Micha R, Shulkin ML, Peñalvo JL, Khatibzadeh S, Singh GM, Rao M, Fahimi S, Powles J, Mozaffarian D.

PLoS One. 2017 Apr 27;12(4):e0175149. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175149. eCollection 2017.

PMID: 28448503

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Dietary habits are major contributors to coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. However, comprehensive evaluation of etiologic effects of dietary factors on cardiometabolic outcomes, their quantitative effects, and corresponding optimal intakes are not well-established.

OBJECTIVE:

To systematically review the evidence for effects of dietary factors on cardiometabolic diseases, including comprehensively assess evidence for causality; estimate magnitudes of etiologic effects; evaluate heterogeneity and potential for bias in these etiologic effects; and determine optimal population intake levels.

METHODS:

We utilized Bradford-Hill criteria to assess probable or convincing evidence for causal effects of multiple diet-cardiometabolic disease relationships. Etiologic effects were quantified from published or de novo meta-analyses of prospective studies or randomized clinical trials, incorporating standardized units, dose-response estimates, and heterogeneity by age and other characteristics. Potential for bias was assessed in validity analyses. Optimal intakes were determined by levels associated with lowest disease risk.

RESULTS:

We identified 10 foods and 7 nutrients with evidence for causal cardiometabolic effects, including protective effects of fruits, vegetables, beans/legumes, nuts/seeds, whole grains, fish, yogurt, fiber, seafood omega-3s, polyunsaturated fats, and potassium; and harms of unprocessed red meats, processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages, glycemic load, trans-fats, and sodium. Proportional etiologic effects declined with age, but did not generally vary by sex. Established optimal population intakes were generally consistent with observed national intakes and major dietary guidelines. In validity analyses, the identified effects of individual dietary components were similar to quantified effects of dietary patterns on cardiovascular risk factors and hard endpoints.

CONCLUSIONS:

These novel findings provide a comprehensive summary of causal evidence, quantitative etiologic effects, heterogeneity, and optimal intakes of major dietary factors for cardiometabolic diseases, informing disease impact estimation and policy planning and priorities.

 

Etiologic effects and optimal intakes of foods and nutrients for risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses from the Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group (NutriCoDE).

Micha R, Shulkin ML, Peñalvo JL, Khatibzadeh S, Singh GM, Rao M, Fahimi S, Powles J, Mozaffarian D.

PLoS One. 2017 Apr 27;12(4):e0175149. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175149. eCollection 2017.

PMID: 28448503 Free Article

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Dietary habits are major contributors to coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. However, comprehensive evaluation of etiologic effects of dietary factors on cardiometabolic outcomes, their quantitative effects, and corresponding optimal intakes are not well-established.

OBJECTIVE:

To systematically review the evidence for effects of dietary factors on cardiometabolic diseases, including comprehensively assess evidence for causality; estimate magnitudes of etiologic effects; evaluate heterogeneity and potential for bias in these etiologic effects; and determine optimal population intake levels.

METHODS:

We utilized Bradford-Hill criteria to assess probable or convincing evidence for causal effects of multiple diet-cardiometabolic disease relationships. Etiologic effects were quantified from published or de novo meta-analyses of prospective studies or randomized clinical trials, incorporating standardized units, dose-response estimates, and heterogeneity by age and other characteristics. Potential for bias was assessed in validity analyses. Optimal intakes were determined by levels associated with lowest disease risk.

RESULTS:

We identified 10 foods and 7 nutrients with evidence for causal cardiometabolic effects, including protective effects of fruits, vegetables, beans/legumes, nuts/seeds, whole grains, fish, yogurt, fiber, seafood omega-3s, polyunsaturated fats, and potassium; and harms of unprocessed red meats, processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages, glycemic load, trans-fats, and sodium. Proportional etiologic effects declined with age, but did not generally vary by sex. Established optimal population intakes were generally consistent with observed national intakes and major dietary guidelines. In validity analyses, the identified effects of individual dietary components were similar to quantified effects of dietary patterns on cardiovascular risk factors and hard endpoints.

CONCLUSIONS:

These novel findings provide a comprehensive summary of causal evidence, quantitative etiologic effects, heterogeneity, and optimal intakes of major dietary factors for cardiometabolic diseases, informing disease impact estimation and policy planning and priorities.

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[The below paper is not pdf-availed.]

Modifiable Risk Factors for Prevention of Dementia in Midlife, Late Life and the Oldest-Old: Validation of the LIBRA Index.

Vos SJB, van Boxtel MPJ, Schiepers OJG, Deckers K, de Vugt M, Carrière I, Dartigues JF, Peres K, Artero S, Ritchie K, Galluzzo L, Scafato E, Frisoni GB, Huisman M, Comijs HC, Sacuiu SF, Skoog I, Irving K, O'Donnell CA, Verhey FRJ, Visser PJ, Köhler S.

J Alzheimers Dis. 2017 Apr 28. doi: 10.3233/JAD-161208. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28453475

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Recently, the LIfestyle for BRAin health (LIBRA) index was developed to assess an individual's prevention potential for dementia.

OBJECTIVE:

We investigated the predictive validity of the LIBRA index for incident dementia in midlife, late life, and the oldest-old.

METHODS:

9,387 non-demented individuals were recruited from the European population-based DESCRIPA study. An individual's LIBRA index was calculated solely based on modifiable risk factors: depression, diabetes, physical activity, hypertension, obesity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, coronary heart disease, and mild/moderate alcohol use. Cox regression was used to test the predictive validity of LIBRA for dementia at follow-up (mean 7.2 y, range 1-16).

RESULTS:

In midlife (55-69 y, n = 3,256) and late life (70-79 y, n = 4,320), the risk for dementia increased with higher LIBRA scores. Individuals in the intermediate- and high-risk groups had a higher risk of dementia than those in the low-risk group. In the oldest-old (80-97 y, n = 1,811), higher LIBRA scores did not increase the risk for dementia.

CONCLUSION:

LIBRA might be a useful tool to identify individuals for primary prevention interventions of dementia in midlife, and maybe in late life, but not in the oldest-old.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; dementia; modifiable risk factors; prevention

 

Mortality in the Hertfordshire Ageing Study: association with level and loss of hand grip strength in later life.

Syddall HE, Westbury LD, Dodds R, Dennison E, Cooper C, Sayer AA.

Age Ageing. 2016 Dec 7. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 27932364

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1093/ageing/afw222

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

weak hand grip strength in later life is a risk factor for disability, morbidity and mortality and is central to definitions of sarcopenia and frailty. It is unclear whether rate of change in grip strength adds to level of grip strength as a risk factor for poor ageing outcomes.

METHODS:

study participants were 292 community-dwelling men and women whose grip strength was measured during the 1994/5 (average age 67) and 2003/5 (average age 76) phases of the Hertfordshire Ageing Study, UK. Individual rate of change in grip strength was estimated using a residual change method. Mortality was followed-up to 2011 (42 men and 21 women died).

RESULTS:

average grip strengths in 2003/5 were 38.4 kg (standard deviation [sD] = 8.1) and 23.7 kg (SD = 6.6) for men and women respectively. Average annualised rates of change in grip strength (2003/5 minus 1994/5) were modest owing to a healthy-participant effect (men: -0.12 kg/y, SD = 0.71; women: 0.08 kg/y, SD = 0.54) but varied widely. Mortality risk varied according to level and rate of change in grip strength (P = 0.03); death rates per 100 person years of follow-up were 6.7 (95% CI: 4.6, 9.6) among participants who lost grip over time and had low grip in 2003/5, in contrast with 0.8 (95% CI: 0.1, 5.8) among participants whose grip changed little over time and remained high in 2003/5.

CONCLUSIONS:

levels of grip strength in later life should be considered in conjunction with estimates of change in grip strength identified by repeat measurement over time. Normative data for longitudinal change in grip strength are required.

KEYWORDS:

change; epidemiology; longevity; older people; physical function; sarcopenia

 

Longitudinal associations between body composition, sarcopenic obesity and outcomes of frailty, disability, institutionalisation and mortality in community-dwelling older men: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

Hirani V, Naganathan V, Blyth F, Le Couteur DG, Seibel MJ, Waite LM, Handelsman DJ, Cumming RG.

Age Ageing. 2016 Dec 7. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 27932368

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

to explore the longitudinal associations between body composition measures, sarcopenic obesity and outcomes of frailty, activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) disability, institutionalisation and mortality.

METHODS:

men aged ≥ 70 years (2005-07) from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project were assessed at baseline (n = 1,705), 2 (n = 1,366) and 5 years (n = 954). The main outcome measures were frailty (adapted Fried criteria), ADL, including personal care and mobility and IADL disability (ability to perform tasks for independent living), institutionalisation and mortality. The Foundation for the National Institutes of Health cut-points were used for low muscle mass: appendicular lean mass (ALM):Body Mass Index (BMI) ratio (ALMBMI) <0.789 and obesity was defined as >30% fat. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine the longitudinal associations between the independent variables (obesity alone, low muscle mass and sarcopenic obesity) and frailty, ADL and IADL disability.

RESULTS:

in unadjusted, age adjusted and fully adjusted analysis, men with low muscle mass showed increased risk of frailty and IADL disability. In fully adjusted analysis, men with sarcopenic obesity had an increased risk of frailty (odds ratio (OR): 2.00 (95% confidence of interval (CI): 1.42, 2.82)) ADL disability (OR: 1.58 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.24)) and IADL disability (OR: 1.36 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.76)). Obesity alone was protective for institutionalisation (OR: 0.51 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.84)) but was not associated with any other outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS:

low muscle mass and sarcopenic obesity were associated with poor functional outcomes, independent of confounders. This would suggest that future trials on frailty and disability prevention should be designed to intervene on both muscle mass and fat mass.

KEYWORDS:

ADL and IADL disability; body composition; frailty; institutionalisation; mortality; older men

 

The development and validation of an index to predict 10-year mortality risk in a longitudinal cohort of older English adults.

Kobayashi LC, Jackson SE, Lee SJ, Wardle J, Steptoe A.

Age Ageing. 2016 Nov 3. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 27810854

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

we aimed to develop and validate a population-representative 10-year mortality risk index for older adults in England.

METHODS:

data were from 10,798 men and women aged 50 years and older in the population-based English Longitudinal Study of Ageing in 2002/03, randomly split into development (n = 5,377) and validation cohorts (n = 5,421). Participants were asked about their sociodemographics, health behaviours, comorbidities, and functional status in the home-based interviews. Variables that were independently associated with all-cause mortality through March 2013 in the development cohort were weighted relative to one another to develop risk point scores for the index that was calibrated in the validation cohort.

RESULTS:

the validated 10-year mortality risk index assigns points for: increasing age (50-59 years: 0 points; 60-64: 1 point; 65-69: 3 points; 70-74: 5 points; 75-79: 7 points; 80-84: 9 points; ≥85: 12 points), male (2 points), no vigorous physical activity (1 point), smoking (2 points), having a diagnosis of cancer (1 point), chronic lung disease (2 points) or heart failure (4 points), and having difficulty preparing a hot meal (2 points), pushing or pulling large objects (1 point) or walking 100 yards (1 point). In the full study cohort, 10-year mortality rates increased from 1.7% (11/664) in those with 0 points to 95% (189/199) among those with ≥16 points.

CONCLUSION:

this highly predictive 10-item mortality risk index is valid in the English population aged 50 years and older. It uses simple information that is often available in research studies and patient reports, and does not require biomarker data to predict mortality.

KEYWORDS:

10-year mortality risk; mortality risk; mortality risk calculator; older people; risk factors

 

[Funny that the highest neutrophil level and not that of monocytes were significantly associated with the higher non- than cardiovascular deaths but not mentioned in the abstract.]

Monocyte count as a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in older Korean people.

Choi SH, Kim JH, Lim S, Lim JY, Kim KW, Park KS, Jang HC.

Age Ageing. 2016 Dec 7. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 27932363

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1093/ageing/afw226

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

white blood cells (WBCs) have been known to mediate the inflammatory process, which may be a pivotal mechanism for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular mortality.

OBJECTIVE:

we investigated which WBC subtypes increased cardiovascular mortality and explored its connection to coronary artery diseases in a prospective study among older Koreans.

STUDY DESIGN AND SUBJECTS:

this study was conducted from 2005 to 2011 as a part of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging and included 439 men and 561 women over 65-year old.

OUTCOMES:

the primary endpoints were all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

RESULTS:

in the cox proportional hazard models, subjects in the higher tertiles of monocyte count were at a higher risk for cardiovascular mortality even in the fully adjusted model (2nd tertile hazard ratio = 2.51; 3rd tertile = 2.81). However, the total WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts did not affect cardiovascular mortality. Logistic regression models revealed that subjects in the 3rd tertile of monocyte count had an increased risk for any coronary artery plaque, vulnerable plaque and calcified plaque (odds ratio = 1.80, 2.68, 1.59, respectively) but not for significant stenosis. Other WBC subtypes were not related to coronary artery diseases.

CONCLUSION:

the results showed that a high monocyte count is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality as well as coronary artery plaque formation.

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular mortality; leucocytes; older people; white blood cells subtypes

 

Functionally enhanced brown adipose tissue in Ames dwarf mice.

Darcy J, Bartke A.

Adipocyte. 2017 Jan 2;6(1):62-67. doi: 10.1080/21623945.2016.1274470. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

PMID: 28452585

Abstract

Reduced insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin signaling (IIS) has been linked to extended longevity in species ranging from yeast to mammals. In mammals, this is exemplified in Ames dwarf (Prop1df/df) mice, which have a 40%-60% increase in longevity (males and females, respectively) due to their recessive Prop1 loss-of-function mutation that results in lack of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Our laboratory has previously shown that Ames dwarf mice have functionally unique white adipose tissue (WAT) that improves, rather than impairs, insulin sensitivity. Because GH and thyroid hormone are integral to adipose tissue development and function, we hypothesized that brown adipose tissue (BAT) in Ames dwarf mice may also be functionally unique and/or enhanced. Here, we elaborate on our recent findings, which demonstrate that BAT is functionally enhanced in Ames dwarf mice, and suggest that BAT removal in these mice results in utilization of WAT depots as an energy source. We also discuss how our findings compare to those in other long-lived dwarf mice with altered IIS, which unlike Ames dwarf mice, are essentially euthyroid. Lastly, we provide some insights into the implications of these findings and discuss some of the necessary future work in this area.

KEYWORDS:

Ames dwarf; GHRKO; brown adipose tissue; energy metabolism; growth hormone; thermogenesis; thyroid hormone

 

The effect of dairy consumption on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases: A meta-analysis of prospective studies.

Gholami F, Khoramdad M, Esmailnasab N, Moradi G, Nouri B, Safiri S, Alimohamadi Y.

J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2017;9(1):1-11. doi: 10.15171/jcvtr.2017.01. Epub 2017 Mar 18. Review.

PMID: 28451082

http://journals.tbzmed.ac.ir/JCVTR/Manuscript/JCVTR-9-1.pdf

Abstract

Introduction: There is no global consensus on the relationship of dairy products with cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the consumption of dairy products on cardiovascular diseases, including stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: Important electronic databases such as the Scopus, Science Direct, and PubMed were evaluated up to September 2014. All prospective cohort studies that evaluated the relationship between dairy products consumption and cardiovascular diseases were included regardless of their publication date and language. The study participants were evaluated regardless of age, sex, and ethnicity. The STROBE checklist was used to assess quality of the study. Two investigators separately selected the studies and extracted the data. The designated effects were risk ratio (RR) and hazard ratio (HR). The random effect model was used to combine the results. Results: Meta-analysis was performed on 27 studies. There were 8648 cases of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 11806 cases of CHD, and 29300 cases of stroke. An inverse association was found between total dairy intake and CVD (RR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.81-0.99) and stroke (RR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.82-0.95) while no association was observed between total dairy intake and CHD. The total diary intake was associated with decreased mortality of stroke (RR=0.80, 95% CI: 0.76-0.83) although it had no association with its incidence (RR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.88-1.04). Conclusion: This is the first meta-analysis of the relationship of total dairy intake with CVD. This study showed an inverse relationship between total dairy intake and CVD while no relationship was found for CHD. Considering the limited number of studies in this regard, more studies are required to investigate the effect of different factors on the association of dairy intake and CVD.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular Diseases; Dairy Foods; Meta-analysis; Prospective Cohort Studies

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[The below paper is pdf-availed.]

Neuroprotective effects of low fat-protein diet in the P301L mouse model of tauopathy.

Buccarello L, Grignaschi G, Di Giancamillo A, Domeneghini C, Melcangi RC, Borsello T.

Neuroscience. 2017 Apr 26. pii: S0306-4522(17)30285-3. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.04.027. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28456717

Abstract

Tauopathies are a class of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the pathological aggregation of tau protein in the human brain. Despite numerous studies in mouse models of Alzheimer disease (AD) have shown a correlation among diet, beta-amyloid and AD onset, little is known about the impact of diet on tau. We here investigated whether a low fat-protein diet (LFPD) may improve lifespan, cognitive and locomotor activity in P301L-tg mouse model of tauopathy. Our data indicate that LFPD has a beneficial effect on these parameters. Tg mice fed with control diet showed a decrease in body weight, food intake and survival rate if compared to wild type animals. In contrast, LFPD counteracted weight loss, increased mortality and ameliorated cognitive and locomotor performances in tg mice. LFPD also reduced the abnormal accumulation of agglomerates of P-Tau (pathological features of tauopathies) and the expression of apoptotic markers (i.e., TUNEL immunopositive neurons) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of P301L-tg mice. Interestingly, some of these effects are sex-dependent. For instance, tg females, but not males, fed with LFPD had a significant increase of body weight and a reduction of P-Tau agglomerates compared to tg fed with control diet. These changes correlated with a more pronounced improvement of cognition and locomotor activity in females than in male tg fed with LFPD. Altogether, these results suggest a sex dependent neuroprotective effect of LFPD in P301L-tg mice, suggesting that lifestyle intervention strategies may be clinically relevant for delaying the onset of cognitive impairment and dementia, especially in females.

KEYWORDS:

Diet; Hyperphosphorylated Tau; Neuronal death; Neuroprotection; Sex difference; Tauopathy

"The first group was fed with a standard rodent chow (Control diet: 18%

protein and 5% fat, Harlan Lab. Tekland global diet), while the second group was fed with a low fat protein diet

(LFPD) (Low fat protein diet: 14% protein and 3.5% fat Harlan Lab. Tekland global diet, Suppl. Fig.1).

Since the animals were bred in a SPF facility, where all materials introduced are sterilized, we used an

autoclavable diet manufactured with high quality ingredients and supplemented with additional vitamins to

ensure nutritional adequacy after autoclaving.

The Control diet is a fixed formula, autoclavable diet designed to support gestation, lactation, and growth of

rodents. This diet does not contain alfalfa, thus lowering the occurrence of natural phytoestrogens. Typical

isoflavone concentrations (daidzein + genistein aglycone equivalents) range from 150 to 250 mg/kg. Exclusion

of alfalfa reduces chlorophyll, improving optical imaging clarity. Absence of animal protein and fishmeal

minimizes the presence of nitrosamines (see Supplementary Figure 1).

The Low fat protein diet (LFPD) is a fixed formula, autoclavable diet designed to promote longevity and

normal body weight in rodents. This diet does not contain alfalfa or soybean meal, thus minimizing the

occurrence of natural phytoestrogens. Typical isoflavone concentrations (daidzein + genistein aglycone

equivalents) range from non-detectable to 20 mg/kg. Exclusion of alfalfa reduces chlorophyll, improving optical

imaging clarity. Absence of animal protein and fishmeal minimizes the presence of nitrosamines (see

Supplementary figure 1).

...

Highlights:

- Female P301L-tg are more severely affected by tauopathy than male P301L-tg mice

- LFPD improves lifespan, cognitive and locomotor activity in P301L-tg mice

- LFPD ameliorates cognition and locomotor activity more efficiently in females than male

- LFPD induces a decrease of P-Tau agglomerates in female but not in male"

 

Fueling the Mechanisms of Asthma: Increased Fatty Acid Oxidation in Inflammatory Immune Cells May Represent a Novel Therapeutic Target.

Al-Khami AA, Ghonim MA, Del Valle L, Ibba SV, Zheng L, Pyakurel K, Okpechi SC, Garay J, Wyczechowska D, Sanchez-Pino MD, Rodriguez PC, Boulares HA, Ochoa AC.

Clin Exp Allergy. 2017 Apr 29. doi: 10.1111/cea.12947. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28456994

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Increasing evidence has shown the close link between energy metabolism and the differentiation, function, and longevity of immune cells. Chronic inflammatory conditions such as parasitic infections and cancer trigger a metabolic reprogramming from the preferential use of glucose to the up-regulation of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in myeloid cells, including macrophages and granulocytic and monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Asthma is another chronic inflammatory condition where macrophages, eosinophils, and polymorphonuclear cells play an important role in its pathophysiology.

OBJECTIVE:

We tested whether FAO might play a role in the development of asthma-like traits and whether the inhibition of this metabolic pathway could represent a novel therapeutic approach.

METHODS:

OVA and house dust mite (HDM)-induced murine asthma models were used in this study.

RESULTS:

Key FAO enzymes were significantly increased in the bronchial epithelium and inflammatory immune cells infiltrating the respiratory epithelium of mice exposed to OVA or HDM. Pharmacologic inhibition of FAO significantly decreased allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, decreased the number of inflammatory cells, and reduced the production of cytokines and chemokines associated with asthma.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE:

These novel observations suggest that allergic airway inflammation increases FAO in inflammatory cells to support the production of cytokines, chemokines, and other factors important in the development of asthma. Inhibition of FAO may therefore provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of asthma by re-purposing existing drugs that block FAO and are approved for the treatment of heart disease.

KEYWORDS:

Immunometabolism; airway hyperresponsiveness; asthma; fatty acid oxidation; inflammation

 

Accumulated exposure to unemployment is related to impaired glucose metabolism in middle-aged men: A follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

Rautio N, Varanka-Ruuska T, Vaaramo E, Palaniswamy S, Nedelec R, Miettunen J, Karppinen J, Auvinen J, Järvelin MR, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Sebert S, Ala-Mursula L.

Prim Care Diabetes. 2017 Apr 26. pii: S1751-9918(17)30051-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pcd.2017.03.010. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28456438

Abstract

AIMS:

We explored whether registered unemployment is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in general population.

METHODS:

Based on Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 at 46 years, we analyzed the oral glucose tolerance tests of 1970 men and 2544 women in relation to their preceding three-year employment records in three categories of unemployment exposure: no (employed), low (≤1-year) and high exposure (>1-year).

RESULTS:

Among men, pre-diabetes was found in 19.2% of those with no unemployment, 23.0% with low and 27.0% with high exposure, the corresponding figures for screen-detected type 2 diabetes were 3.8%, 3.8% and 9.2% (p<0.01). Among women, analogous figures for pre-diabetes were 10.0%, 12.6% and 16.2% and for screen-detected type 2 diabetes 1.7%, 3.4% and 3.6% (p<0.01). Men with high exposure to unemployment had a higher risk for pre-diabetes (OR 1.61, CI 95% 1.03-2.51) and screen-detected type 2 diabetes (OR 2.58 95% CI 1.23-5.44) than employed men, after adjustment for education, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity and body mass index. Among women, associations were attenuated in the adjusted models.

CONCLUSIONS:

High exposure to unemployment may predispose to type 2 diabetes in middle-aged men. For clinicians, awareness of the patient's unemployment status may be helpful in recognizing undiagnosed cases.

KEYWORDS:

Pre-diabetes; Type 2 diabetes; Unemployment

 

Gut microbiota of mice putatively modifies amino acid metabolism in the host brain.

Kawase T, Nagasawa M, Ikeda H, Yasuo S, Koga Y, Furuse M.

Br J Nutr. 2017 Mar;117(6):775-783. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517000678. Epub 2017 Apr 10.

PMID: 28393748

Abstract

Recently, it has been found that the gut microbiota influences functions of the host brain by affecting monoamine metabolism. The present study focused on the relationship between the gut microbiota and the brain amino acids. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) and germ-free (GF) mice were used as experimental models. Plasma and brain regions were sampled from mice at 7 and 16 weeks of age, and analysed for free d- and l-amino acids, which are believed to affect many physiological functions. At 7 weeks of age, plasma concentrations of d-aspartic acid (d-Asp), l-alanine (l-Ala), l-glutamine (l-Gln) and taurine were higher in SPF mice than in GF mice, but no differences were found at 16 weeks of age. Similar patterns were observed for the concentrations of l-Asp in striatum, cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and l-arginine (l-Arg), l-Ala and l-valine (l-Val) in striatum. In addition, the concentrations of l-Asp, d-Ala, l-histidine, l-isoleucine (l-Ile), l-leucine (l-Leu), l-phenylalanine and l-Val were significantly higher in plasma of SPF mice when compared with those of GF mice. The concentrations of l-Arg, l-Gln, l-Ile and l-Leu were significantly higher in SPF than in GF mice, but those of d-Asp, d-serine and l-serine were higher in some brain regions of GF mice than in those of SPF mice. In conclusion, the concentration of amino acids in the host brain seems to be dependent on presence of the gut microbiota. Amino acid metabolism in the host brain may be modified by manipulating microbiota communities.

KEYWORDS:

D-Amino acids; L-Amino acids; Ala alanine; Arg arginine; Asp aspartic acid; GABA γ-aminobutyric acid; GF germ free; Gln glutamine; His histidine; Ile isoleucine; Leu leucine; Phe phenylalanine; SPF specific pathogen free; Ser serine; Tau taurine; Tyr tyrosine; UPLC ultra-performance liquid chromatography; Val valine; Ageing; Brain; Germ-free mice; Gut microbiota

 

Prospective study of dietary energy density and weight gain in women.

Bes-Rastrollo M, van Dam RM, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Li TY, Sampson LL, Hu FB.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep;88(3):769-77.

PMID: 18779295 Free PMC Article

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3977032/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3977032/pdf/nihms-555873.pdf

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Little is known about the long-term effects of dietary energy density (ED) on weight gain.

OBJECTIVE:

The objective was to assess the long-term relation between changes in dietary ED and age-related weight gain.

DESIGN:

We conducted a prospective study of 50 026 women (x +/- SD age: 36.5 +/- 4.6 y) in the Nurses' Health Study II followed from 1991 to 1999. Dietary ED and body weight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999. Total dietary ED was calculated by dividing each subject's daily energy intake (kcal) by the reported weight (g) of all foods consumed.

RESULTS:

Dietary ED was positively correlated with saturated fat (r = 0.16), trans fat (r = 0.15), and the glycemic index (r = 0.16), but was inversely correlated with vegetable protein (r = -0.30), vegetables (r = -0.27), and fruit (r = -0.17). ED was not significantly correlated with total fat intake as a percentage of energy (r = 0.08). Women who increased their dietary ED during follow-up the most (5th quintile) had a significantly greater multivariate-adjusted weight gain than did those who decreased their dietary ED (1st quintile) (8-y time period: 6.42 kg compared with 4.57 kg; P for trend < 0.001). However, the amount of weight change over time varied considerably according to the ED values of individual foods and beverages.

CONCLUSION:

A high dietary ED reflects a dietary pattern higher in saturated and trans fats and refined carbohydrates. Increases in dietary ED were associated with greater weight gain among middle-aged women during 8 y of follow-up. However, public health recommendations cannot be made simply on the basis of ED values of individual foods and beverages.

"Some foods with relatively high ED values such as oil and vinegar salad dressing, olive oil salad dressing, and nuts were not associated with greater weight gain or were associated with slightly reduced weight."

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Prospective study of dietary energy density and weight gain in a Japanese adult population.

Sasaki KM, Wada K, Zeredo JLL, Nagata C.

Br J Nutr. 2017 Mar;117(6):822-828. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517000484. Epub 2017 Apr 11.

PMID: 28397626

Abstract

High dietary energy density (ED) has been associated with weight gain. However, little is known about the long-term effects of ED on weight changes among free-living subjects, particularly in Japanese and other Asian populations. In this study, we assessed dietary habits and weight changes in participants (5778 males and 7440 females, 35-69 years old) of the Takayama study. ED was estimated using a validated FFQ at baseline only. Information on body weight (BW) was obtained by self-administered questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Mean BW difference in 9·8 years was 17 (se 4221) g for men and -210 (se 3889) g for women. In men, ED was positively associated with BW at follow-up after controlling for age, BW, height, physical activity score, alcohol consumption, energy intake, years of education at the baseline and change of smoking status during the follow-up. On average, men in the highest quartile of ED (>5·322 kJ/g (>1·272 kcal/g)) gained 138 (se 111) g, whereas men in the lowest ED (<1·057) lost 22 (se 111) g (P for trend=0·01). The association between ED and BW gain was stronger in men with normal weight. In women, the association between ED and weight change was not statistically significant. In conclusion, contrary to some studies that report an association between ED and weight gain in the overweight only, our data suggest that high-ED diets may be associated with weight gain in the lean population as well, at least in male subjects.

KEYWORDS:

BW body weight; ED energy density; Diets; Energy density; Obesity; Prospective studies; Weight changes

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Body mass index as a predictor of healthy and disease-free life expectancy between ages 50 and 75: a multicohort study.

Stenholm S, Head J, Aalto V, Kivimäki M, Kawachi I, Zins M, Goldberg M, Platts LG, Zaninotto P, Magnusson Hanson LL, Westerlund H, Vahtera J.

Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 Feb 21. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2017.29. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28138135

http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v41/n5/full/ijo201729a.html?WT.ec_id=IJO-201705&spMailingID=53976229&spUserID=MTc2MzAyMjQ1OQS2&spJobID=1160307574&spReportId=MTE2MDMwNzU3NAS2

https://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v41/n5/pdf/ijo201729a.pdf

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

While many studies have shown associations between obesity and increased risk of morbidity and mortality, little comparable information is available on how body mass index (BMI) impacts health expectancy. We examined associations of BMI with healthy and chronic disease-free life expectancy in four European cohort studies.

METHODS:

Data were drawn from repeated waves of cohort studies in England, Finland, France and Sweden. BMI was categorized into four groups from normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg m-2) to obesity class II (⩾35 kg m-2). Health expectancy was estimated with two health indicators: sub-optimal self-rated health and having a chronic disease (cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory disease and diabetes). Multistate life table models were used to estimate sex-specific healthy life expectancy and chronic disease-free life expectancy from ages 50 to 75 years for each BMI category.

RESULTS:

The proportion of life spent in good perceived health between ages 50 and 75 progressively decreased with increasing BMI from 81% in normal weight men and women to 53% in men and women with class II obesity which corresponds to an average 7-year difference in absolute terms. The proportion of life between ages 50 and 75 years without chronic diseases decreased from 62 and 65% in normal weight men and women and to 29 and 36% in men and women with class II obesity, respectively. This corresponds to an average 9 more years without chronic diseases in normal weight men and 7 more years in normal weight women between ages 50 and 75 years compared to class II obese men and women. No consistent differences were observed between cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS:

Excess BMI is associated with substantially shorter healthy and chronic disease-free life expectancy, suggesting that tackling obesity would increase years lived in good health in populations.

 

Leukocyte Telomere Length and All-Cause, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer Mortality: Results From Individual-Participant-Data Meta-Analysis of 2 Large Prospective Cohort Studies.

Mons U, Müezzinler A, Schöttker B, Dieffenbach AK, Butterbach K, Schick M, Peasey A, De Vivo I, Trichopoulou A, Boffetta P, Brenner H.

Am J Epidemiol. 2017 Apr 28:1-10. doi: 10.1093/aje/kww210. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28459963

Abstract

We studied the associations of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality in 12,199 adults participating in 2 population-based prospective cohort studies from Europe (ESTHER) and the United States (Nurses' Health Study). Blood samples were collected in 1989-1990 (Nurses' Health Study) and 2000-2002 (ESTHER). LTL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We calculated z scores for LTL to standardize LTL measurements across the cohorts. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate relative mortality according to continuous levels and quintiles of LTL z scores. The hazard ratios obtained from each cohort were subsequently pooled by meta-analysis. Overall, 2,882 deaths were recorded during follow-up (Nurses' Health Study, 1989-2010; ESTHER, 2000-2015). LTL was inversely associated with age in both cohorts. After adjustment for age, a significant inverse trend of LTL with all-cause mortality was observed in both cohorts. In random-effects meta-analysis, age-adjusted hazard ratios for the shortest LTL quintile compared with the longest were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.46) for all-cause mortality, 1.29 (95% CI: 0.83, 2.00) for cardiovascular mortality, and 1.10 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.37) for cancer mortality. In this study population with an age range of 43-75 years, we corroborated previous evidence suggesting that LTL predicts all-cause mortality beyond its association with age.

KEYWORDS:

aging; all-cause mortality; cancer mortality; cardiovascular disease mortality; cohort studies; leukocytes; telomere length

 

Effect of nut consumption on vascular endothelial function: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Xiao Y, Huang W, Peng C, Zhang J, Wong C, Kim JH, Yeoh EK, Su X.

Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr 20. pii: S0261-5614(17)30150-4. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.04.011. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28457654

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.clnu.2017.04.011

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

nut consumption has consistently been found to be associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and mortality in prospective studies. However, its effect on endothelial function, a prognostic marker of CVD, is still controversial in clinical trials. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed to quantitatively assess the effect of nuts on vascular endothelial function.

METHODS:

Major electronic databases were searched for published RCTs that reported the effect of nuts on flow mediated dilation (FMD) as a measurement of endothelial function in the adult population (age eighteen years or over). We calculated the pooled estimates of weighted mean differences (WMDs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by using random-effects models.

RESULTS:

A total of nine papers (10 trials) involving 374 participants were included. The pooled estimates found that nut consumption significantly improved FMD (WMD: 0.41%; 95% CI: 0.18%, 0.63%; P = 0.001). Moderate and marginally significant heterogeneity was observed among the studies (I2 = 39.5%, P = 0.094). Subgroup analyses indicated that walnuts significantly improved FMD (WMD: 0.39%; 95% CI: 0.16%, 0.63%; P = 0.001). In addition, nut consumption had a significant effect on FMD in the trials with study duration <18 weeks, nut dose <67 g/d, or subjects with baseline FMD ≥8.6%.

CONCLUSIONS:

Nut consumption significantly improved endothelial function. However, the beneficial effect was limited to walnuts. More studies examining the effect of other nuts on endothelial function are needed in the future.

KEYWORDS:

Endothelial; Flow-mediated dilation; Meta-analysis; Nut; Randomized controlled trials

 

The calcium and vitamin D controversy.

Abrahamsen B.

Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2017 May;9(5):107-114. doi: 10.1177/1759720X16685547. Epub 2017 Mar 26. Review.

PMID: 28458722

Abstract

Areas of the world where vitamin D levels are low for months of the year and intakes of calcium are high have a high prevalence of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. This suggests a public health message of avoiding calcium supplements and increasing vitamin D intake. No message could be more welcome as vitamin D can be given as a bolus while calcium must be taken daily and may be poorly tolerated. This approach is based on no evidence from intervention studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that vitamin D given with calcium elicits a small reduction in fracture risk and deaths. This has not been demonstrated for D given alone. The cardiovascular safety of calcium and vitamin D (CaD) supplements is difficult to ascertain due to weaknesses in RCT designs and adjudication that cannot be remedied by subanalysis. Moreover, no major new RCTs are in process to provide better evidence. It remains unclear that calcium from dietary sources has health advantages over supplements. Benefits may be confined to patients with poor nutritional intake and the small effects at societal levels may be derived from large effects in a small number of patients. This has been impossible to confirm given the limited information about baseline vitamin D and calcium status at entry into trials. Future intervention studies should carefully capture baseline characteristics as these may determine the strength of the response, and make more efficient use of randomization strategies allowing subsequent disassembly or subanalyses while maintaining balancing. Though large clinical RCTs currently evaluate the effects of higher vitamin D doses (equivalent to 50-83 µg/d) there is no current research effort regarding the calcium controversy. In the absence of such studies it is not possible to provide clinicians with evidence-based recommendations regarding the best use of CaD supplementation.

KEYWORDS:

calcium; cardiovascular risk; clinical trials; nutrition; osteoporosis; vitamin D

 

[The first below paper is not pdf-availed.]

A Cohort Study of Adolescent and Midlife Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

Gordon-Dseagu VLZ, Thompson FE, Subar AF, Ruder EH, Thiébaut ACM, Potischman N, Stolzenberg-Solomon R.

Am J Epidemiol. 2017 Apr 28:1-13. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwx036. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28459946

Abstract

Given the long latency period of pancreatic cancer, exploring the influence of early and midlife exposures will further advance our understanding of the disease. We assessed associations between diet and pancreatic cancer incidence in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP (formerly American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health Study. In 1996, a total of 303,094 participants completed 2 food frequency questionnaires that assessed diet at ages 12-13 years and 10 years previously. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Through the end of 2006, a total of 1,322 pancreatic cancer cases occurred (average follow up time = 10.1 years). When comparing the highest tertiles with the lowest, carbohydrate intake during adolescence (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 0.99), but not 10 years before baseline, was inversely associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Total fat intake 10 years before baseline was significantly associated with increased risk (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.34), while risk was higher for high fat intake during both adolescence and midlife. Calcium intake 10 years before baseline was associated with reduced risk (HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.99), as was a change from low intake in adolescence to high intake in midlife (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93). Our study found a number of dietary factors present during adolescence and midlife to be associated with pancreatic cancer.

KEYWORDS:

adolescent diet; cancer risk; diet; midlife diet; nutritional epidemiology; pancreatic cancer

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Adolescent and mid-life diet: risk of colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

Ruder EH, Thiébaut AC, Thompson FE, Potischman N, Subar AF, Park Y, Graubard BI, Hollenbeck AR, Cross AJ.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6):1607-19. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.020701. Epub 2011 Nov 9.

PMID: 22071715 Free PMC Article

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3252554/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3252554/pdf/ajcn94601607.pdf

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Colorectal cancer has a natural history of several decades; therefore, the diet consumed decades before diagnosis may aid in understanding this malignancy.

OBJECTIVE:

The objective was to investigate diet during adolescence and 10 y before baseline (ages 40-61 y) in relation to colorectal cancer.

DESIGN:

Participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 292,797) completed a 124-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) about diet in the past 12 mo and two 37-item FFQs about diet at ages 12-13 y and 10 y previously. Cox regression was used to estimate multivariate HRs and 95% CIs for colon (n = 2794) and rectal (n = 979) cancers within quintiles of exposures.

RESULTS:

Colon cancer risk was lower in the highest than in the lowest quintile of vitamin A (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.92) and vegetable (HR: 0.81, 0.70, 0.92) intakes during adolescence. Those in the highest intake category 10 y previously for calcium (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.94), vitamin A (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.92), vitamin C (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.95), fruit (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.97), and milk (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.90) had a lower risk of colon cancer, but a higher risk was observed for total fat (HR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.30), red meat (HR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.53), and processed meat (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.45). For rectal cancer, milk was inversely associated (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.96) with risk.

CONCLUSION:

Adolescent and midlife diet may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis.

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Adolescent and mid-life diet: risk of colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

Ruder EH, Thiébaut AC, Thompson FE, Potischman N, Subar AF, Park Y, Graubard BI, Hollenbeck AR, Cross AJ.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6):1607-19. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.020701. Epub 2011 Nov 9.

PMID: 22071715 Free PMC Article

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Previous research relating dietary fat, a modifiable risk factor, to pancreatic cancer has been inconclusive.

METHODS:

We prospectively analyzed the association between intakes of fat, fat subtypes, and fat food sources and exocrine pancreatic cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, a US cohort of 308 736 men and 216 737 women who completed a 124-item food frequency questionnaire in 1995-1996. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models, with adjustment for energy intake, smoking history, body mass index, and diabetes. Statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS:

Over an average follow-up of 6.3 years, 865 men and 472 women were diagnosed with exocrine pancreatic cancer (45.0 and 34.5 cases per 100 000 person-years, respectively). After multivariable adjustment and combination of data for men and women, pancreatic cancer risk was directly related to the intakes of total fat (highest vs lowest quintile, 46.8 vs 33.2 cases per 100 000 person-years, HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.46; P(trend) = .03), saturated fat (51.5 vs 33.1 cases per 100 000 person-years, HR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.14 to 1.62; P(trend) < .001), and monounsaturated fat (46.2 vs 32.9 cases per 100 000 person-years, HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.46; P(trend) = .05) but not polyunsaturated fat. The associations were strongest for saturated fat from animal food sources (52.0 vs 32.2 cases per 100 000 person-years, HR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.20 to 1.70; P(trend) < .001); specifically, intakes from red meat and dairy products were both statistically significantly associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk (HR = 1.27 and 1.19, respectively).

CONCLUSION:

In this large prospective cohort with a wide range of intakes, dietary fat of animal origin was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk.

 

A Cohort Study of Adolescent and Midlife Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

Gordon-Dseagu VLZ, Thompson FE, Subar AF, Ruder EH, Thiébaut ACM, Potischman N, Stolzenberg-Solomon R.

Am J Epidemiol. 2017 Apr 28:1-13. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwx036. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28459946

Abstract

Given the long latency period of pancreatic cancer, exploring the influence of early and midlife exposures will further advance our understanding of the disease. We assessed associations between diet and pancreatic cancer incidence in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP (formerly American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health Study. In 1996, a total of 303,094 participants completed 2 food frequency questionnaires that assessed diet at ages 12-13 years and 10 years previously. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Through the end of 2006, a total of 1,322 pancreatic cancer cases occurred (average follow up time = 10.1 years). When comparing the highest tertiles with the lowest, carbohydrate intake during adolescence (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 0.99), but not 10 years before baseline, was inversely associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Total fat intake 10 years before baseline was significantly associated with increased risk (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.34), while risk was higher for high fat intake during both adolescence and midlife. Calcium intake 10 years before baseline was associated with reduced risk (HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.99), as was a change from low intake in adolescence to high intake in midlife (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93). Our study found a number of dietary factors present during adolescence and midlife to be associated with pancreatic cancer.

KEYWORDS:

adolescent diet; cancer risk; diet; midlife diet; nutritional epidemiology; pancreatic cancer

 

Evaluation of vitamin D3 intakes up to 15,000 international units/day and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations up to 300 nmol/L on calcium metabolism in a community setting.

Kimball SM, Mirhosseini N, Holick MF.

Dermatoendocrinol. 2017 Apr 13;9(1):e1300213. doi: 10.1080/19381980.2017.1300213. eCollection 2017.

PMID: 28458767

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19381980.2017.1300213?scroll=top&needAccess=true

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/19381980.2017.1300213?needAccess=true

Abstract

Supplementation by the general public with vitamin D at doses above the Tolerable Upper Level of Intake (UL) is becoming quite common. The objective of the current analysis was to characterize the effect of vitamin D supplementation at doses up to 15,000 IU/d in a community-based program on vitamin D status, calcium homeostasis as well as on kidney, liver and immune function. We evaluated data collected for 3,882 participants in a community program for whom there were blood measurements at program entry and at follow-up within 6-18 months between 2013 and 2015. Participants were supplemented with a wide range of vitamin D doses (1,000 - 15,000 IU/d) aimed at achieving serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels of at least 100 nmol/L. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations up to 300 nmol/L were achieved without perturbation of calcium homeostasis or incidence of toxicity. Hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria were not related to an increase in 25(OH)D concentrations nor vitamin D dose. To achieve serum 25(OH)D levels >100 nmol/L on average, required vitamin D intakes of 6,000 IU/d for normal Body Mass Index (BMI), 7,000 IU/d for overweight and 8,000 IU/d for obese. Doses of vitamin D in excess of 6,000 IU/d were required to achieve serum 25(OH)D concentrations above 100 nmol/L, especially in individuals who were overweight or obese without any evidence of toxicity. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations up to 300 nmol/L were found to be safe.

KEYWORDS:

25-hydroxyvitamin D; C reactive protein; ISRCTN: 18397898; hypercalcemia; hypervitaminosis D; inflammation; serum calcium; supplementation; toxicity; vitamin D

 

Leukocyte Telomere Length and All-Cause, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer Mortality: Results From Individual-Participant-Data Meta-Analysis of 2 Large Prospective Cohort Studies.

Mons U, Müezzinler A, Schöttker B, Dieffenbach AK, Butterbach K, Schick M, Peasey A, De Vivo I, Trichopoulou A, Boffetta P, Brenner H.

Am J Epidemiol. 2017 Apr 28:1-10. doi: 10.1093/aje/kww210. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28459963

Abstract

We studied the associations of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality in 12,199 adults participating in 2 population-based prospective cohort studies from Europe (ESTHER) and the United States (Nurses' Health Study). Blood samples were collected in 1989-1990 (Nurses' Health Study) and 2000-2002 (ESTHER). LTL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We calculated z scores for LTL to standardize LTL measurements across the cohorts. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate relative mortality according to continuous levels and quintiles of LTL z scores. The hazard ratios obtained from each cohort were subsequently pooled by meta-analysis. Overall, 2,882 deaths were recorded during follow-up (Nurses' Health Study, 1989-2010; ESTHER, 2000-2015). LTL was inversely associated with age in both cohorts. After adjustment for age, a significant inverse trend of LTL with all-cause mortality was observed in both cohorts. In random-effects meta-analysis, age-adjusted hazard ratios for the shortest LTL quintile compared with the longest were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.46) for all-cause mortality, 1.29 (95% CI: 0.83, 2.00) for cardiovascular mortality, and 1.10 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.37) for cancer mortality. In this study population with an age range of 43-75 years, we corroborated previous evidence suggesting that LTL predicts all-cause mortality beyond its association with age.

KEYWORDS:

aging; all-cause mortality; cancer mortality; cardiovascular disease mortality; cohort studies; leukocytes; telomere length

 

Testosterone Deficiency and Nocturia: A Review.

Shigehara K, Izumi K, Mizokami A, Namiki M.

World J Mens Health. 2017 Apr;35(1):14-21. doi: 10.5534/wjmh.2017.35.1.14. Review.

PMID: 28459143

Abstract

Nocturia causes lack of sleep and excessive daytime somnolence, reducing overall well-being, vitality, productivity, and mental health. Nocturia is significantly associated with testosterone deficiency, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and sleep disorders. The development of LUTS is commonly associated with testosterone deficiency in elderly men, and recent studies have suggested that testosterone has an ameliorative effect on nocturia. In hypogonadal men with nocturia, a negative feedback cycle can arise, in which testosterone deficiency leads to the development of nocturia, and nocturia contributes to the decline in testosterone levels. Therefore, patients with nocturia should receive appropriate treatment in order to improve their quality of life. Nocturia is generally treated by restricting nighttime water intake, as well as by the administration of medications, such as alpha-1 blockers, anticholinergic drugs, and desmopressin. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is used worldwide as a treatment for many hypogonadal conditions. TRT represents an alternative treatment option for nocturia in hypogonadal men. However, limited information is currently available regarding the effects of TRT on nocturia in hypogonadal men, and further studies are required to reach more definitive conclusions.

KEYWORDS:

Hypogonadism; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Nocturia; Testosterone

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Chronic dietary exposure to branched chain amino acids impairs glucose disposal in vegans but not in omnivores.

Gojda J, Rossmeislová L, Straková R, Tůmová J, Elkalaf M, Jaček M, Tůma P, Potočková J, Krauzová E, Waldauf P, Trnka J, Štich V, Anděl M.

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 Feb 1. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.274. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28145418

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1038/ejcn.2016.274

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are among nutrients strongly linked with insulin sensitivity (IS) measures. We investigated the effects of a chronic increase of BCAA intake on IS in two groups of healthy subjects differing in their basal consumption of BCAA, that is, vegans and omnivores.

SUBJECTS/METHODS:

Eight vegans and eight matched omnivores (five men and three women in each group) received 15 g (women) or 20 g (men) of BCAA daily for 3 months. Anthropometry, blood analyses, glucose clamp, arginine test, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle (SM) biopsies (mRNA levels of selected metabolic markers, respiratory chain (RC) activity) were performed at baseline, after the intervention and after a 6 month wash-out period.

RESULTS:

Compared with omnivores, vegans had higher IS at baseline (GIR, glucose infusion rate: 9.6±2.4 vs 7.1±2.4 mg/kg/min, 95% CI for difference: 0.55 to 5.82) that declined after the intervention and returned to baseline values after the wash-out period (changes in GIR with 95% CI, 3-0 months: -1.64 [-2.5; -0.75] and 9-3 months: 1.65 [0.75; 2.54] mg/kg/min). No such change was observed in omnivores. In omnivores the intervention led to an increased expression of lipogenic genes (DGAT2, FASN, PPARγ, SCD1) in AT. SM RC activity increased in both groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Negative impact of increased BCAA intake on IS was only detected in vegans, that is, subjects with low basal amino acids/BCAA intake, which appear to be unable to induce sufficient compensatory changes within AT and SM on a BCAA challenge.

 

The beneficial effects of aerobic and concurrent training on metabolic profile and body composition after detraining: a 1-year follow-up in postmenopausal women.

Rossi FE, Diniz TA, Neves LM, Fortaleza AC, Gerosa-Neto J, Inoue DS, Buonani C, Cholewa JM, Lira FS, Freitas IF Jr.

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jan 25. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.263. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28120855

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1038/ejcn.2016.263

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

Aerobic and concurrent training (CT, aerobic and strength training) improves body composition and metabolic profile; however, it is not known whether these positive outcomes acquired after aerobic or CT are maintained long term (⩾6 months) after program interruption in postmenopausal women. This study investigated the changes in total and appendicular body composition, bone mineral density and metabolic profile following 16 weeks of aerobic or CT, and through 6 months and 1 year of detraining in postmenopausal women.

SUBJECTS/METHODS:

In total, 60 postmenopausal women were divided into the following groups: aerobic (AT), aerobic plus strength training (CT) and control group (CG), and 31 participants were assessed for the 1 year follow-up. Body composition and bone mineral density were evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were assessed.

RESULTS:

There were main effects of time for arm fat mass, arm lean mass and trunk lean mass (P<0.05). There was a statistical difference between AT and CG for leg fat mass and percentage of fat (P<0.05). After 6 months of detraining, leg lean mass decreased in relation to post-intervention, and there was a statistically significant interaction for total and appendicular lean mass (P<0.05). There were differences between CT and CG in glucose and between AT and CG in glucose and triacylglycerol (P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

A duration of 16 weeks of aerobic or CT improved total and appendicular body composition and metabolic profile but after 6 months of detraining, leg lean mass returned to the values obtained pre-training in CT.

 

EDITORIAL

Sleep disorders and hypertension risk

Journal of Human Hypertension (2017) 31, 371–372; doi:10.1038/jhh.2017.2

Journal of Human Hypertension (2017) 31, 371–372

http://www.nature.com.sci-hub.cc/jhh/journal/v31/n6/full/jhh20172a.html

 

Are sleep duration, midpoint of sleep and sleep quality associated with dietary intake among Bavarian adults?

Kleiser C, Wawro N, Stelmach-Mardas M, Boeing H, Gedrich K, Himmerich H, Linseisen J.

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jan 11. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.264. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28074892

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1038/ejcn.2016.264

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

Only few epidemiologic studies examined sleep characteristics in relation to dietary behaviour. Our aim was to analyse associations of sleep duration, midpoint of sleep and sleep quality with dietary intake among the Bavarian population.

SUBJECTS/METHODS:

Within the cross-sectional Bavarian Food Consumption Survey II, 1050 subjects aged 13-81 years were recruited. Dietary intake was assessed with three 24-h dietary recalls by telephone (EPIC-Soft). In our study, 814 participants aged 18 years or older, who completed at least two 24-h dietary recalls and who had complete and plausible information on sleep characteristics were analysed. Dietary intake was described by the consumption of main food groups, energy-proving nutrients and energy intake. Sleep was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Questionnaire, from which categories of self-reported usual sleep duration in half-h-steps per night, midpoint of sleep and overall sleep quality were derived.

RESULTS:

Sleep duration was associated with intake of non-alcoholic beverages (P<0.01), carbonated beverages (P=0.04), water (P=0.04) and coffee/black tea (P=0.01) with higher intake among short duration sleepers. No association was found between the consumption of other main food groups, energy-proving nutrients or total daily energy intake and sleep duration. Midpoint of sleep was associated with intake of carbonated beverages (P=0.02, highest intake among subjects with early midpoint of sleep). No association between sleep quality and dietary intake was detected.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings demonstrate only specific associations between sleep characteristics and dietary intake, and mainly sleep duration was associated with beverage intake.

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Regular and low-dose aspirin, other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications and prospective risk of HER2-defined breast cancer: the California Teachers Study.

Clarke CA, Canchola AJ, Moy LM, Neuhausen SL, Chung NT, Lacey JV Jr, Bernstein L.

Breast Cancer Res. 2017 May 1;19(1):52. doi: 10.1186/s13058-017-0840-7.

PMID: 28460643

https://breast-cancer-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13058-017-0840-7

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Regular users of aspirin may have reduced risk of breast cancer. Few studies have addressed whether risk reduction pertains to specific breast cancer subtypes defined jointly by hormone receptor (estrogen and progesterone receptor) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression. This study assessed the prospective risk of breast cancer (overall and by subtype) according to use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) in a cohort of female public school professionals in California.

METHODS:

In 1995 - 1996, participants in the California Teachers Study completed a baseline questionnaire on family history of cancer and other conditions, use of NSAIDs, menstrual and reproductive history, self-reported weight and height, living environment, diet, alcohol use, and physical activity. In 2005-2006, 57,164 participants provided some updated information, including use of NSAIDs and 1457 of these participants developed invasive breast cancer before January 2013. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models provided hazard rate ratios (HRR) for the association between NSAID use and risk of invasive breast cancer as well as hormone receptor- and HER2-defined subtypes.

RESULTS:

Developing breast cancer was associated inversely with taking three or more tablets of low-dose aspirin per week (23% of participants). Among women reporting this exposure, the HRR was 0.84 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.98) compared to those not taking NSAIDs and this was particularly evident in women with the hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative subtype (HRR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.96). Use of three or more tablets of "other" NSAIDs was marginally associated with lower risk of breast cancer (HRR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.62-1.00). Other associations with NSAIDs were generally null.

CONCLUSION:

Our observation of reduced risk of breast cancer, among participants who took three or more tablets of low-dose aspirin weekly, is consistent with other reports looking at aspirin without differentiation by dose. This is the first report to suggest that the reduction in risk occurs for low-dose aspirin and not for regular-dose aspirin and only among women with the hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative subtype. This preliminary study builds on previous knowledge and further supports the need for formal cancer chemoprevention studies of low-dose aspirin.

KEYWORDS:

Aspirin; Breast cancer; Epidemiology; HER2; Hormone receptor; NSAIDs; Subtype

 

Sitting behaviour is not associated with incident diabetes over 13 years: the Whitehall II cohort study.

Stamatakis E, Pulsford RM, Brunner EJ, Britton AR, Bauman AE, Biddle SJ, Hillsdon M.

Br J Sports Med. 2017 May;51(10):818-823. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-096723. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

PMID: 28465446

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although certain types of sedentary behaviour have been linked to metabolic risk, prospective studies describing the links between sitting with incident diabetes are scarce and often do not account for baseline adiposity. We investigate the associations between context-specific sitting and incident diabetes in a cohort of mid-aged to older British civil servants.

METHODS:

Using data from the Whitehall II study (n=4811), Cox proportional hazards models (adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, employment grade, smoking, alcohol intake, fruit and vegetable consumption, self-rated health, physical functioning, walking and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and body mass index (BMI)) were fitted to examine associations between total sitting and context-specific sitting time (work, television (TV), non-TV leisure time sitting at home) at phase 5 (1997-1999) and fasting glucose-defined incident diabetes up to 2011.

RESULTS:

Total sitting (HR of the top compared with the bottom group: 1.26; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.62; p=0.01) and TV sitting (1.33; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.88; p=0.05) showed associations with incident diabetes; once BMI was included in the model these associations were attenuated for both total sitting (1.19; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.55; p=0.22) and TV sitting (1.31; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.76; p=0.14).

CONCLUSION:

We found limited evidence linking sitting and incident diabetes over 13 years in this occupational cohort of civil servants.

KEYWORDS:

Diabetes; Epidemiology; Physical activity; Sedentary; Sitting time

 

The Effect of a Mediterranean Diet on the Incidence of Cataract Surgery.

García-Layana A, Ciufo G, Toledo E, Martínez-González MA, Corella D, Fitó M, Estruch R, Gómez-Gracia E, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Serra-Majem L, Pintó X, Portillo MP, Sorli JV, Bulló M, Vinyoles E, Sala-Vila A, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, Arós F.

Nutrients. 2017 May 3;9(5). pii: E453. doi: 10.3390/nu9050453.

PMID: 28467363

http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/9/5/453/htm

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cataract is a leading cause of vision impairment worldwide, and surgery is the only available treatment. The process that initiates lens opacification is dependent on the oxidative stress experienced by the lens components. A healthy overall dietary pattern, with the potential to reduce oxidative stress, has been suggested as a means to decrease the risk of developing cataract. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis that an intervention with a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) rather than a low-fat diet could decrease the incidence of cataract surgery in elderly subjects.

METHODS:

We included 5802 men and women (age range: 55-80 years) from the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea study (multicenter, parallel-group, randomized controlled clinical trial) who had not undergone cataract surgery. They were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: (1) a MedDiet enriched with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) (n = 1998); (2) a MedDiet enriched with nuts (n = 1914), and a control group recommended to follow a low-fat diet (n = 1890). The incidence of cataract surgery was recorded yearly during follow-up clinical evaluations. Primary analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Cox regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between the nutritional intervention and the incidence of cataract surgery.

RESULTS:

During a follow-up period of 7.0 years (mean follow-up period: 5.7 years; median: 5.9 years), 559 subjects underwent cataract surgery. Two hundred and six participants from the MedDiet + EVOO group, 174 from the MedDiet + Nuts group, and 179 from the control group underwent cataract surgery. We did not observe a reduction in the incidence of cataract surgery in the MedDiet groups compared to the control group. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios were 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84-1.26, p = 0.79) for the control group versus the MedDiet + EVOO group and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.86-1.31, p = 0.58) for the control group versus the MedDiet + Nuts group.

CONCLUSIONS:

To our knowledge, this is the first large randomized trial assessing the role of a MedDiet on the incidence of cataract surgery. Our results showed that the incidence of cataract surgery was similar in the MedDiet with EVOO, MedDiet with nuts, and low-fat diet groups. Further studies are necessary to investigate whether a MedDiet could have a preventive role in cataract surgery.

KEYWORDS:

Mediterranean diet; PREDIMED; antioxidants; cataract; cataract surgery; extra-virgin olive oil; low-fat diet; nuts

 

Long term gluten consumption in adults without celiac disease and risk of coronary heart disease: prospective cohort study.

Lebwohl B, Cao Y, Zong G, Hu FB, Green PHR, Neugut AI, Rimm EB, Sampson L, Dougherty LW, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Sun Q, Chan AT.

BMJ. 2017 May 2;357:j1892. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j1892.

PMID: 28465308

http://www.bmj.com/content/357/bmj.j1892.long

Abstract

Objective To examine the association of long term intake of gluten with the development of incident coronary heart disease.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting and participants 64 714 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 45 303 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study without a history of coronary heart disease who completed a 131 item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire in 1986 that was updated every four years through 2010.Exposure Consumption of gluten, estimated from food frequency questionnaires.Main outcome measure Development of coronary heart disease (fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction).Results During 26 years of follow-up encompassing 2 273 931 person years, 2431 women and 4098 men developed coronary heart disease. Compared with participants in the lowest fifth of gluten intake, who had a coronary heart disease incidence rate of 352 per 100 000 person years, those in the highest fifth had a rate of 277 events per 100 000 person years, leading to an unadjusted rate difference of 75 (95% confidence interval 51 to 98) fewer cases of coronary heart disease per 100 000 person years. After adjustment for known risk factors, participants in the highest fifth of estimated gluten intake had a multivariable hazard ratio for coronary heart disease of 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.88 to 1.02; P for trend=0.29). After additional adjustment for intake of whole grains (leaving the remaining variance of gluten corresponding to refined grains), the multivariate hazard ratio was 1.00 (0.92 to 1.09; P for trend=0.77). In contrast, after additional adjustment for intake of refined grains (leaving the variance of gluten intake correlating with whole grain intake), estimated gluten consumption was associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (multivariate hazard ratio 0.85, 0.77 to 0.93; P for trend=0.002).Conclusion Long term dietary intake of gluten was not associated with risk of coronary heart disease. However, the avoidance of gluten may result in reduced consumption of beneficial whole grains, which may affect cardiovascular risk. The promotion of gluten-free diets among people without celiac disease should not be encouraged.

 

Renal Function and Death in Older Women: Which eGFR Formula Should We Use?

Canales MT, Blackwell T, Ishani A, Taylor BC, Hart A, Beyth RJ, Ensrud KE.

Int J Nephrol. 2017;2017:8216878. doi: 10.1155/2017/8216878. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

PMID: 28465840

Abstract

Background. The Berlin Initiative Study (BIS) eGFR equations were developed specifically for aged populations, but their predictive validity compared to standard formulae is unknown in older women. Methods. In a prospective study of 1289 community-dwelling older women (mean age 79.5 years), we compared the performance of the BIS1 SCr-based equation to the CKD-EPIcr and the BIS2 SCr- and Scysc-based equation to the CKD-EPIcr,cysc to predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Results. Prevalence of specific eGFR category (i.e., ≥75, 60-74, 45-59, and <45) according to eGFR equation was 12.3%, 38.4%, 37.3%, and 12.0% for BIS1; 48.3%, 27.8%, 16.2%, and 7.8% for CKD-EPIcr; 14.1%, 38.6%, 37.6%, and 9.6% for BIS2; and 33.5%, 33.4%, 22.0%, and 11.1% for CKD-EPIcr,cysc, respectively. Over 9 ± 4 years, 667 (51.8%) women died. For each equation, women with eGFR <45 were at increased risk of mortality compared to eGFR ≥75 [adjusted HR (95% CI): BIS1, 1.5 (1.1-2.0); CKD-EPIcr, 1.7 (1.3-2.2); BIS2, 2.0 (1.4-2.8); CKD-EPIcr,cysc, 1.8 (1.4-2.3); p-trend <0.01]. Net reclassification analyses found no material difference in discriminant ability between the BIS and CKD-EPI equations. Results were similar for cardiovascular death. Conclusions. Compared to CKD-EPI, BIS equations identified a greater proportion of older women as having CKD but performed similarly to predict mortality risk. Thus, the BIS equations should not replace CKD-EPI equations to predict risk of death in older women.

 

Matching Dietary Amino Acid Balance to the In Silico-Translated Exome Optimizes Growth and Reproduction without Cost to Lifespan.

Piper MDW, Soultoukis GA, Blanc E, Mesaros A, Herbert SL, Juricic P, He X, Atanassov I, Salmonowicz H, Yang M, Simpson SJ, Ribeiro C, Partridge L.

Cell Metab. 2017 May 2;25(5):1206. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2017.04.020. No abstract available.

PMID: 28467937

http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC5355364/

http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC5355364/pdf/main.pdf

Summary

Balancing the quantity and quality of dietary protein relative to other nutrients is a key determinant of evolutionary fitness. A theoretical framework for defining a balanced diet would both reduce the enormous workload to optimize diets empirically and represent a breakthrough toward tailoring diets to the needs of consumers. Here, we report a simple and powerful in silico technique that uses the genome information of an organism to define its dietary amino acid requirements. We show for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster that such “exome-matched” diets are more satiating, enhance growth, and increase reproduction relative to non-matched diets. Thus, early life fitness traits can be enhanced at low levels of dietary amino acids that do not impose a cost to lifespan. Exome matching also enhanced mouse growth, indicating that it can be applied to other organisms whose genome sequence is known.

Keywords: amino acids, diet balance, dietary restriction, fitness, trade-off, reproduction, lifespan, growth, mouse, Drosophila

 

Demographic, Genetic and Phenotypic Characteristics of Centenarians in Italy: focus on gender differences.

Montesanto A, De Rango F, Pirazzini C, Guidarelli G, Domma F, Franceschi C, Passarino G.

Mech Ageing Dev. 2017 Apr 28. pii: S0047-6374(16)30258-5. doi: 10.1016/j.mad.2017.04.008. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 28461103

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.mad.2017.04.008

Abstract

An impressive and coherent series of epidemiological data from different populations (New England Americans, Mormons, Ashkenazi Jewish, Icelandic, Okinawan Japanese, Italians) suggests that long-lived subjects able to reach the extreme limits of human life, such as centenarians and supercentenarians, represent an extraordinary and informative model to identify the mechanisms responsible for healthy aging and human longevity. In most studies, genetic, demographic and phenotypic characteristics of longevity are discussed separately. However, longevity is a very complex trait due to the complicated interactions of numerous genetic and environmental factors. It is therefore necessary to analyse centenarians with a multidimensional approach, trying to consider different aspects simultaneously. In this review we will focus on Italian centenarians, who have been extensively studied for many years with different approaches, in order to show their peculiarities and the emerging data from the studies carried out on this exceptional population.

KEYWORDS:

Centenarians; Demography; Genetics; Healthy Aging

 

Effects of selected dietary constituents on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in U.S. adults.

Mazidi M, Kengne AP, P Mikhailidis D, F Cicero A, Banach M.

Ann Med. 2017 May 2:1-14. doi: 10.1080/07853890.2017.1325967. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28462631

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM:

Growing evidence suggests that some of the effects of diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) occur through mechanisms involving subclinical inflammation. We assessed the relationship between selected dietary constituents and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration in a population-based sample of United States adults.

METHOD:

In this cross-sectional analysis, participants were selected from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and restricted to those with available data on dietary intake, biochemical and anthropometric measurements from 2001 to 2010. All statistical analyses accounted for the survey design and sample weights by using SPSS Complex Samples v22.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY).

RESULTS:

Of the 17,689 participants analyzed, 8607 (48.3%) were men. The mean age was 45.8 years in the overall sample, 44.9 in men and 46.5 in women (p = 0.047). The age-, race-, sex-, energy intake- and body mass index-adjusted mean dietary intakes of total dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty-acids, vitamin E, vitamin A, vitamin B6, total folate, vitamin B family, vitamin C, vitamin K, magnesium, iron, copper and potassium monotonically decreased across increasing hsCRP quarters (p < 0.001 for all), whereas sugar intake increased (p < 0.001). In analysis of covariance adjusted for potential confounders (age-, race-, sex-, energy intake- and body weight-) hsCRP levels increased across increasing quarters of sugar intake (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

This study provides further evidence of an association between dietary sugar, polyunsaturated fatty-acids, fiber and antioxidant intake and hsCRP levels, a subclinical inflammation marker. hsCRP concentrations are likely modulated by dietary intake.

KEYWORDS:

antioxidant; dietary fiber; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; total sugar

Edited by AlPater

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Comparative effectiveness of prostate cancer treatments for patient-centered outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA Compliant).

Jayadevappa R, Chhatre S, Wong YN, Wittink MN, Cook R, Morales KH, Vapiwala N, Newman DK, Guzzo T, Wein AJ, Malkowicz SB, Lee DI, Schwartz JS, Gallo JJ.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 May;96(18):e6790. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000006790.

PMID: 28471976

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In the context of prostate cancer (PCa) characterized by the multiple alternative treatment strategies, comparative effectiveness analysis is essential for informed decision-making. We analyzed the comparative effectiveness of PCa treatments through systematic review and meta-analysis with a focus on outcomes that matter most to newly diagnosed localized PCa patients.

METHODS:

We performed a systematic review of literature published in English from 1995 to October 2016. A search strategy was employed using terms "prostate cancer," "localized," "outcomes," "mortality," "health related quality of life," and "complications" to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective, and retrospective studies. For observational studies, only those adjusting for selection bias using propensity-score or instrumental-variables approaches were included. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratio was used to assess all-cause and disease-specific mortality. Funnel plots were used to assess the level of bias.

RESULTS:

Our search strategy yielded 58 articles, of which 29 were RCTs, 6 were prospective studies, and 23 were retrospective studies. The studies provided moderate data for the patient-centered outcome of mortality. Radical prostatectomy demonstrated mortality benefit compared to watchful waiting (all-cause HR = 0.63 CI = 0.45, 0.87; disease-specific HR = 0.48 CI = 0.40, 0.58), and radiation therapy (all-cause HR = 0.65 CI = 0.57, 0.74; disease-specific HR = 0.51 CI = 0.40, 0.65). However, we had minimal comparative information about tradeoffs between and within treatment for other patient-centered outcomes in the short and long-term.

CONCLUSION:

Lack of patient-centered outcomes in comparative effectiveness research in localized PCa is a major hurdle to informed and shared decision-making. More rigorous studies that can integrate patient-centered and intermediate outcomes in addition to mortality are needed.

 

Impact of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial and inflammatory markers in adults: A systematic review.

Agbalalah T, Hughes SF, Freeborn EJ, Mushtaq S.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017 Jan 23. pii: S0960-0760(17)30015-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.01.015. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28126565

Abstract

This systematic review aims to evaluate randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation in adults. An electronic search of published randomised controlled trials, using Cochrane, Pubmed and Medline databases was conducted, with the search terms related to vitamin D and endothelial function. Inclusion criteria were RCTs in adult humans with a measure of vitamin D status using serum/plasma 25(OH)D and studies which administered the intervention through the oral route. Among the 1107 studies retrieved, 29 studies met the full inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Overall, 8 studies reported significant improvements in the endothelial/inflammatory biomarkers/parameters measured. However, in 2 out of the 8 studies, improvements were reported at interim time points, but improvements were absent post-intervention. The remaining 21 trial studies did not show significant improvements in the markers of interest measured. Evidence from the studies included in this systematic review did not demonstrate that vitamin D supplementation in adults, results in an improvement in circulating inflammatory and endothelial function biomarkers/parameters. This systematic review does not therefore support the use of vitamin D supplementation as a therapeutic or preventative measure for CVD in this respect.

KEYWORDS:

25(OH)D; Endothelial function; Flow mediated dilation; Inflammation; Randomized controlled trials; Vitamin D

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The impact of vitamin D supplement intake on vascular endothelial function; a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Mazidi M, Karimi E, Rezaie P, Vatanparast H.

Food Nutr Res. 2017 Mar 20;61(1):1273574. doi: 10.1080/16546628.2016.1273574. eCollection 2017.

PMID: 28469540

Abstract

Aim: to systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials investigating the impact of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function. Method: We searched PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar (until June 2016) to detect prospective studies evaluating the impact of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function indexes. We used random effects models (using DerSimonian-Laird method) and generic inverse variance methods to synthesize quantitative data. We used the leave-one-out method for sensitivity analysis. To quantitatively assess the heterogeneity we used the I2 index. Systematic review registration: CRD42016039329. Results: From a total of 213 entries identified, 12 studies were appropriate for inclusion into the final analysis. The meta-analysis indicated a significant enhancement in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) following D supplementation (vitamin D intervention group versus control group 1.27 %, (95% CI 0.20 to 2.34, N = 11 arms, heterogeneity p = 0.054; I2 51.2 %). These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggested that vitamin D supplementation may improve endothelial function. Randomized control trials with a longer-term follow-up are warranted to clarify the existing controversies and shed light on the potential underlying mechanisms.

KEYWORDS:

Meta-analysis; endothelial function; flow-mediated dilation; vitamin D

 

[Who would have thunk it?]

Acute Effects of Morning Light on Plasma Glucose and Triglycerides in Healthy Men and Men with Type 2 Diabetes.

Versteeg RI, Stenvers DJ, Visintainer D, Linnenbank A, Tanck MW, Zwanenburg G, Smilde AK, Fliers E, Kalsbeek A, Serlie MJ, la Fleur SE, Bisschop PH.

J Biol Rhythms. 2017 Apr;32(2):130-142. doi: 10.1177/0748730417693480. Epub 2017 Mar 20.

PMID: 28470119

http://journals.sagepub.com.sci-hub.cc/doi/10.1177/0748730417693480

Abstract

Ambient light intensity is signaled directly to hypothalamic areas that regulate energy metabolism. Observational studies have shown associations between ambient light intensity and plasma glucose and lipid levels, but human data on the acute metabolic effects of light are scarce. Since light is the main signal indicating the onset of the diurnal phase of physical activity and food intake in humans, we hypothesized that bright light would affect glucose and lipid metabolism. Therefore, we determined the acute effects of bright light on plasma glucose and lipid concentrations in 2 randomized crossover trials: (1) in 8 healthy lean men and (2) in 8 obese men with type 2 diabetes. From 0730 h, subjects were exposed to either bright light (4000 lux) or dim light (10 lux) for 5 h. After 1 h of light exposure, subjects consumed a 600-kcal mixed meal. Primary endpoints were fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels. In healthy men, bright light did not affect fasting or postprandial plasma glucose levels. However, bright light increased fasting and postprandial plasma triglycerides. In men with type 2 diabetes, bright light increased fasting and postprandial glucose levels. In men with type 2 diabetes, bright light did not affect fasting triglyceride levels but increased postprandial triglyceride levels. We show that ambient light intensity acutely affects human plasma glucose and triglyceride levels. Our findings warrant further research into the consequences of the metabolic effects of light for the diagnosis and prevention of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia.

KEYWORDS:

artificial light; glucose metabolism; lipid metabolism; type 2 diabetes

 

How long do centenarians survive? Life expectancy and maximum life span.

Modig K, Andersson T, Vaupel J, Rau R, Ahlbom A.

J Intern Med. 2017 May 4. doi: 10.1111/joim.12627. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28470872

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The purpose of this study was to explore the pattern of mortality above the age of 100 years. In particular, we aimed to examine whether Scandinavian data support the theory that mortality reaches a plateau at particularly old ages. Whether the maximum length of life increases with time was also investigated.

METHODS:

The analyses were based on individual level data on all Swedish and Danish centenarians born from 1870 to 1901; in total 3006 men and 10 963 women were included. Birth cohort-specific probabilities of dying were calculated. Exact ages were used for calculations of maximum length of life. Whether maximum age changed over time was analysed taking into account increases in cohort size.

RESULTS:

The results confirm that there has not been any improvement in mortality among centenarians in the past 30 years and that the current rise in life expectancy is driven by reductions in mortality below the age of 100 years. The death risks seem to reach a plateau of around 50% at the age 103 years for men and 107 years for women. Despite the rising life expectancy, the maximum age does not appear to increase, in particular after accounting for the increasing number of individuals of advanced age.

CONCLUSION:

Mortality among centenarians is not changing despite improvements at younger ages. An extension of the maximum life span and a sizeable extension of life expectancy both require reductions in mortality above the age of 100 years.

KEYWORDS:

Centenarians; Life span; Longevity; Maximum age; oldest old

 

Aging, exceptional longevity and comparisons of the Hannum and Horvath epigenetic clocks.

Armstrong NJ, Mather KA, Thalamuthu A, Wright MJ, Trollor JN, Ames D, Brodaty H, Schofield PR, Sachdev PS, Kwok JB.

Epigenomics. 2017 May 4. doi: 10.2217/epi-2016-0179. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28470125

Abstract

AIM:

To examine the relationships between two epigenetic clocks, aging and exceptional longevity.

MATERIALS & METHODS:

Participants were from three adult cohorts with blood DNA methylation data (Illumina 450 K, n = 275, 34-103 years). Epigenetic age (DNAmage) and age acceleration measures were calculated using the Hannum and Horvath epigenetic clocks.

RESULTS:

Across all cohorts, DNAmage was correlated with chronological age. In the long-lived cohort (Sydney Centenarian Study; 95+, n = 23), DNAmage was lower than chronological age for both clocks. Mean Sydney Centenarian Study Hannum age acceleration was negative, while the converse was observed for the Horvath model.

CONCLUSION:

Long-lived individuals have a young epigenetic age compared with their chronological age.

KEYWORDS:

DNAmage; acceleration; age; aging; centenarians; epigenetic clock; longevity

 

Dietary Flavonoid and Lignan Intake and Mortality in Prospective Cohort Studies: Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis.

Grosso G, Micek A, Godos J, Pajak A, Sciacca S, Galvano F, Giovannucci EL.

Am J Epidemiol. 2017 May 3:1-13. doi: 10.1093/aje/kww207. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28472215

Abstract

Recent evidence has suggested that flavonoid and lignan intake may be associated with decreased risk of chronic and degenerative diseases. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in prospective cohort studies. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases to identify studies published from January 1996 to December 2015 that satisfied inclusion/exclusion criteria. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were extracted and analyzed using a random-effects model. Nonlinear dose-response analysis was modeled by using restricted cubic splines. The inclusion criteria were met by 22 prospective studies exploring various flavonoid and lignan classes. Compared with lower intake, high consumption of total flavonoids was associated with decreased risk of all-cause mortality (risk ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence intervals: 0.55, 0.99), while a 100-mg/day increment in intake led to a (linear) decreased risk of 6% and 4% of all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively. Among flavonoid classes, significant results were obtained for intakes of flavonols, flavones, flavanones, anthocyanidins, and proanthocyanidins. Only limited evidence was available on flavonoid classes and lignans and all-cause mortality. Findings from this meta-analysis indicated that dietary flavonoids are associated with decreased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality.

KEYWORDS:

all-cause mortality; cardiovascular disease mortality; flavonoids; lignans; meta-analysis; prospective studies

 

The effect of food deprivation on human resolving power.

Zitron-Emanuel N, Ganel T.

Psychon Bull Rev. 2017 May 3. doi: 10.3758/s13423-017-1296-6. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28470504

Abstract

The feeling of hunger is an inseparable part of people's daily lives. It has been established that hunger, caused by food deprivation, influences people's physiological and emotional state and their everyday behavior. Yet, it remains unclear whether and in which manner food deprivation affects the way people perceive their environment. In two experiments, we examined the effects of food deprivation on the perceptual resolution of food portion size. We calculated Just Noticeable Differences (JNDs) to measure sensitivity to detect the smallest difference between two stimuli of different sizes. Participants' resolution in both experiments was higher to detect changes in food size compared with baseline when they were hungry due to a short period of food deprivation. Food deprivation did not lead to any biases in the average perception of food size. The results show that food deprivation changes the way people perceive their environment. We discuss the possible role of attention in mediating the effect of food deprivation on the visual resolution of food size.

KEYWORDS:

Food deprivation; Hunger; Motivational effects; Psychophysics; Spatial resolution; Visual perception

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The Combined Association of Skeletal Muscle Strength and Physical Activity on Mortality in Older Women: The HUNT2 Study.

Karlsen T, Nauman J, Dalen H, Langhammer A, Wisløff U.

Mayo Clin Proc. 2017 May;92(5):710-718. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2017.01.023.

PMID: 28473035

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the isolated and combined associations of leg and arm strength with adherence to current physical activity guidelines with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in healthy elderly women.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

This was a prospective cohort study of 2529 elderly women (72.6±4.8 years) from the Norwegian Healthy survey of Northern Trøndelag (second wave) (HUNT2) between August 15, 1995, and June 18, 1997, with a median of 15.6 years (interquartile range, 10.4-16.3 years) of follow-up. Chair-rise test and handgrip strength performances were assessed, and divided into tertiles. The hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause and cause-specific mortality by tertiles of handgrip strength and chair-rise test performance, and combined associations with physical activity were estimated by using Cox proportional hazard regression models.

RESULTS:

We observed independent associations of physical activity and the chair-rise test performance with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and between handgrip strength and all-cause mortality. Despite following physical activity guidelines, women with low muscle strength had increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR chair test, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.07-1.76; HR handgrip strength, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.05-1.85) and cardiovascular disease mortality (HR chair test, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.01-2.42). Slow chair-test performance was associated with all-cause (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.16-1.51) and cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.14-1.76) mortality. The association between handgrip strength and all-cause mortality was dose dependent (P value for trend <.01).

CONCLUSION:

Handgrip strength and chair-rise test performance predicted the risk of all-cause and CVD mortality independent of physical activity. Clinically feasible tests of skeletal muscle strength could increase the precision of prognosis, even in elderly women following current physical activity guidelines.

 

Variability in the cardiometabolic effects of ω-3 long-chain PUFAs: background diet, timing, and genetics.

Mühlhäusler BS.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May;105(5):1029-1030. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.117.155739. Epub 2017 Apr 19. No abstract available.

PMID: 28424181

http://sci-hub.cc/10.3945/ajcn.117.155739

"BSM serves on the Advisory Board for the Nestle Nutrition Institute and

has given presentations on early-life nutrition for Danone Nutricia, Aspen,

and BASF. All associated honoraria are paid directly to her institution and

used to support professional development activities for postgraduate students

and early-career researchers."

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Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference.

Jakobsen MU, Madsen L, Skjøth F, Berentzen TL, Halkjær J, Tjønneland A, Schmidt EB, Sørensen TI, Kristiansen K, Overvad K.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May;105(5):1148-1157. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.140079. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

PMID: 28356276

Abstract

Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited.Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference in humans. Effect modification by the carbohydrate:protein ratio and glycemic index was also investigated.Design: A total of 29,152 participants included in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort were followed. Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a validated 192-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Adipose tissue content of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography in a random sample of the cohort (n = 1660). Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and 5 y later. Associations were investigated with the use of a linear regression model.Results: For high (1.22 g/d) compared with low (0.28 g/d) total n-3 PUFA intake, the difference in 5-y weight change was 147.6 g (95% CI: -42.3, 337.5 g); P-trend = 0.088. No associations between the individual n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were observed. Intake of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with a 5-y change in waist circumference. For high (0.16%) compared with low (0.06%) adipose tissue content of EPA, the difference in 5-y weight change was -649.6 g (95% CI: -1254.2, -44.9 g); P-trend = 0.027. No associations between total n-3 PUFA, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid and 5-y weight change were observed. Adipose tissue content of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with 5-y change in waist circumference. No effect modification by carbohydrate:protein ratio or glycemic index was found.Conclusion: Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs were neither consistently nor appreciably associated with change in body weight or waist circumference.

KEYWORDS:

adipose tissue; carbohydrates; cohort study; dietary intake; follow-up study; obesity; omega-3 fatty acids; proteins

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Plasma ω-3 fatty acids in pregnancy are inversely associated with postpartum weight retention in a multiethnic Asian cohort.

Loy SL, Ng MJH, Cheung YB, Godfrey KM, Calder PC, Lek N, Yap F, Müller-Riemenschneider F, Natarajan P, Chong YS, Tan KH, Shek LP, Chong MF, Chan JKY.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May;105(5):1158-1165. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.151258. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

PMID: 28330907

Abstract

Background: Studies have demonstrated associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and adiposity. It is unclear whether PUFAs in pregnancy have an effect on maternal weight retention after childbirth, which can contribute to long-term obesity.Objective: We examined the association of maternal plasma PUFAs in pregnancy with 18-mo postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a multiethnic Asian cohort.Design: We studied pregnant women (n = 653) recruited between June 2009 and September 2010 from a prospective cohort. At 26-28 wk of gestation, plasma phosphatidylcholine PUFA concentrations were measured and determined as percentages of total fatty acids (FAs). PPWR was calculated based on the difference between measured weight at the first antenatal clinic visit and at 18 mo postpartum.Results: The median retained weight of women was 0.90 kg (IQR: -1.40, 3.25) at 18 mo postpartum. Of 653 women, 544 women (83.3%) had PPWR of <5 kg and 109 (16.7%) had PPWR of ≥5 kg. In adjusted linear regression models, higher plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total ω-3 (n-3) PUFA concentrations were associated with lower PPWR [EPA: β = -0.62 kg/1% increase of total FAs (95% CI: -1.18, -0.05); DHA: β = -0.24 kg/1% increase (95% CI: -0.45, -0.02); total ω-3 PUFAs: β = -0.20 kg/1% increase (95% CI: -0.36, -0.03)], whereas a higher ratio of plasma ω-6-to-ω-3 PUFAs was associated with a higher PPWR [β = 0.21 kg/unit increase (95% CI: 0.05, 0.36)].Conclusions: Higher plasma percentages of ω-3 PUFAs and a lower ratio of ω-6-to-ω-3 PUFAs in the late-second trimester of pregnancy are associated with less weight retention at 18 mo postpartum. This may offer an alternative strategy to assist postpartum weight reduction by increasing EPA and DHA status together with a decreased ratio of ω-6-to-ω-3 PUFA through diet or fish-oil supplementation during pregnancy.

KEYWORDS:

adiposity; obesity; polyunsaturated fatty acids; postpartum weight; pregnancy

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PCSK9 variant, long-chain n-3 PUFAs, and risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rican Hispanics.

Yu Z, Huang T, Zheng Y, Wang T, Heianza Y, Sun D, Campos H, Qi L.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May;105(5):1198-1203. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.148106. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

PMID: 28330911

http://sci-hub.cc/10.3945/ajcn.116.148106

Abstract

Background: Previous studies have indicated that the cardioprotective effects of long-chain (LC) n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may vary across various ethnic populations. Emerging evidence has suggested that the gene-environment interaction may partly explain such variations. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) was shown to have a mutually regulating relation with LC n-3 PUFAs and also to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, we hypothesized that certain PCSK9 genetic variants may modify the association between LC n-3 PUFA intake and CVD risk.Objective: We determined whether a PCSK9 variant (rs11206510), which has been identified for early onset myocardial infarction (MI), modified the association of LC n-3 PUFAs with nonfatal MI risk in Costa Rican Hispanics.Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1932 case subjects with a first nonfatal MI and 2055 population-based control subjects who were living in Costa Rica to examine potential gene-environment interactions. Two-sided P values <0.05 were considered significant.Results: We observed a significant interaction between the PCSK9 rs11206510 genotype and LC n-3 PUFA intake on nonfatal MI risk (P-interaction = 0.012). The OR of nonfatal MI was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.98) per 0.1% increase in total energy intake from LC n-3 PUFAs in protective-allele (C-allele) carriers, whereas the corresponding OR (95% CI) in non-C-allele carriers was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.10). Similar results were observed when we examined the association between docosahexaenoic acid, which is one type of LC n-3 PUFA, and nonfatal MI risk (P-interaction = 0.003).Conclusion: LC n-3 PUFA intake is associated with a lower risk of nonfatal MI in C-allele carriers of PCSK9 rs11206510 (n = 799) but not in non-C-allele carriers (n = 3188).

KEYWORDS:

Costa Rican Hispanics; PUFAs; gene-diet interaction; genetics; long-chain n–3; nonfatal myocardial infarction

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A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the effect of konjac glucomannan, a viscous soluble fiber, on LDL cholesterol and the new lipid targets non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B.

Ho HVT, Jovanovski E, Zurbau A, Blanco Mejia S, Sievenpiper JL, Au-Yeung F, Jenkins AL, Duvnjak L, Leiter L, Vuksan V.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May;105(5):1239-1247. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.142158. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

PMID: 28356275

Abstract

Background: Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggests the consumption of konjac glucomannan (KJM), a viscous soluble fiber, for improving LDL-cholesterol concentrations. It has also been suggested that the cholesterol-lowering potential of KJM may be greater than that of other fibers. However, trials have been relatively scarce and limited in sample size and duration, and the effect estimates have been inconsistent. The effect of KJM on new lipid targets of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is also unknown.Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effect of KJM on LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B.Design: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central databases were searched. We included RCTs with a follow-up of ≥3 wk that assessed the effect of KJM on LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, or apolipoprotein B. Data were pooled by using the generic inverse-variance method with random-effects models and expressed as mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran Q statistic and quantified by the I2 statistic.Results: Twelve studies (n = 370), 8 in adults and 4 in children, met the inclusion criteria. KJM significantly lowered LDL cholesterol (MD: -0.35 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.46, -0.25 mmol/L) and non-HDL cholesterol (MD: -0.32 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.46, -0.19 mmol/L). Data from 6 trials suggested no impact of KJM on apolipoprotein B.Conclusions: Our findings support the intake of ∼3 g KJM/d for reductions in LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol of 10% and 7%, respectively. The information may be of interest to health agencies in crafting future dietary recommendations related to reduction in CVD risk.

KEYWORDS:

CVD risk reduction; LDL cholesterol; konjac glucomannan; non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B; systematic review and meta-analysis

 

Resistant Starch but Not Enzymatically Modified Waxy Maize Delays Development of Diabetes in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.

Hedemann MS, Hermansen K, Pedersen S, Bach Knudsen KE.

J Nutr. 2017 May;147(5):825-834. doi: 10.3945/jn.116.243899. Epub 2017 Mar 15.

PMID: 28298535

Abstract

Background: The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, and nutritional management of circulating glucose may be a strategic tool in the prevention of T2D.Objective: We studied whether enzymatically modified waxy maize with an increased degree of branching delayed the onset of diabetes in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats.Methods: Forty-eight male ZDF rats, aged 5 wk, were divided into 4 groups and fed experimental diets for 9 wk that contained 52.95% starch: gelatinized corn starch (S), glucidex (GLU), resistant starch (RS), or enzymatically modified starch (EMS). Blood glucose after feed deprivation was assessed every second week; blood samples taken at run-in and at the end of the experiment were analyzed for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma glucose, insulin, and lipids. During weeks 2 and 8, urine was collected for metabolomic analysis.Results: Based on blood glucose concentrations in feed-deprived rats, none of the groups developed diabetes. However, in week 9, plasma glucose after feed deprivation was significantly lower in rats fed the S and RS diets (13.5 mmol/L) than in rats fed the GLU and EMS diets (17.0-18.9 mmol/L), and rats fed RS had lower HbA1c (4.9%) than rats fed the S, GLU, and EMS (5.6-6.1%) diets. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was significantly lower in rats fed RS than in rats fed the other diets (185 compared with 311-360), indicating that rats fed the S, GLU, and EMS diets were diabetic, and a 100% higher urine excretion during week 8 in rats fed the GLU and EMS diets than that of rats fed S and RS showed that they were diabetic. Urinary nontargeted metabolomics revealed that the diabetic state of rats fed S, GLU, and EMS diets influenced microbial metabolism, as well as amino acid, lipid, and vitamin metabolism.Conclusions: EMS did not delay the onset of diabetes in ZDF rats, whereas rats fed RS showed no signs of diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

LC-MS; fasting glucose; nontargeted metabolomics; resistant starch; type 2 diabetes

 

Plasma <i>trans</i>-Fatty Acid Concentrations Continue to Be Associated with Serum Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations among US Adults after Reductions in <i>trans</i>-Fatty Acid Intake.

Yang Q, Zhang Z, Loustalot F, Vesper H, Caudill SP, Ritchey M, Gillespie C, Merritt R, Hong Y, Bowman BA.

J Nutr. 2017 May;147(5):896-907. doi: 10.3945/jn.116.245597. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

PMID: 28381527

Abstract

Background: High intakes of trans-fatty acids (TFAs), especially industrially produced TFAs, can lead to unfavorable lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is unknown how this relation might change in a population after significant reductions in TFA intake.Objective: This study, which used a new analytical method for measuring plasma TFA concentrations, clarified the association between plasma TFA and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations before and after the US FDA enacted TFA food-labeling regulations in 2006.Methods: Data were selected from the NHANES of 1999-2000 and 2009-2010. Findings on 1383 and 2155 adults, respectively, aged ≥20 y, were evaluated. Multivariable linear regressions were used to examine the associations between plasma TFA concentration and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. The outcome measures were serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides and the ratio of TC to HDL cholesterol.Results: The median plasma TFA concentration decreased from 80.6 μmol/L in 1999-2000 to 37.0 μmol/L in 2009-2010. Plasma TFA concentration continued to be associated with serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations after significant reductions in TFA intake in the population. For example, by comparing the lowest with the highest quintiles of TFA concentration in 1999-2000, adjusted mean (95% CI) LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased from 118 mg/dL (112, 123 mg/dL) to 135 mg/dL (130, 141 mg/dL) (P-trend < 0.001). The corresponding values for 2009-2010 were 102 mg/dL (97.4, 107 mg/dL) and 129 mg/dL (125, 133 mg/dL) for LDL cholesterol (P-trend < 0.001). Differences between the highest and lowest quintiles were consistent across age groups, sexes, races/ethnicities, and other covariates.Conclusions: Despite a 54% reduction in plasma TFA concentrations in US adults from 1999-2000 to 2009-2010, concentrations remained significantly associated with serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. There does not appear to be a threshold under which the association between plasma TFA concentration and lipid profiles might become undetectable.

KEYWORDS:

HDL cholesterol; LDL cholesterol; cardiovascular disease; public health; total cholesterol; trans-fatty acids; triglyceride

 

Cruciferous Vegetable Intake Is Inversely Associated with Lung Cancer Risk among Current Nonsmoking Men in the Japan Public Health Center (JPHC) Study.

Mori N, Shimazu T, Sasazuki S, Nozue M, Mutoh M, Sawada N, Iwasaki M, Yamaji T, Inoue M, Takachi R, Sunami A, Ishihara J, Sobue T, Tsugane S.

J Nutr. 2017 May;147(5):841-849. doi: 10.3945/jn.117.247494. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

PMID: 28381528

Abstract

Background: Cruciferous vegetables, a rich source of isothiocyanates, have been reported to lower the risk of several types of cancer, including lung cancer. However, evidence from prospective observations of populations with a relatively high intake of cruciferous vegetables is sparse.Objective: We investigated the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk in a large-scale population-based prospective study in Japan.Methods: We studied 82,330 participants (38,663 men; 43,667 women) aged 45-74 y without a past history of cancer. Participants were asked to respond to a validated questionnaire that included 138 food items. The association between cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer incidence was assessed with the use of Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to estimate HRs and 95% CIs (with adjustments for potential confounding factors).Results: After 14.9 y of follow-up, a total of 1499 participants (1087 men; 412 women) were diagnosed with lung cancer. After deleting early-diagnosed cancer and adjusting for confounding factors, we observed a nonsignificant inverse trend between cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk in men in the highest compared with the lowest quartiles (multivariate HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.69, 1.06; P-trend = 0.13). Stratified analysis by smoking status revealed a significant inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk among those who were never smokers and those who were past smokers after deleting lung cancer cases in the first 3 y of follow-up [multivariate HR for never smokers: 0.49 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.87; P-trend = 0.04); multivariate HR for past smokers: 0.59 (95% CI: 0.35, 0.99; P-trend = 0.10)]. No association was noted in men who were current smokers and women who were never smokers.Conclusion: This study suggests that cruciferous vegetable intake may be associated with a reduction in lung cancer risk among men who are currently nonsmokers.

KEYWORDS:

Japan; cruciferous vegetables; isothiocyanates; lung cancer; prospective study

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Cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk: a nested case-control study matched on cigarette smoking.

Lam TK, Ruczinski I, Helzlsouer KJ, Shugart YY, Caulfield LE, Alberg AJ.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Oct;19(10):2534-40. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0475. Epub 2010 Sep 14.

PMID: 20841387 Free PMC Article

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Due predominantly to cigarette smoking, lung cancer is the leading cancer-related cause of death worldwide. Cruciferous vegetables may reduce lung cancer risk. The association between intake of cruciferous vegetables and lung cancer risk was investigated in the CLUE II study, a community-based cohort established in 1989.

METHODS:

We matched 274 incident cases of lung cancer diagnosed from 1990 to 2005 to 1,089 cancer-free controls on age, sex, and cigarette smoking. Dietary information was collected at baseline. Multivariable odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression.

RESULTS:

Intake of cruciferous vegetables was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (highest-versus-lowest fourth: OR (Q4vsQ1), 0. 57; 95% CI, 0.38-0.85; P-trend = 0.01). The inverse associations held true for former smokers (OR(Q4vsQ1), 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27-0.92; P-trend = 0.05) and current smokers (OR(Q4vsQ1), 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29-0.95; P-trend = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

After carefully controlling for cigarette smoking, higher intake of cruciferous vegetable was associated with lower risk of lung cancer.

IMPACT:

The observed inverse association coupled with accumulating evidence suggests that intake of cruciferous vegetables is inversely associated with lung cancer risk, and this association seems to hold true beyond the confounding effects of cigarette smoking.

 

Cashew consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol: a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding trial.

Mah E, Schulz JA, Kaden VN, Lawless AL, Rotor J, Mantilla LB, Liska DJ.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May;105(5):1070-1078. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.150037. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

PMID: 28356271

Abstract

Background: Cashews are the third most-consumed tree nut in the United States and are abundant with monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Although a qualified Food and Drug Administration health claim exists for nuts and heart health, cashews have been exempt from its use because cashews exceed the disqualifying amount of saturated fatty acids. Approximately one-third of the saturated fat in cashews is stearic acid, which is relatively neutral on blood lipids, thereby suggesting that cashews could have effects that are similar to those of other nuts. However, clinical data on cashews and blood lipids have been limited.Objective: We investigated the effect of reasonable intakes of cashews on serum lipids in adults with or at risk of high LDL cholesterol.Design: In a randomized, crossover, isocaloric, controlled-feeding study, 51 men and women (aged 21-73 y) with a median LDL-cholesterol concentration of 159 mg/dL (95% CI: 146, 165 mg/dL) at screening consumed typical American diets with cashews (28-64 g/d; 50% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 32% of kilocalories from total fat) or potato chips (control; 54% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 29% of kilocalories from total fat) for 28 d with a ≥2-wk washout period.Results: Consumption of the cashew diet resulted in a significantly greater median change from baseline (compared with the control, all P < 0.05) in total cholesterol [-3.9% (95% CI: -9.3%, 1.7%) compared with 0.8% (95% CI: -1.5%, 4.5%), respectively], LDL cholesterol [-4.8% (95% CI: -12.6%, 3.1%) compared with 1.2% (95% CI: -2.3%, 7.8%), respectively], non-HDL cholesterol [-5.3% (95% CI: -8.6%, 2.1%) compared with 1.7% (95% CI: -0.9%, 5.6%), respectively], and the total-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio [-0.0% (95% CI: -4.3%, 4.8%) compared with 3.4% (95% CI: 0.6%, 5.2%), respectively]. There were no significant differences between diets for HDL cholesterol and triglyceride.Conclusions: In comparison with a control diet, the incorporation of cashews into typical American diets decreases total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Results from this study provide support that the daily consumption of cashews, when substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack, may be a simple dietary strategy to help manage total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular; cashew; cholesterol; clinical trial; hypercholesterolemia

 

Whole dairy matrix or single nutrients in assessment of health effects: current evidence and knowledge gaps.

Thorning TK, Bertram HC, Bonjour JP, de Groot L, Dupont D, Feeney E, Ipsen R, Lecerf JM, Mackie A, McKinley MC, Michalski MC, Rémond D, Risérus U, Soedamah-Muthu SS, Tholstrup T, Weaver C, Astrup A, Givens I.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May;105(5):1033-1045. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.151548. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

PMID: 28404576

Abstract

Foods consist of a large number of different nutrients that are contained in a complex structure. The nature of the food structure and the nutrients therein (i.e., the food matrix) will determine the nutrient digestion and absorption, thereby altering the overall nutritional properties of the food. Thus, the food matrix may exhibit a different relation with health indicators compared to single nutrients studied in isolation. The evidence for a dairy matrix effect was presented and discussed by an expert panel at a closed workshop, and the following consensus was reached: 1) Current evidence does not support a positive association between intake of dairy products and risk of cardiovascular disease (i.e., stroke and coronary heart disease) and type 2 diabetes. In contrast, fermented dairy products, such as cheese and yogurt, generally show inverse associations. 2) Intervention studies have indicated that the metabolic effects of whole dairy may be different than those of single dairy constituents when considering the effects on body weight, cardiometabolic disease risk, and bone health. 3) Different dairy products seem to be distinctly linked to health effects and disease risk markers. 4) Different dairy structures and common processing methods may enhance interactions between nutrients in the dairy matrix, which may modify the metabolic effects of dairy consumption. 5) In conclusion, the nutritional values of dairy products should not be considered equivalent to their nutrient contents but, rather, be considered on the basis of the biofunctionality of the nutrients within dairy food structures. 6) Further research on the health effects of whole dairy foods is warranted alongside the more traditional approach of studying the health effects of single nutrients. Future diet assessments and recommendations should carefully consider the evidence of the effects of whole foods alongside the evidence of the effects of individual nutrients. Current knowledge gaps and recommendations for priorities in future research on dairy were identified and presented.

KEYWORDS:

MFGM; bioavailability; blood lipids; calcium; dairy nutrients; dairy protein; dairy structure; fermented dairy; phosphorous; whole dairy

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Food groups and risk of all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.

Schwingshackl L, Schwedhelm C, Hoffmann G, Lampousi AM, Knüppel S, Iqbal K, Bechthold A, Schlesinger S, Boeing H.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr 26. pii: ajcn153148. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.117.153148. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28446499 Free Article

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2017/04/26/ajcn.117.153148.long

Abstract

Background: Suboptimal diet is one of the most important factors in preventing early death and disability worldwide.Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the knowledge about the relation between intake of 12 major food groups, including whole grains, refined grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, eggs, dairy, fish, red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with risk of all-cause mortality.Design: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar for prospective studies investigating the association between these 12 food groups and risk of all-cause mortality. Summary RRs and 95% CIs were estimated with the use of a random effects model for high-intake compared with low-intake categories, as well as for linear and nonlinear relations. Moreover, the risk reduction potential of foods was calculated by multiplying the RR by optimal intake values (serving category with the strongest association) for risk-reducing foods or risk-increasing foods, respectively.Results: With increasing intake (for each daily serving) of whole grains (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.95), vegetables (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.95, 0.98), fruits (RR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.97), nuts (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.84), and fish (RR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.98), the risk of all-cause mortality decreased; higher intake of red meat (RR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.18) and processed meat (RR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.36) was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in a linear dose-response meta-analysis. A clear indication of nonlinearity was seen for the relations between vegetables, fruits, nuts, and dairy and all-cause mortality. Optimal consumption of risk-decreasing foods results in a 56% reduction of all-cause mortality, whereas consumption of risk-increasing foods is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of all-cause mortality.Conclusion: Selecting specific optimal intakes of the investigated food groups can lead to a considerable change in the risk of premature death.

KEYWORDS:

diet; dose response; food groups; meta-analysis; mortality

 

The D-lemma: narrow-band UV type B radiation versus vitamin D supplementation versus sunlight for cardiovascular and immune health.

Holick MF, Hossein-Nezhad A.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May;105(5):1031-1032. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.117.155713. Epub 2017 Apr 19. No abstract available.

PMID: 28424191

http://sci-hub.cc/10.3945/ajcn.117.155713

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A randomized clinical trial in vitamin D-deficient adults comparing replenishment with oral vitamin D<sub>3</sub> with narrow-band UV type B light: effects on cholesterol and the transcriptional profiles of skin and blood.

Ponda MP, Liang Y, Kim J, Hutt R, Dowd K, Gilleaudeau P, Sullivan-Whalen MM, Rodrick T, Kim DJ, Barash I, Lowes MA, Breslow JL.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May;105(5):1230-1238. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.150367. Epub 2017 Feb 22.

PMID: 28228421

http://sci-hub.cc/10.3945/ajcn.116.150367

Abstract

Background: Vitamin D deficiency, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration <20 ng/mL, is correlated with a more atherogenic lipid profile. However, oral vitamin D supplementation does not lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations or raise HDL-cholesterol concentrations. This uncoupling between association and causation may result from a failure of oral vitamin D to mimic the effect of dermally synthesized vitamin D in response to ultraviolet type B (UVB) light.Objective: We tested the hypothesis that, in vitamin D-deficient adults, the replenishment of vitamin D with UVB exposure would lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with the effect of oral vitamin D3 supplementation.Design: We performed a randomized clinical trial in vitamin D-deficient adults and compared vitamin D replenishment between subjects who received oral vitamin D3 (n = 60) and those who received narrow-band UVB exposure (n = 58) ≤6 mo.Results: There was no difference in the change from baseline LDL-cholesterol concentrations between oral vitamin D3 and UVB groups (difference in median of oral vitamin D3 minus that of UVB: 1.5 mg/dL; 95% CI: -5.0, 7.0 mg/dL). There were also no differences within groups or between groups for changes in total or HDL cholesterol or triglycerides. Transcriptional profiling of skin and blood, however, revealed significant upregulation of immune pathway signaling with oral vitamin D3 but significant downregulation with UVB.Conclusions: Correcting vitamin D deficiency with either oral vitamin D3 or UVB does not improve the lipid profile. Beyond cholesterol, these 2 modalities of raising 25(OH)D have disparate effects on gene transcription.

KEYWORDS:

25-hydroxycholesterol; UV light; cholesterol; gene transcription; oxysterol; vitamin D

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Physical Activity and Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review.

Stephen R, Hongisto K, Solomon A, Lönnroos E.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017 Jan 3. pii: glw251. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glw251. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 28049634

https://academic.oup.com/biomedgerontology/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/gerona/glw251

https://oup.silverchair-cdn.com/oup/backfile/Content_public/Journal/biomedgerontology/72/6/10.1093_gerona_glw251/3/glw251.pdf?Expires=1494438709&Signature=Zmcn1CTdzdm0g8geiOShC4tQHho~Ictj~oiI5j2RAWqrfIUQpVzjxUUarOXUDQr1N7Q7DoLUxehr5iNg0eqcVLRA6dBdbyarmNKvDtc2Kw6oY-kt5OqdSJB46Qaafjkp5YjMiwaKON1aVxM1edv2e2bbvr0VophLUNwYYa-AR23K-6I-r3zZ3PCnA0y6sIiDUlX1Z3yioB0yI2maFnqaC9YVkpNkJJwJ4CZeVhvNaHyc00ggtlc1KGA~GUEVIPEEEIDBY03hEVj4oycoyC-QfTcPF8bAQ4--jNy13333GNNoKMcNoUYpFmS2~RdlX2nVSW1YWbaUWpoPIHhl7rCvtA__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAIUCZBIA4LVPAVW3Q

Abstract

The current literature includes several studies investigating the association between physical activity and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate available evidence on this association. Medline via PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for original English language research articles assessing the relationship between physical activity and incident AD. The review was limited to prospective observational and intervention studies. Criteria for exclusion were studies focusing on individuals with dementia, cross-sectional study design, and case reports. The quality of included studies was assessed in 5 domains of bias. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. The number of participants ranged from 176 to 5,698. Follow-up time varied from 1 to 34 years. Physical activity was inversely associated with risk of AD in most studies (n = 18). Leisure-time physical activity was particularly protective against AD, but not work-related physical activity. The risk of bias assessment showed that overall quality of evidence was moderate for 16 and low for 8 studies. Beyond all the available general recommendations for health promotion, current evidence does not allow to draw specific practical recommendations concerning the types, frequency, intensity, or duration of physical activity that may be protective against AD.

KEYWORDS:

Cognitive impairment; Dementia; Exercise

 

Weight Change in Midlife and Risk of Mortality From Dementia up to 35 Years Later.

Strand BH, Wills AK, Langballe EM, Rosness TA, Engedal K, Bjertness E.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016 Aug 10. pii: glw157. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 27510654

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1093/gerona/glw157

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and dementia is complex and controversial. This study investigates the association of weight change during midlife and later dementia-related mortality.

METHODS:

Two BMI measurements (average of 9.0 years apart) were available for 43,721 participants in the Norwegian Counties Study (NCS), with mean age 42 years at first BMI measurement and 51 at the final measurement. NCS was linked with the Cause of Death Registry until year 2015 (mean follow-up time 25.9 years). Cox regression with a conditional growth model was used.

RESULTS:

Our study comprised 1,205 dementia-related deaths. Weight loss was associated with increased dementia-related mortality, irrespectively of baseline BMI and confounders; those with 10% or more loss had hazard ratio (HR) = 1.52 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09, 2.12) compared to those being stable (0%-2.5% BMI gain), and those with 5%-10% loss had HR = 1.38 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.76). Gaining weigh was associated with reduced dementia-related mortality. Associations with BMI change did not vary by baseline BMI.

CONCLUSIONS:

Weight loss during midlife was associated with increased dementia-related mortality risk more than 3 decades later, while weight gain was associated with reduced risk. These associations held both for low and high baseline BMI. Weight loss was an independent risk factor for dementia-related mortality and more strongly related with dementia-related mortality than stable BMI (stable high or low). Overweight and obesity were associated with an increased risk for nondementia-related mortality, which was far more common than dementia-related mortality.

KEYWORDS:

Body weight; Conditional growth; Dementia; Dementia-related mortality; Growth; Weight loss

 

Effects of Physical Activity Intervention on Physical and Cognitive Function in Sedentary Adults With and Without Diabetes.

Espeland MA, Lipska K, Miller ME, Rushing J, Cohen RA, Verghese J, McDermott MM, King AC, Strotmeyer ES, Blair SN, Pahor M, Reid K, Demons J, Kritchevsky SB; LIFE Study Investigators..

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016 Sep 2. pii: glw179. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 27590629

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus may alter the effect of physical activity on physical and cognitive function.

METHODS:

The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) trial randomized controlled clinical trial of physical activity intervention (walking, resistance training, and flexibility exercises) enrolled adults aged 70-89 years who were sedentary and non-demented and who had functional limitations. Standardized measures of physical and cognitive function were collected an average of 2 years post-randomization. Differences between the intervention and control groups from 415 individuals with diabetes and 1,061 individuals without diabetes were contrasted with analyses of covariance.

RESULTS:

At 24 months, assignment to the physical activity intervention resulted in 0.019 m/s relatively faster average 400-meter gait speeds (p = .007 overall) both for individuals with and without diabetes (intervention × diabetes interaction p = .99). No benefits were seen on scores from a physical performance battery. Performance on cognitive tests was better among participants assigned to the physical activity intervention compared with control only for those with diabetes, particularly for global cognitive function (p = .02) and delayed memory (p = .005), with mean [95% confidence intervals] for benefit from physical activity intervention of 0.114 [0.007,0.111] and 0.208 [0.030,0.387] standard deviations, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Physical activity intervention improved the gait speed of older, sedentary individuals with and without diabetes. The cognitive function benefits occurred among participants with, but not without, diabetes. The mechanisms through which physical activity affects physical and cognitive function in older adults may differ for individuals by diabetes status.

KEYWORDS:

Behavioral intervention; Clinical trials; Type 2 diabetes

 

A randomized controlled trial to establish effects of short-term rapamycin treatment in 24 middle-aged companion dogs.

Urfer SR, Kaeberlein TL, Mailheau S, Bergman PJ, Creevy KE, Promislow DEL, Kaeberlein M.

Geroscience. 2017 Apr;39(2):117-127. doi: 10.1007/s11357-017-9972-z. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

PMID: 28374166

Abstract

Age is the single greatest risk factor for most causes of morbidity and mortality in humans and their companion animals. As opposed to other model organisms used to study aging, dogs share the human environment, are subject to similar risk factors, receive comparable medical care, and develop many of the same age-related diseases humans do. In this study, 24 middle-aged healthy dogs received either placebo or a non-immunosuppressive dose of rapamycin for 10 weeks. All dogs received clinical and hematological exams before, during, and after the trial and echocardiography before and after the trial. Our results showed no clinical side effects in the rapamycin-treated group compared to dogs receiving the placebo. Echocardiography suggested improvement in both diastolic and systolic age-related measures of heart function (E/A ratio, fractional shortening, and ejection fraction) in the rapamycin-treated dogs. Hematological values remained within the normal range for all parameters studied; however, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was decreased in rapamycin-treated dogs. Based on these results, we will test rapamycin on a larger dog cohort for a longer period of time in order to validate its effects on cardiac function and to determine whether it can significantly improve healthspan and reduce mortality in companion dogs.

KEYWORDS:

Blood chemistry; Cardiac aging; Dogs; Echocardiogram; Healthspan; Rapamycin; Sirolimus

 

The association between frailty, the metabolic syndrome, and mortality over the lifespan.

Kane AE, Gregson E, Theou O, Rockwood K, Howlett SE.

Geroscience. 2017 Apr;39(2):221-229. doi: 10.1007/s11357-017-9967-9. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

PMID: 28281219

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1007/s11357-017-9967-9

Abstract

Frailty and the metabolic syndrome are each associated with poor outcomes, but in very old people (90+ years) only frailty was associated with an increased mortality risk. We investigated the relationship between frailty, metabolic syndrome, and mortality risk, in younger (20-65 years) and older (65+ years) people. This is a secondary analysis of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets for 2003-2004 and 2005-2006, linked with mortality data up to 2011. The metabolic syndrome was defined using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Frailty was operationalized using a 41-item frailty index (FI). Compared to the younger group (n = 6403), older adults (n = 2152) had both a higher FI (0.10 ± 0.00 vs. 0.22 ± 0.00, p < 0.001) and a greater prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (24.1 vs. 45.5%, p < 0.001). The metabolic syndrome and FI were correlated in younger people (r = 0.25, p < 0.001) but not in older people (r = 0.08, p < 0.1). In bivariate analyses, the FI predicted mortality risk in both age groups whereas the metabolic syndrome did so only in the younger group. In Cox models, adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and each other, the FI was associated with increased mortality risk at both ages (younger HR 1.05 (1.04-1.06); older HR 1.04 (1.03-1.04) whereas the metabolic syndrome did not contribute to mortality risk. The FI better predicted mortality than did the metabolic syndrome, regardless of age.

KEYWORDS:

Deficit accumulation; Frailty in older people; Frailty index; Metabolic syndrome; NHANES

 

The GH/IGF-1 axis in a critical period early in life determines cellular DNA repair capacity by altering transcriptional regulation of DNA repair-related genes: implications for the developmental origins of cancer.

Podlutsky A, Valcarcel-Ares MN, Yancey K, Podlutskaya V, Nagykaldi E, Gautam T, Miller RA, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z.

Geroscience. 2017 Apr;39(2):147-160. doi: 10.1007/s11357-017-9966-x. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

PMID: 28233247

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1007/s11357-017-9966-x

Abstract

Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological findings support the concept of developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD), suggesting that early-life hormonal influences during a sensitive period around adolescence have a powerful impact on cancer morbidity later in life. The endocrine changes that occur during puberty are highly conserved across mammalian species and include dramatic increases in circulating GH and IGF-1 levels. Importantly, patients with developmental IGF-1 deficiency due to GH insensitivity (Laron syndrome) do not develop cancer during aging. Rodents with developmental GH/IGF-1 deficiency also exhibit significantly decreased cancer incidence at old age, marked resistance to chemically induced carcinogenesis, and cellular resistance to genotoxic stressors. Early-life treatment of GH/IGF-1-deficient mice and rats with GH reverses the cancer resistance phenotype; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that developmental GH/IGF-1 status impacts cellular DNA repair mechanisms. To achieve that goal, we assessed repair of γ-irradiation-induced DNA damage (single-cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay) and basal and post-irradiation expression of DNA repair-related genes (qPCR) in primary fibroblasts derived from control rats, Lewis dwarf rats (a model of developmental GH/IGF-1 deficiency), and GH-replete dwarf rats (GH administered beginning at 5 weeks of age, for 30 days). We found that developmental GH/IGF-1 deficiency resulted in persisting increases in cellular DNA repair capacity and upregulation of several DNA repair-related genes (e.g., Gadd45a, Bbc3). Peripubertal GH treatment reversed the radiation resistance phenotype. Fibroblasts of GH/IGF-1-deficient Snell dwarf mice also exhibited improved DNA repair capacity, showing that the persisting influence of peripubertal GH/IGF-1 status is not species-dependent. Collectively, GH/IGF-1 levels during a critical period during early life determine cellular DNA repair capacity in rodents, presumably by transcriptional control of genes involved in DNA repair. Because lifestyle factors (e.g., nutrition and childhood obesity) cause huge variation in peripubertal GH/IGF-1 levels in children, further studies are warranted to determine their persisting influence on cellular cancer resistance pathways.

KEYWORDS:

Cellular resilience; Endocrine; Growth hormone; Insulin-like growth factor-1; Lifespan, health span; Longevity; Stress resistance

 

IGF-1 has sexually dimorphic, pleiotropic, and time-dependent effects on healthspan, pathology, and lifespan.

Ashpole NM, Logan S, Yabluchanskiy A, Mitschelen MC, Yan H, Farley JA, Hodges EL, Ungvari Z, Csiszar A, Chen S, Georgescu C, Hubbard GB, Ikeno Y, Sonntag WE.

Geroscience. 2017 Apr;39(2):129-145. doi: 10.1007/s11357-017-9971-0. Epub 2017 Apr 13.

PMID: 28409331

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1007/s11357-017-9971-0

Abstract

Reduced circulating levels of IGF-1 have been proposed as a conserved anti-aging mechanism that contributes to increased lifespan in diverse experimental models. However, IGF-1 has also been shown to be essential for normal development and the maintenance of tissue function late into the lifespan. These disparate findings suggest that IGF-1 may be a pleiotropic modulator of health and aging, as reductions in IGF-1 may be beneficial for one aspect of aging, but detrimental for another. We postulated that the effects of IGF-1 on tissue health and function in advanced age are dependent on the tissue, the sex of the animal, and the age at which IGF-1 is manipulated. In this study, we examined how alterations in IGF-1 levels at multiple stages of development and aging influence overall lifespan, healthspan, and pathology. Specifically, we investigated the effects of perinatal, post-pubertal, and late-adult onset IGF-1 deficiency using genetic and viral approaches in both male and female igf f/f C57Bl/6 mice. Our results support the concept that IGF-1 levels early during lifespan establish the conditions necessary for subsequent healthspan and pathological changes that contribute to aging. Nevertheless, these changes are specific for each sex and tissue. Importantly, late-life IGF-1 deficiency (a time point relevant for human studies) reduces cancer risk but does not increase lifespan. Overall, our results indicate that the levels of IGF-1 during development influence late-life pathology, suggesting that IGF-1 is a developmental driver of healthspan, pathology, and lifespan.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Cancer; Insulin-like growth factor-1; Longevity; Pathology; Somatomedin C

 

Physical Activity, Brain Volume, and Dementia Risk: The Framingham Study.

Tan ZS, Spartano NL, Beiser AS, DeCarli C, Auerbach SH, Vasan RS, Seshadri S.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016 Jul 15. pii: glw130. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 27422439

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1093/gerona/glw130

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Several longitudinal studies found an inverse relationship between levels of physical activity and cognitive decline, dementia, and/or Alzheimer's disease (AD), but results have been inconsistent. We followed an older, community-based cohort for over a decade to examine the association of physical activity with the risk of incident dementia and subclinical brain MRI markers of dementia.

METHODS:

The physical activity index (PAI) was assessed in the Framingham Study Original and Offspring cohorts, aged 60 years or older. We examined the association between PAI and risk of incident all-cause dementia and AD in participants of both cohorts who were cognitively intact and had available PAI (n = 3,714; 54% women; mean age = 70±7 years). We additionally examined the association between PAI and brain MRI in the Offspring cohort (n = 1,987).

RESULTS:

Over a decade of follow-up, 236 participants developed dementia (188 AD). Participants in the lowest quintile of PAI had an increased risk of incident dementia compared with those in higher quintiles (hazard ratio {HR} = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.97, p = .028) in a multivariable-adjusted model. Secondary analysis revealed that this relation was limited to participants who were apolipoprotein (APO)E ε4 allele noncarriers (HR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.08-2.32; p = .018) and strongest in participants aged 75 years or older. PAI was also linearly related to total brain and hippocampal volumes (β ± SE = 0.24±0.06; p < .01 and 0.004±0.001; p = .003, respectively).

CONCLUSION:

Low physical activity is associated with a higher risk for dementia in older individuals, suggesting that a reduced risk of dementia and higher brain volumes may be additional health benefits of maintaining physical activity into old age.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer’s; Epidemiology; Neuroimaging; Neurological disorders; Physical activity

 

The Relationship of Fertility, Lifestyle, and Longevity Among Women.

Lockhart PA, Martin P, Johnson MA, Shirtcliff E, Poon LW.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016 Aug 12. pii: glw158. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 27519884

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1093/gerona/glw158

Abstract

Longevity in women has been found to be associated with several reproductive factors; the age of women when they give birth, their total number of children, and the age at which they experience menopause. In the context of expectations from the evolutionary theory of aging, the focus of this study examined relationships between lifetime reproduction, age at menopause and longevity, while accounting for various lifestyle factors. The purpose of this study was to assess fertility and age at onset of menopause in 197 women of the Georgia Centenarian Study. It was hypothesized that greater lifetime reproduction would predict earlier menopause and subsequently an earlier death. An independent t test was computed to assess ethnic differences between Caucasian and African American participants. Two block-wise multiple regression analyses were computed to evaluate the impact of low socioeconomic status in childhood, the age at the time of the first childbirth, the total number of children, smoking and alcohol use, incidence of heart disease and stroke, and the age at onset of menopause on longevity. Results from this study suggest a positive association between the total number of children to the age at onset of menopause and longevity. However, when considering the lifestyle factor of smoking, the association of the total number of children to longevity is diminished.

KEYWORDS:

Centenarian; Menopause; Parity; Reproduction

Edited by AlPater

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LONGEVITY IN NORTH KOREA AND SOUTH KOREA: PREVALENCE OF CENTENARIANS IN ONE THE POOREST AND ONE OF THE RICHEST NATIONS.

Schwekendiek D.

J Biosoc Sci. 2017 May 9:1-10. doi: 10.1017/S0021932017000153. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28482934

Abstract

Over recent decades, economic living conditions have dramatically improved in South Korea, which now represents one of the most developed nations. At the same time, its twin in the North remains one of the poorest countries on earth. Thus, the Korean peninsula represents a unique historical experiment that allows for study of the effects of environment on human development under a variety of ceteris paribus cultural, genetic and climatic conditions. Previous studies comparing the biosocial performances of the two Koreas have focused on indicators such as weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference and age at menarche. The purpose of the present study was to investigate longevity based on the number of centenarians living in the two Koreas by drawing on censuses implemented around 1925 and 2010. The study found that North Korea had some 0.7 centenarians per one million persons in 1925, and this rate moderately improved to 2.7 around 2010. Conversely, rates skyrocketed in South Korea from 2.7 in 1925 to 38.2 around 2010. This suggests that the rate of centenarians in North Korea around 2010 corresponds to that of South Korea in 1925, suggesting a chronological lag in delayed human development of some 85 years. The prevalence of centenarians is fourteen times higher in contemporary South Korea compared with the North - broadly confirming previous biosocial studies on the two Koreas and two Germanies reporting improved human development in market-oriented systems compared with socialist ones.

 

GH and ageing: Pitfalls and new insights.

Bartke A, Darcy J.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Feb;31(1):113-125. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2017.02.005. Epub 2017 Feb 24. Review.

PMID: 28477727

Abstract

The interrelationships of growth hormone (GH) actions and aging are complex and incompletely understood. The very pronounced age-related decline in GH secretion together with benefits of GH therapy in individuals with congenital or adult GH deficiency (GHD) prompted interest in GH as an anti-aging agent. However, the benefits of treatment of normal elderly subjects with GH appear to be marginal and counterbalanced by worrisome side effects. In laboratory mice, genetic GH deficiency or resistance leads to a remarkable extension of longevity accompanied by signs of delayed and/or slower aging. Mechanisms believed to contribute to extended longevity of GH-related mutants include improved anti-oxidant defenses, enhanced insulin sensitivity and reduced insulin levels, reduced inflammation and cell senescence, major shifts in mitochondrial function and energy metabolism, and greater stress resistance. Negative association of the somatotropic signaling and GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)-dependent traits with longevity has also been shown in other mammalian species. In humans, syndromes of GH resistance or deficiency have no consistent effect on longevity, but can provide striking protection from cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis. More subtle alterations in various steps of GH and IGF-1 signaling are associated with reduced old-age mortality, particularly in women and with improved chances of attaining extremes of lifespan. Epidemiological studies raise a possibility that the relationship of IGF-1 and perhaps also GH levels with human healthy aging and longevity may be biphasic. However, the impact of somatotropic signaling on neoplastic disease is difficult to separate from its impact on aging, and IGF-1 levels exhibit opposite associations with different chronic, age-related diseases.

KEYWORDS:

IGF-1; aging; dwarfism; growth hormone; insulin; longevity

 

Familial clustering of atrial fibrillation and comparative longitudinal outcomes of familial and non-familial atrial fibrillation.

Gundlund A, Olesen JB, Peterson ED, Gislason GH, Fosbøl EL.

J Comp Eff Res. 2017 May 9. doi: 10.2217/cer-2016-0088. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28485191

http://www.futuremedicine.com.sci-hub.cc/doi/10.2217/cer-2016-0088

Abstract

Several studies have suggested that family history of atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important risk factor for AF, with several specific genetic regions now implicated through Genome Wide Association Studies. In addition, familial AF is associated with earlier age of onset and affects patients with fewer comorbid conditions than their non-familial counterparts. While those with familial AF have worse symptoms, all-cause mortality and risk of thromboembolic complications are similar among familial and non-familial AF patients.

KEYWORDS:

arrhythmia; clinical outcomes; family history

 

Type A personality and mortality: Competitiveness but not speed is associated with increased risk.

Lohse T, Rohrmann S, Richard A, Bopp M, Faeh D; Swiss National Cohort Study Group..

Atherosclerosis. 2017 Apr 22;262:19-24. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.04.016. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28478195

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Type A behavior pattern (TABP) is a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, existing evidence is conflicting, also because studies did not examine underlying traits separately. In this study, we investigated whether all-cause and CVD mortality were associated with the Bortner Scale, a measure of TABP, in particular with its subscales competitiveness and speed.

METHODS:

Information on Bortner Scale and covariates of 9921 participants was collected at baseline in two cross-sectional studies that were linked with mortality information, yielding a follow-up of up to 37 years. We analyzed the Bortner Scale and its two subscales competitiveness and speed. Applying Cox regression models, we investigated the association with all-cause, CVD, and specific CVD type mortality.

RESULTS:

During follow-up, 3469 deaths were observed (1118 CVD deaths). The total Bortner Scale was not associated with mortality, only its subscales. In women, competitiveness was positively associated with all-cause mortality (highest category vs. the lowest, HR 1.25 [95% CI 1.08,1.44]), CVD mortality (1.39 [1.07,1.81]), and ischemic heart disease mortality (intermediate category vs. the lowest, 1.46 [1.02,2.10]). In men, CVD mortality was inversely associated with speed (highest category vs. the lowest, 0.74 [0.59,0.93]).

CONCLUSIONS:

The subscales of the Bortner Scale may be associated with CVD in an opposed manner and may therefore have to be analyzed separately. More studies are needed to further investigate this association, also considering differences by sex. Persons scoring high in the competitiveness subscale ought to be screened and counselled in order to reduce their CVD risk.

KEYWORDS:

Bortner scale; Cardiovascular disease (CVD); Competitiveness; Mortality; Speed; Type A personality

 

Dietary intake of selected nutrients and persistence of HPV infection in men.

Lopes RDVC, Teixeira JA, Marchioni D, Villa LL, Giuliano AR, Baggio ML, Fisberg RM.

Int J Cancer. 2017 May 9. doi: 10.1002/ijc.30772. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28486774

Abstract

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted disease. Although often transitory, persistent oncogenic HPV infection may progress to a precursor lesion and, if not treated, can further increase the risk of cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between dietary intake and HPV persistent infection in men of a Brazilian cohort. The study population consisted of 1248 men from the Brazilian cohort of the HIM (HPV in Men) Study, ages 18 to 70 years, who completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. U Mann-Whitney test was used to assess differences in median nutrient intake of selected nutrients. The association of dietary intake and persistent HPV infection was assessed in multivariate logistic models. The prevalence of any HPV infection at baseline was 66.6%. Of 1248 participants analyzed, 1211 (97.0%) were HPV positive at one or more times during the 4 years of follow-up and 781 (62.6%) were persistently HPV positive. Men with non-persistent oncogenic HPV infections had higher median intake of retinol (p=0.008), vitamin A (p<0.001) and folate (DFE) (p=0.003), and lower median intake of energy (p=0.005) and lycopene (p=0.008) in comparison to men with persistent oncogenic infections. No significant association was found between selected nutrients and persistent oncogenic HPV infection. For non-oncogenic persistent infections, only vitamin B12 intake was significantly associated (p=0.003, test for trend). No association was observed between dietary intake and persistent oncogenic-type HPV infection; however, vitamin B12 intake was inversely associated with non-oncogenic HPV persistence.

KEYWORDS:

Diet; Food Frequency Questionnaire; HPV; Men

 

Heart attack risks from common painkillers may start early, study finds

Check with a doctor if a medication is needed, and use the lowest dose for the shortest time

By Amina Zafar, CBC News Posted: May 09, 2017

http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/nsaid-heart-attack-risk-1.4107177

 

A Low Glycaemic Index Diet Incorporating Isomaltulose Is Associated with Lower Glycaemic Response and Variability, and Promotes Fat Oxidation in Asians.

Henry CJ, Kaur B, Quek RYC, Camps SG.

Nutrients. 2017 May 9;9(5). pii: E473. doi: 10.3390/nu9050473.

PMID: 28486426

Abstract

Low glycaemic index (GI) foods minimize large blood glucose fluctuations and have been advocated to enhance fat oxidation and may contribute to weight management. We determined whether the inclusion of isomaltulose compared to sucrose in a low/high GI meal sequence can modulate the glycaemic response and substrate oxidation in an Asian population. Twenty Chinese men (body mass index (BMI): 17-28 kg/m²) followed a 24 h low GI (isomaltulose, PalatinoseTM) or high GI (sucrose) diet in a randomized double-blind, controlled cross-over design. Treatment meals included dinner (day 1), breakfast, lunch, and snack (day 2). Continuous glucose monitoring provided incremental area under the curve (iAUC) and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (MAGE) and 10 h indirect calorimetry (whole body calorimeter) (day 2) provided energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. Our results demonstrated that the low GI diet resulted in lower 24 h glucose iAUC (502.5 ± 231.4 vs. 872.6 ± 493.1 mmol/L; p = 0.002) and lower 24 h glycaemic variability (MAGE: 1.67 ± 0.53 vs. 2.68 ± 1.13 mmol/L; p < 0.001). Simultaneously, 10 h respiratory quotient increased more during high GI (p = 0.014) and fat oxidation was higher after low GI breakfast (p = 0.026), lunch (p < 0.001) and snack (p = 0.013). This indicates that lower GI mixed meals incorporating isomaltulose are able to acutely reduce the glycaemic response and variability and promote fat oxidation.

KEYWORDS:

Asians; continuous glucose monitoring; glycaemic index; glycaemic response; indirect calorimetry; isomaltulose; substrate oxidation; sucrose; whole body calorimeter

 

The Effect of Isomaltulose Together with Green Tea on Glycemic Response and Antioxidant Capacity: A Single-Blind, Crossover Study in Healthy Subjects.

Suraphad P, Suklaew PO, Ngamukote S, Adisakwattana S, Mäkynen K.

Nutrients. 2017 May 6;9(5). pii: E464. doi: 10.3390/nu9050464.

PMID: 28481230

Abstract

Isomaltulose, a naturally-occurring isomer of sucrose, is commonly used as an alternative sweetener in foods and beverages. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of isomaltulose together with green tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, as well as antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 15 healthy subjects (eight women and seven men; ages 23.5 ± 0.7 years; with body mass index of 22.6 ± 0.4 kg/m²) consumed five beverages: (1) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL water; (2) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of water; (3) 400 mL of green tea; (4) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL of green tea; and (5) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of green tea. Incremental area under postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were determined during 120 min of administration. Following the consumption of isomaltulose, the incremental 2-h area under the curve (AUC0-2 h) indicated a higher reduction of postprandial glucose (43.4%) and insulin concentration (42.0%) than the consumption of sucrose. The addition of green tea to isomaltulose produced a greater suppression of postprandial plasma glucose (20.9%) and insulin concentration (37.7%). In accordance with antioxidant capacity, consumption of sucrose (40.0%) and isomaltulose (28.7%) caused the reduction of green tea-induced postprandial increases in FRAP. A reduction in postprandial MDA after drinking green tea was attenuated when consumed with sucrose (34.7%) and isomaltulose (17.2%). In conclusion, green tea could enhance the reduction of postprandial glucose and insulin concentration when consumed with isomaltulose. In comparison with sucrose, isomaltulose demonstrated less alteration of plasma antioxidant capacity after being consumed with green tea.

KEYWORDS:

antioxidant capacity; glycemic response; green tea; isomaltulose; sucrose

 

Is mercury exposure causing diabetes, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance? A systematic review of the literature.

Roy C, Tremblay PY, Ayotte P.

Environ Res. 2017 May 5;156:747-760. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.04.038. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 28482296

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.envres.2017.04.038

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Several populations are exposed to mercury (Hg) via their environment, occupation or diet. It is hypothesized that Hg exposure can lead to the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Metabolic syndrome (MS) is also a possible outcome as its symptoms are closely linked to those of DM.

METHOD:

We conducted a systematic review of the literature by screening Web of Science, MEDLINE, SciFinder and Embase and we included original studies pertaining to the relationship of total Hg exposure (elemental, inorganic or organic) to DM, MS or insulin resistance. The studies were selected based on the PICOS (patients, intervention, comparator, outcomes and study design) criteria and their quality assessed using a nine-point scale. Study characteristics and results were extracted and presented in structured tables. We also extracted covariates entered as confounding factors to evaluate possible biases in selected studies. Finally, a weight of evidence approach was used to assess the causality of the relationship.

RESULTS:

A total of 34 studies were included in the present review. Epidemiological data assessment suggests a possible association between total Hg concentrations in different biological matrices and incidence of DM or MS, but the relationship is not consistent. In vivo and in vitro studies support the biological plausibility of the relation between Hg exposure and DM or MS. Five out of nine of Bradford Hill's criteria were fulfilled: strength, temporality, plausibility, coherence and analogy.

CONCLUSION:

Increased total Hg exposure may augment the risk of DM and MS, but the lack of consistency of the epidemiological evidence prevents inference of a causal relationship. Additional prospective cohort studies and careful consideration of confounding variables and interactions are required to conclude on the causal relationship of total Hg exposure on the development of DM or MS.

KEYWORDS:

Diabetes; Mercury; Metabolic syndrome; Methylmercury; Systematic review

 

Prebiotics increase heme iron bioavailability and do not affect non-heme iron bioavailability in humans.

Weinborn V, Valenzuela C, Olivares M, Arredondo M, Weill R, Pizarro F.

Food Funct. 2017 May 9. doi: 10.1039/c6fo01833e. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28485415

Prebiotics increase heme iron bioavailability and do not affect non-heme iron bioavailability in humans.

Weinborn V, Valenzuela C, Olivares M, Arredondo M, Weill R, Pizarro F.

Food Funct. 2017 May 9. doi: 10.1039/c6fo01833e. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28485415

 

Effects of three different chair-based exercise programs on people over 80 years old.

Cancela J, Pallin E, Orbegozo A, Ayán C.

Rejuvenation Res. 2017 May 8. doi: 10.1089/rej.2017.1924. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28482740

http://online.liebertpub.com.sci-hub.cc/doi/10.1089/rej.2017.1924

Abstract

This study aimed at comparing the effects of three chair-based exercise programs on people over 80 years. Thirty-six participants (87.91 ± 4.70 years) were randomly allocated to an elastic-band, pedal exerciser or range of motion exercise program. The participants exercised three days per week during three months. A hand-held dynamometer, the Tinetti Gait Balance, the Barthel Index and the Timed Up & Go tests (assessed by means of the Wiva® science sensor) were used to evaluate the effects of the programs on the participants strength, balance, functional independence and functional mobility, respectively. After the intervention, it was observed that only the elastic-band program resulted in significant improvements in strength, and balance. This results imply that when choosing a low cost exercise program for very old people, the use of elastic bands stands as a far better option than cycling on a pedal exerciser or performing mobility exercises.

 

Low-sodium diet induces atherogenesis regardless of lowering blood pressure in hypertensive hyperlipidemic mice.

Fusco FB, Gomes DJ, Bispo KCS, Toledo VP, Barbeiro DF, Capelozzi VL, Furukawa LNS, Velosa APP, Teodoro WR, Heimann JC, Quintao ECR, Passarelli M, Nakandakare ER, Catanozi S.

PLoS One. 2017 May 8;12(5):e0177086. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177086. eCollection 2017.

PMID: 28481921

Abstract

This study investigated the influence of sodium restriction and antihypertensive drugs on atherogenesis utilizing hypertensive (H) low-density lipoprotein-receptor knockout mice treated or not with losartan (Los) or hydralazine (Hyd) and fed low-sodium (LS) or normal-sodium (NS) chow. Despite reducing the blood pressure (BP) of H-LS mice, the LS diet caused arterial lipid infiltration due to increased plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG). Los and Hyd reduced the BP of H-LS mice, and Los effectively prevented arterial injury, likely by reducing plasma TG and nonesterified fatty acids. Aortic lipid infiltration was lower in Los-treated H-LS mice (H-LS+Los) than in normotensive (N)-LS and H-LS mice. Aortic angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor content was greater in H-NS than H-LS mice and in H-LS+Hyd than H-LS+Los mice. Carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) immunostaining was greater in H-LS than H-NS mice. CML and RAGE levels were lower in LS animals treated with antihypertensive drugs, and Hyd enhanced the AT1 receptor level. Hyd also increased the gene expression of F4/80 but not tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 or cluster of differentiation 66. The novelty of the current study is that in a murine model of simultaneous hypertension and hyperlipidemia, the pleiotropic effect of chronic, severe sodium restriction elicited aortic damage even with reduced BP. These negative effects on the arterial wall were reduced by AT1 receptor antagonism, demonstrating the influence of angiotensin II in atherogenesis induced by a severely LS diet.

 

The influence of high fat diets with different ketogenic ratios on the hippocampal accumulation of creatine - FTIR microspectroscopy study.

Skoczen A, Setkowicz Z, Janeczko K, Sandt C, Borondics F, Chwiej J.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2017 May 2;184:13-22. doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2017.04.085. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28477512

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.saa.2017.04.085

Abstract

The main purpose of this study was the determination and comparison of anomalies in creatine (Cr) accumulation occurring within CA3 and DG areas of hippocampal formation as a result of two high-fat, carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diets (KD) with different ketogenic ratio (KR). To reach this goal, Fourier transformed infrared microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation source (SRFTIR microspectroscopy) was applied for chemical mapping of creatine absorption bands, occurring around 1304, 1398 and 2800 cm-1. The samples were taken from three groups of experimental animals: control group (N) fed with standard laboratory diet, KD1 and KD2 groups fed with high-fat diets with KR 5:1 and 9:1 respectively. Additionally, the possible influence on the phosphocreatine (PhCr, the high energetic form of creatine) content was evaluated by comparative analysis of chemical maps obtained for creatine and for compounds containing phosphate groups which manifest in the spectra at the wavenumbers of around 1240 and 1080 cm-1. Our results showed that KD2 strongly modifies the frequency of Cr inclusions in both analyzed hippocampal areas. Statistical analysis, performed with Mann-Whitney U test revealed increased accumulation of Cr within CA3 and DG areas of KD2 fed rats compared to both normal rats and KD1 experimental group. Moreover, KD2 diet may modify the frequency of PhCr deposits as well as the PhCr to Cr ratio.

KEYWORDS:

Creatine; Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy; Hippocampal formation; Ketogenic diet; Phosphocreatine; Synchrotron radiation

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Heart Rate Recovery and Risk of Cardiovascular Events and All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

Qiu S, Cai X, Sun Z, Li L, Zuegel M, Steinacker JM, Schumann U.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 May 9;6(5). pii: e005505. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.005505. Review.

PMID: 28487388

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Heart rate recovery (HRR) is a noninvasive assessment of autonomic dysfunction and has been implicated with risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. However, evidence has not been systematically assessed. We performed a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to quantify these associations in the general population.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

A literature search using 3 databases up to August 2016 was conducted for studies that reported hazard ratios with 95% CIs for the association between baseline HRR and outcomes of interest. The overall hazard ratios were calculated using a random-effects model. There were 9 eligible studies in total, with 5 for cardiovascular events enrolling 1061 cases from 34 267 participants, and 9 for all-cause mortality enrolling 2082 cases from 41 600 participants. The pooled hazard ratios associated with attenuated HRR versus fast HRR that served as the referent were 1.69 (95% CI 1.05-2.71) for cardiovascular events and 1.68 (95% CI 1.51-1.88) for all-cause mortality. For every 10 beats per minute decrements in HRR, the hazard ratios were 1.13 (95% CI 1.05-1.21) and 1.09 (95% CI 1.01-1.19), respectively. Further analyses suggested that the associations observed between attenuated HRR and risk of fatal cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality were independent of traditional metabolic factors for cardiovascular disease (all P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Attenuated HRR is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, which supports the recommendation of recording HRR for risk assessment in clinical practice as a routine.

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular events; heart rate recovery; mortality

 

Habitual coffee consumption and genetic predisposition to obesity: gene-diet interaction analyses in three US prospective studies.

Wang T, Huang T, Kang JH, Zheng Y, Jensen MK, Wiggs JL, Pasquale LR, Fuchs CS, Campos H, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB, Qi L.

BMC Med. 2017 May 9;15(1):97. doi: 10.1186/s12916-017-0862-0.

PMID: 28486942

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Whether habitual coffee consumption interacts with the genetic predisposition to obesity in relation to body mass index (BMI) and obesity is unknown.

METHODS:

We analyzed the interactions between genetic predisposition and habitual coffee consumption in relation to BMI and obesity risk in 5116 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), in 9841 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), and in 5648 women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). The genetic risk score was calculated based on 77 BMI-associated loci. Coffee consumption was examined prospectively in relation to BMI.

RESULTS:

The genetic association with BMI was attenuated among participants with higher consumption of coffee than among those with lower consumption in the HPFS (P interaction  = 0.023) and NHS (P interaction  = 0.039); similar results were replicated in the WHI (P interaction  = 0.044). In the combined data of all cohorts, differences in BMI per increment of 10-risk allele were 1.38 (standard error (SE), 0.28), 1.02 (SE, 0.10), and 0.95 (SE, 0.12) kg/m2 for coffee consumption of < 1, 1-3 and > 3 cup(s)/day, respectively (P interaction  < 0.001). Such interaction was partly due to slightly higher BMI with higher coffee consumption among participants at lower genetic risk and slightly lower BMI with higher coffee consumption among those at higher genetic risk. Each increment of 10-risk allele was associated with 78% (95% confidence interval (CI), 59-99%), 48% (95% CI, 36-62%), and 43% (95% CI, 28-59%) increased risk for obesity across these subgroups of coffee consumption (P interaction  = 0.008). From another perspective, differences in BMI per increment of 1 cup/day coffee consumption were 0.02 (SE, 0.09), -0.02 (SE, 0.04), and -0.14 (SE, 0.04) kg/m2 across tertiles of the genetic risk score.

CONCLUSIONS:

Higher coffee consumption might attenuate the genetic associations with BMI and obesity risk, and individuals with greater genetic predisposition to obesity appeared to have lower BMI associated with higher coffee consumption.

KEYWORDS:

Body mass index; Coffee; Gene-diet interaction; Genetic predisposition; Obesity

 

A randomized cross-over study of the effects of macronutrient composition and meal frequency on GLP-1, ghrelin and energy expenditure in humans.

Ingves S, Vilhelmsson N, Ström E, Fredrikson M, Guldbrand H, Nystrom FH.

Peptides. 2017 May 6. pii: S0196-9781(17)30180-8. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2017.04.011. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28487141

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Little is known about human postprandial increase of energy expenditure and satiety-associated hormones in relation to both meal frequency and macronutrient composition.

DESIGN:

Randomized cross-over study with four conditions for each participant.

METHODS:

Seven men and seven women (mean age 23±1.5years) were randomly assigned to the order of intake of a 750kcal drink with the same protein content while having either 20 energy-percent (E%) or 55 E% from carbohydrates and the remaining energy from fat. Participants were also randomized to consume the drinks as one large beverage or as five 150kcal portions every 30minutes, starting in the fasting state in the morning. Energy expenditure (EE) was determined every 30minutes by indirect calorimetry. Hormonal responses and suppression of hunger (by visual-analogue scales) were also studied. A p<0.013 was considered statistically significant following Bonferroni-correction.

RESULTS:

The area under the curve (AUC) for EE was higher during the 2.5hours after the high-carbohydrate drinks (p=0.005 by Wilcoxon) and also after ingesting one drink compared with five (p=0.004). AUC for serum active GLP-1 was higher after single drinks compared with five beverages (p=0.002). Although GLP-1 levels remained particularly high at the end of the test during the low-carbohydrate meals, the AUC did not differ compared with the high-carbohydrate occasions (low-carbohydrate: 58.9±18pg/ml/h, high-carbohydrate: 45.2±16pg/ml/h, p=0.028). Hunger sensations were suppressed more after single beverages compared with five small drinks (p=0.009).

CONCLUSIONS:

We found higher EE during 2.5hours following one large drink compared with five smaller beverages. Since hunger was also suppressed more efficiently, and serum GLP-1 levels were higher after one compared with five smaller drinks, our findings do not support nibbling to avoid hunger or to keep up EE from morning to noon.

KEYWORDS:

GLP-1; ghrelin; hunger; indirect calorimetry; low-carbohydrate; meal frequency

 

The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, Western diet, and risk of gout in men: prospective cohort study.

Rai SK, Fung TT, Lu N, Keller SF, Curhan GC, Choi HK.

BMJ. 2017 May 9;357:j1794. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j1794.

PMID: 28487277

http://www.bmj.com/content/357/bmj.j1794.long

http://www.bmj.com/content/bmj/357/bmj.j1794.full.pdf

Abstract

Objective To prospectively examine the relation between the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Western diets and risk of gout (ie, the clinical endpoint of hyperuricemia) in men.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting The Health Professionals Follow-up Study.Participants 44 444 men with no history of gout at baseline. Using validated food frequency questionnaires, each participant was assigned a DASH dietary pattern score (based on high intake of fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes, low fat dairy products, and whole grains, and low intake of sodium, sweetened beverages, and red and processed meats) and a Western dietary pattern score (based on high intake of red and processed meats, French fries, refined grains, sweets, and desserts).Main outcome measure Risk of incident gout meeting the preliminary American College of Rheumatology survey criteria for gout, adjusting for potential confounders, including age, body mass index, hypertension, diuretic use, and alcohol intake.Results During 26 years of follow-up, 1731 confirmed cases of incident gout were documented. A higher DASH dietary pattern score was associated with a lower risk for gout (adjusted relative risk for extreme fifths 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.57 to 0.80, P value for trend <0.001). In contrast, a higher Western dietary pattern score was associated with an increased risk for gout (1.42, 1.16 to 1.74, P=0.005).Conclusion The DASH diet is associated with a lower risk of gout, suggesting that its effect of lowering uric acid levels in individuals with hyperuricemia translates to a lower risk of gout. Conversely, the Western diet is associated with a higher risk of gout. The DASH diet may provide an attractive preventive dietary approach for men at risk of gout.

 

Dietary Protein Intake and Stroke Risk in a General Japanese Population: The Hisayama Study.

Ozawa M, Yoshida D, Hata J, Ohara T, Mukai N, Shibata M, Uchida K, Nagata M, Kitazono T, Kiyohara Y, Ninomiya T.

Stroke. 2017 May 9. pii: STROKEAHA.116.016059. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.016059. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28487340

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The influence of dietary protein intake on stroke risk is an area of interest. We investigated the association between dietary protein intake and stroke risk in Japanese, considering sources of protein.

METHODS:

A total of 2400 subjects aged 40 to 79 years were followed up for 19 years. Dietary protein intake was estimated using a 70-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. The risk estimates for incident stroke and its subtypes were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model.

RESULTS:

During the follow-up, 254 participants experienced stroke events; of these, 172 had ischemic stroke, and 58 had intracerebral hemorrhage. Higher total protein intake was significantly associated with lower risks of stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (both P for trend <0.05). With regard to sources of protein, the risks of total stroke and ischemic stroke significantly decreased by 40% (95% confidence interval, 12%-59%) and 40% (5%-62%), respectively, in subjects with the highest quartile of vegetable protein intake compared with those with the lowest one. In contrast, subjects with the highest quartile of animal protein intake had a 53% (4%-77%) lower risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Vegetable protein intake was positively correlated with intakes of soybean products, vegetable, and algae, whereas animal protein intake was positively correlated with intakes of fish, meat, eggs, and milk/dairy products. Both types of protein intakes were negatively correlated with intakes of rice and alcohol.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings suggest that higher dietary protein intake is associated with a reduced risk of stroke in the general Japanese population.

KEYWORDS:

cohort studies; meat; milk; protein; soybeans; stroke

 

Cochlear Homocysteine Metabolism at the Crossroad of Nutrition and Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

Partearroyo T, Vallecillo N, Pajares MA, Varela-Moreiras G, Varela-Nieto I.

Front Mol Neurosci. 2017 Apr 25;10:107. doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2017.00107. eCollection 2017. Review.

PMID: 28487633

Abstract

Hearing loss (HL) is one of the most common causes of disability, affecting 360 million people according to the World Health Organization (WHO). HL is most frequently of sensorineural origin, being caused by the irreversible loss of hair cells and/or spiral ganglion neurons. The etiology of sensorineural HL (SNHL) is multifactorial, with genetic and environmental factors such as noise, ototoxic substances and aging playing a role. The nutritional status is central in aging disability, but the interplay between nutrition and SNHL has only recently gained attention. Dietary supplementation could therefore constitute the first step for the prevention and potential repair of hearing damage before it reaches irreversibility. In this context, different epidemiological studies have shown correlations among the nutritional condition, increased total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and SNHL. Several human genetic rare diseases are also associated with homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and SNHL confirming this potential link. Accordingly, rodent experimental models have provided the molecular basis to understand the observed effects. Thus, increased tHcy levels and vitamin deficiencies, such as folic acid (FA), have been linked with SNHL, whereas long-term dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids improved Hcy metabolism, cell survival and hearing acuity. Furthermore, pharmacological supplementations with the anti-oxidant fumaric acid that targets Hcy metabolism also improved SNHL. Overall these results strongly suggest that cochlear Hcy metabolism is a key player in the onset and progression of SNHL, opening the way for the design of prospective nutritional therapies.

KEYWORDS:

folic acid; nutritional imbalance; omega-3; one-carbon metabolism; oxidative stress; rare diseases

 

Body Size and the Risk of Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Women: A Cohort Study.

Vaidya A, Curhan GC, Paik JM, Wang M, Taylor EN.

J Bone Miner Res. 2017 May 10. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.3168. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28488734

Abstract

Greater body weight and fat mass have been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone levels and a higher prevalence of primary hyperparathyroidism (P-HPTH) in women. However, prospective studies to evaluate whether greater body size associates with a higher incidence of developing P-HPTH have not been reported. We investigated whether greater body size was independently associated with a higher risk for developing P-HPTH in women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 85,013 female participants in the Nurses' Health Study I followed for up to 26 years. Body size was measured via multiple metrics: weight, body-mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Weight and BMI were assessed every two years from 1986 to 2012, and WC was assessed in 1986, 1996, and 2000. Detailed dietary and demographic exposures were quantified via validated biennial questionnaires. Incident cases of P-HPTH were confirmed by individual medical record review. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate whether WC, weight, and BMI were independent risk factors for developing P-HPTH. Models were adjusted for demographic variables, comorbidities, medications, intakes of calcium and vitamin D, and exposure to ultraviolet light. We confirmed 491 incident cases of P-HPTH during 2,128,068 person-years of follow-up. The multivariable adjusted relative risks for incident P-HPTH increased across quartiles of WC: Q1: ref, Q2: 1.34 (0.97, 1.86), Q3: 1.70 (1.24, 2.31), Q4: 2.27 (1.63, 3.18), P-trend < 0.001. Similarly, the multivariable adjusted risks for incident P-HPTH increased across quartiles of weight: Q1: ref, Q2: 1.23 (0.92, 1.65), Q3: 1.63 (1.24, 2.14), Q4: 1.65 (1.24, 2.19), P-trend < 0.001. A similar but statistically non-significant trend was observed across quartiles of BMI (P-trend = 0.07). In summary, body size may be an independent and modifiable risk factor for developing P-HPTH in women.

KEYWORDS:

Primary hyperparathyroidism; body mass index; parathyroid hormone; waist circumference; weight

 

The Effect of Dietary Glycemic Properties on Markers of Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Body Composition in Postmenopausal American Women: An Ancillary Study from a Multicenter Protein Supplementation Trial.

Stojkovic V, Simpson CA, Sullivan RR, Cusano AM, Kerstetter JE, Kenny AM, Insogna KL, Bihuniak JD.

Nutrients. 2017 May 11;9(5). pii: E484. doi: 10.3390/nu9050484.

PMID: 28492492

Abstract

Controversy exists as to whether high glycemic index/glycemic load (GI/GL) diets increase the risk of chronic inflammation, which has been postulated as a pathogenic intermediary between such diets and age-related alterations in body composition and insulin resistance. We conducted an ancillary study to a randomized, double-blind trial comparing the effects of a whey protein supplement (PRO, n = 38) and a maltodextrin supplement (CHO, n = 46) on bone density to evaluate the impact of a calibrated increase in GI/GL on inflammation, insulin resistance, and body composition in a healthy aging population. Markers of inflammation, HOMA, body composition, and GI/GL (estimated from 3-day food records) were assessed at baseline and 18 months. By 18 months, the GL in the CHO group increased by 34%, 88.4 ± 5.2 → 118.5 ± 4.9 and did not change in the PRO group, 86.5 ± 4.1 → 82.0 ± 3.6 (p < 0.0001). Despite this change there were no differences in serum CRP, IL-6, or HOMA at 18 months between the two groups, nor were there significant associations between GL and inflammatory markers. However, trunk lean mass (p = 0.0375) and total lean mass (p = 0.038) were higher in the PRO group compared to the CHO group at 18 months There were also significant associations for GL and change in total fat mass (r = 0.3, p = 0.01), change in BMI (r = 0.3, p = 0.005), and change in the lean-to-fat mass ratio (r = -0.3, p = 0.002). Our data suggest that as dietary GL increases within the moderate range, there is no detectable change in markers of inflammation or insulin resistance, despite which there is a negative effect on body composition.

KEYWORDS:

body composition; glycemic index; glycemic load; insulin resistance

 

Association of Dietary Vitamin K1 Intake With the Incidence of Cataract Surgery in an Adult Mediterranean Population: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

Camacho-Barcia ML, Bulló M, Garcia-Gavilán JF, Ruiz-Canela M, Corella D, Estruch R, Fitó M, García-Layana A, Arós F, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Serra-Majem L, Pintó X, García-Arellano A, Vinyoles E, Sorli JV, Salas-Salvadó J.

JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017 May 11. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.1076. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28494067

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Cataract, one of the most frequent causes of blindness in developed countries, is strongly associated with aging. The exact mechanisms underlying cataract formation are still unclear, but growing evidence suggests a potential role of inflammatory and oxidative processes. Therefore, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory factors of the diet, such as vitamin K1, could play a protective role.

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the association between dietary vitamin K1 intake and the risk of incident cataracts in an elderly Mediterranean population.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

A prospective analysis was conducted in 5860 participants from the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea Study, a randomized clinical trial executed between 2003 and 2011. Participants were community-dwelling men (44.2%) and women (55.8%), and the mean (SD) age was 66.3 (6.1) years.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Dietary vitamin K1 intake was evaluated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The time to the cataract event was calculated as the time between recruitment and the date of the occurrence to cataract surgery, the time to the last visit of the follow-up, date of death, or the end of the study. Hazard ratios and 95% CIs for cataract incidence were estimated with a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model.

RESULTS:

Participants were community-dwelling men (44.2%; n = 868) and women (55.8%; n = 1086), and the mean (SD) age was 66.3 (6.1) years. After a median of 5.6 years follow-up, we documented a total of 768 new cataracts. Participants in the highest tertile of dietary vitamin K1 intake had a lower risk of cataracts than those in the lowest tertile (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.58-0.88; P = .002), after adjusting for potential confounders.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

High intake of dietary vitamin K1 was associated with a reduced risk of cataracts in an elderly Mediterranean population even after adjusting by other potential confounders.

 

Mortality from different causes associated with meat, heme iron, nitrates, and nitrites in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study: population based cohort study.

Etemadi A, Sinha R, Ward MH, Graubard BI, Inoue-Choi M, Dawsey SM, Abnet CC.

BMJ. 2017 May 9;357:j1957. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j1957.

PMID: 28487287

http://www.bmj.com/content/357/bmj.j1957.long

http://www.bmj.com/content/bmj/357/bmj.j1957.full.pdf

Abstract

Objective To determine the association of different types of meat intake and meat associated compounds with overall and cause specific mortality.Design Population based cohort study.Setting Baseline dietary data of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (prospective cohort of the general population from six states and two metropolitan areas in the US) and 16 year follow-up data until 31 December 2011.Participants 536 969 AARP members aged 50-71 at baseline.Exposures Intake of total meat, processed and unprocessed red meat (beef, lamb, and pork) and white meat (poultry and fish), heme iron, and nitrate/nitrite from processed meat based on dietary questionnaire. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used with the lowest fifth of calorie adjusted intakes as reference categories.Main outcome measure Mortality from any cause during follow-up.Results An increased risk of all cause mortality (hazard ratio for highest versus lowest fifth 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.29) and death due to nine different causes associated with red meat intake was observed. Both processed and unprocessed red meat intakes were associated with all cause and cause specific mortality. Heme iron and processed meat nitrate/nitrite were independently associated with increased risk of all cause and cause specific mortality. Mediation models estimated that the increased mortality associated with processed red meat was influenced by nitrate intake (37.0-72.0%) and to a lesser degree by heme iron (20.9-24.1%). When the total meat intake was constant, the highest fifth of white meat intake was associated with a 25% reduction in risk of all cause mortality compared with the lowest intake level. Almost all causes of death showed an inverse association with white meat intake.Conclusions The results show increased risks of all cause mortality and death due to nine different causes associated with both processed and unprocessed red meat, accounted for, in part, by heme iron and nitrate/nitrite from processed meat. They also show reduced risks associated with substituting white meat, particularly unprocessed white meat.

 

[From another paper: "an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of non-cardiac origin comprised 19.2% of all out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors. Trauma (62), non-traumatic bleeding (36), intoxication (31), near drowning (22) and pulmonary embolism (18) were the most common aetiologies, comprising 61.2% of cases."]

Midlife risk factor exposure and incidence of cardiac arrest depending on cardiac or non-cardiac origin.

Ohlsson MA, Kennedy LMA, Juhlin T, Melander O.

Int J Cardiol. 2017 May 3. pii: S0167-5273(16)32746-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.05.004. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28487155

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.05.004

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Little is known about midlife risk factors of future cardiac arrest. Our objective was to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors in midlife in relation to the risk of cardiac arrest (CA) of cardiac and non-cardiac origin later in life.

METHODS:

We cross-matched individuals of the population based Malmö Diet and Cancer study (n=30,447) with the local CA registry of the city of Malmö. Baseline exposures were related to incident CA.

RESULTS:

During a mean follow-up of 17.6±4.6years, 378 CA occurred, of whom 17.2% survived to discharge. Independent midlife risk factors for CA of cardiac origin included coronary artery disease {HR 2.84 (1.86-4.34) (p<0.001)}, diabetes mellitus {HR 2.37 (1.61-3.51) (p<0.001)} and smoking {HR 1.95 (1.49-2.55) (p<0.001)}. Dyslipidemia and history of stroke were also significantly associated with an elevated risk for CA of cardiac origin. Independent midlife risk factors for CA of non-cardiac origin included obesity (BMI>30kg/m2) {HR 2.37 (1.51-3.71) (p<0.001)}, smoking {HR 2.05 (1.33-3.15) (p<0.001)} and being on antihypertensive treatment {HR 2.25 (1.46-3.46) (p<0.001)}.

CONCLUSION:

Apart from smoking, which increases the risk of CA in general, the midlife risk factor pattern differs between CA of cardiac and non-cardiac origin. Whereas CA of cardiac origin is predicted by history of cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus, the main risk factors for CA of non-cardiac origin are obesity and hypertension. In addition to control of classical cardiovascular risk factors for prevention of CA, our results suggest that prevention of midlife obesity may reduce the risk of CA of non-cardiac origin.

 

Rapamycin regulates macrophage activation by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome-p38 MAPK-NFκB pathways in autophagy- and p62-dependent manners.

Ko JH, Yoon SO, Lee HJ, Oh JY.

Oncotarget. 2017 Apr 19. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.17256. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28489580

Abstract

Excessive and prolonged activation of macrophages underlies many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. To regulate activation and maintain homeostasis, macrophages have multiple intrinsic mechanisms, one of which is modulation through autophagy. Here we demonstrate that autophagy induction by rapamycin suppressed the production of IL-1β and IL-18 in lipopolysaccharide- and adenosine triphosphate-activated macrophages at the post-transcriptional level by eliminating mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) and pro-IL1β in a p62/SQSTM1-dependent manner. In addition, rapamycin activated Nrf2 through up-regulation of p62/SQSTM1, which further contributed to the reduction of mtROS. Reduced IL-1β subsequently diminished the activation of p38 MAPK-NFκB pathways, leading to transcriptional down-regulation of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and IκBα in rapamycin-treated macrophages. Therefore, our results suggest that rapamycin negatively regulates macrophage activation by restricting a feedback loop of NLRP3 inflammasome-p38 MAPK-NFκB pathways in autophagy- and p62/SQSTM1-dependent manners.

KEYWORDS:

NLRP3 inflammasome; autophagy; macrophage; p62/SQSTM1; rapamycin

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Effect of vitamin D on all-cause mortality in heart failure (EVITA): a 3-year randomized clinical trial with 4000 IU vitamin D daily.

Zittermann A, Ernst JB, Prokop S, Fuchs U, Dreier J, Kuhn J, Knabbe C, Birschmann I, Schulz U, Berthold HK, Pilz S, Gouni-Berthold I, Gummert JF, Dittrich M, Börgermann J.

Eur Heart J. 2017 May 12. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehx235. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28498942

Abstract

AIMS:

Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels <75 nmol/L are associated with a nonlinear increase in mortality risk. Such 25OHD levels are common in heart failure (HF). We therefore examined whether oral vitamin D supplementation reduces mortality in patients with advanced HF.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Four hundred HF patients with 25OHD levels <75 nmol/L were randomized to receive 4000 IU vitamin D daily or matching placebo for 3 years. Primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Key secondary outcome measures included hospitalization, resuscitation, mechanical circulatory support (MCS) implant, high urgent listing for heart transplantation, heart transplantation, and hypercalcaemia. Initial 25OHD levels were on average <40 nmol/L, remained around 40 nmol/L in patients assigned to placebo and plateaued around 100 nmol/L in patients assigned to vitamin D. Mortality was not different in patients receiving vitamin D (19.6%; n = 39) or placebo (17.9%; n = 36) with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-1.71; P = 0.726]. The need for MCS implant was however greater in patients assigned to vitamin D (15.4%, n = 28) vs. placebo [9.0%, n = 15; HR: 1.96 (95% CI: 1.04-3.66); P = 0.031]. Other secondary clinical endpoints were similar between groups. The incidence of hypercalcaemia was 6.2% (n = 10) and 3.1% (n = 5) in patients receiving vitamin D or placebo (P = 0.192).

CONCLUSION:

A daily vitamin D dose of 4000 IU did not reduce mortality in patients with advanced HF but was associated with a greater need for MCS implants. Data indicate caution regarding long-term supplementation with moderately high vitamin D doses.

TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION:

clinicaltrials.gov Idenitfier: NCT01326650.

KEYWORDS:

Calcium; Heart failure; Hypercalcaemia ; Mechanical circulatory support; Mortality; Randomized clinical trial ; Survival; Vitamin D

 

The Scientist » News & Opinion » Daily News

Cannabinoid Treatment Improves Cognition in Old Mice

In young mice, THC had the opposite effect.

By Diana Kwon | May 8, 2017

http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/49367/title/Cannabinoid-Treatment-Improves-Cognition-in-Old-Mice/&utm_campaign=NEWSLETTER_TS_The-Scientist-Daily_2016&utm_source=hs_email&utm_medium=email&utm_content=51699299&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-_C7HdiGoFRI1-zFzq3OEVAZ15jg7nSDACmuHIesHG2nWHSwfxISgKe9eHyZBW3EEcuuze1UW3Wf4e5QPEA_OjwJDvstw&_hsmi=51699300

 

Benefits and Harms of the Mediterranean Diet Compared to Other Diets [internet].

Bloomfield HE, Kane R, Koeller E, Greer N, MacDonald R, Wilt T.

Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs (US); 2015 Nov.

PMID: 27559560 Free Books & Documents

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0089090/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0089090/table/executivesummary.t1/?report=objectonly

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0089086/pdf/PubMedHealth_PMH0089086.pdf

Excerpt

A large number of epidemiologic studies have investigated the association between diet and mortality and morbidity. Of particular recent interest is the Mediterranean diet, first described by Ancel Keys over 50 years ago. This diet is characterized by high intake of olive oil, fruits and vegetables, whole grains and cereals, legumes, fish, and nuts; low intake of red meat, dairy products, and sweets; and moderate intake of red wine with meals. Epidemiologic studies have shown that the incidence of cardiovascular disease in populations that consume such diets is lower than in populations that consume a more typical “Western” diet that is rich in red meat, dairy products, processed and artificially sweetened foods, and salt, with minimal intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, legumes, and whole grains. Based on these epidemiologic studies, several randomized controlled trials were conducted to test the hypothesis that adopting a Mediterranean diet in adulthood reduces chronic disease burden (eg, incidence of and/ or mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, cognitive impairment, and kidney disease) and/or all-cause mortality (viz, PREDIMED, Lyon Heart Study, THIS-DIET). These trials included populations from a variety of geographical locations and with a spectrum of demographic and clinical characteristics. Although several systematic reviews of the relevant observational studies and clinical trials have been published, the VA's Evidence-based Synthesis Program, in conjunction with the Office of Quality and Performance and in response to a request from the VA's National Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention and Primary Care Services, commissioned the present study to update prior reviews and to specifically assess the implications for the treatment and prevention of common chronic conditions in the Veteran population.

Sections

PREFACE

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION

METHODS

RESULTS

SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A SEARCH STRATEGIES

APPENDIX B PEER REVIEW COMMENTS/AUTHOR RESPONSES

APPENDIX C EVIDENCE TABLES

APPENDIX D LITERATURE FLOW

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Evolution of the "fourth stage" of epidemiologic transition in people aged 80 years and over: population-based cohort study using electronic health records.

Hazra NC, Gulliford M.

Popul Health Metr. 2017 May 12;15(1):18. doi: 10.1186/s12963-017-0136-2.

PMID: 28499387

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In the "fourth stage" of epidemiological transition, the distribution of non-communicable diseases is expected to shift to more advanced ages, but age-specific changes beyond 80 years of age have not been reported.

METHODS:

This study aimed to evaluate demographic and health transitions in a population aged 80 years and over in the United Kingdom from 1990 to 2014, using primary care electronic health records. Epidemiological analysis of chronic morbidities and age-related impairments included a cohort of 299,495 participants, with stratified sampling by five-year age group up to 100 years and over. Cause-specific proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for incidence rates over time.

RESULTS:

Between 1990 and 2014, nonagenarians and centenarians increased as a proportion of the over-80 population, as did the male-to-female ratio among individuals aged 80 to 95 years. A lower risk of coronary heart disease (HR 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.58), stroke (0.83, 0.76-0.90) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0.59, 0.54-0.64) was observed among 80-84 year-olds in 2010-2014 compared to 1995-1999. By contrast, the risk of type II diabetes (2.18, 1.96-2.42), cancer (1.52, 1.43-1.61), dementia (2.94, 2.70-3.21), cognitive impairment (5.57, 5.01-6.20), and musculoskeletal pain (1.26, 1.21-1.32) was greater in 2010-2014 compared to 1995-1999.

CONCLUSIONS:

Redistribution of the over-80 population to older ages, and declining age-specific incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in over-80s, are consistent with the "fourth stage" of epidemiologic transition, but increases in diabetes, cancer, and age-related impairment show new emerging epidemiological patterns in the senior elderly.

KEYWORDS:

Chronic disease; Epidemiological transition; Epidemiology; Incidence; Morbidity; Primary care; Senior elderly; UK; Very old

 

Coffee and autoimmunity: More than a mere hot beverage!

Sharif K, Watad A, Bragazzi NL, Adawi M, Amital H, Shoenfeld Y.

Autoimmun Rev. 2017 May 4. pii: S1568-9972(17)30127-1. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2017.05.007. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 28479483

Abstract

Coffee is one of the world's most consumed beverage. In the last decades, coffee consumption has attracted a huge body of research due to its impact on health. Recent scientific evidences showed that coffee intake could be associated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular and neurological diseases, diabetes type II, as well as from endometrial and liver cancer, among others. In this review, on the basis of available data in the literature, we aimed to investigate the association between coffee intake and its influence on the immune system and the insurgence of the most relevant autoimmune diseases. While some studies reported conflicting results, general trends have been identified. Coffee consumption seems to increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). By contrast, coffee consumption may exert a protective role against multiple sclerosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and ulcerative colitis. Concerning other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, primary biliary cholangitis and Crohn's disease, no significant association could be found. In other studies, coffee consumption was shown to influence disease course and management options. Coffee intake led to a decrease in insulin sensitivity in T1DM, in methotrexate efficacy in RA, and in levothyroxine absorption in Hashimoto's disease. Further, coffee consumption was associated with cross reactivity with gliadin antibodies in celiac patients. Data on certain autoimmune diseases like systemic sclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Behçet's disease, among others, are lacking in the existent literature. As such, further research is warranted.

KEYWORDS:

Autoimmune diseases; clinical nutrition; rheumatology

 

California's $3-billion bet on stem cells faces final test.

Maxmen A.

Nature. 2017 Apr 26;544(7651):401-402. doi: 10.1038/544401a. No abstract available.

PMID: 28447649

https://www.nature.com/news/california-s-3-billion-bet-on-stem-cells-faces-final-test-1.21890

Major investment in regenerative medicine enters its last stage — and the money might run out before treatments are ready.

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Genetic Risk, Adherence to a Healthy Lifestyle, and Coronary Disease.

Khera AV, Emdin CA, Drake I, Natarajan P, Bick AG, Cook NR, Chasman DI, Baber U, Mehran R, Rader DJ, Fuster V, Boerwinkle E, Melander O, Orho-Melander M, Ridker PM, Kathiresan S.

N Engl J Med. 2016 Dec 15;375(24):2349-2358. Epub 2016 Nov 13.

PMID: 27959714

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1056/NEJMoa1605086

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Both genetic and lifestyle factors contribute to individual-level risk of coronary artery disease. The extent to which increased genetic risk can be offset by a healthy lifestyle is unknown.

METHODS:

Using a polygenic score of DNA sequence polymorphisms, we quantified genetic risk for coronary artery disease in three prospective cohorts - 7814 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, 21,222 in the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS), and 22,389 in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS) - and in 4260 participants in the cross-sectional BioImage Study for whom genotype and covariate data were available. We also determined adherence to a healthy lifestyle among the participants using a scoring system consisting of four factors: no current smoking, no obesity, regular physical activity, and a healthy diet.

RESULTS:

The relative risk of incident coronary events was 91% higher among participants at high genetic risk (top quintile of polygenic scores) than among those at low genetic risk (bottom quintile of polygenic scores) (hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75 to 2.09). A favorable lifestyle (defined as at least three of the four healthy lifestyle factors) was associated with a substantially lower risk of coronary events than an unfavorable lifestyle (defined as no or only one healthy lifestyle factor), regardless of the genetic risk category. Among participants at high genetic risk, a favorable lifestyle was associated with a 46% lower relative risk of coronary events than an unfavorable lifestyle (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.63). This finding corresponded to a reduction in the standardized 10-year incidence of coronary events from 10.7% for an unfavorable lifestyle to 5.1% for a favorable lifestyle in ARIC, from 4.6% to 2.0% in WGHS, and from 8.2% to 5.3% in MDCS. In the BioImage Study, a favorable lifestyle was associated with significantly less coronary-artery calcification within each genetic risk category.

CONCLUSIONS:

Across four studies involving 55,685 participants, genetic and lifestyle factors were independently associated with susceptibility to coronary artery disease. Among participants at high genetic risk, a favorable lifestyle was associated with a nearly 50% lower relative risk of coronary artery disease than was an unfavorable lifestyle.

 

Trends in Thyroid Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the United States, 1974-2013.

Lim H, Devesa SS, Sosa JA, Check D, Kitahara CM.

JAMA. 2017 Apr 4;317(13):1338-1348. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.2719.

PMID: 28362912

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Thyroid cancer incidence has increased substantially in the United States over the last 4 decades, driven largely by increases in papillary thyroid cancer. It is unclear whether the increasing incidence of papillary thyroid cancer has been related to thyroid cancer mortality trends.

OBJECTIVE:

To compare trends in thyroid cancer incidence and mortality by tumor characteristics at diagnosis.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

Trends in thyroid cancer incidence and incidence-based mortality rates were evaluated using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-9 (SEER-9) cancer registry program, and annual percent change in rates was calculated using log-linear regression.

EXPOSURE:

Tumor characteristics.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Annual percent changes in age-adjusted thyroid cancer incidence and incidence-based mortality rates by histologic type and SEER stage for cases diagnosed during 1974-2013.

RESULTS:

Among 77 276 patients (mean [sD] age at diagnosis, 48 [16] years; 58 213 [75%] women) diagnosed with thyroid cancer from 1974-2013, papillary thyroid cancer was the most common histologic type (64 625 cases), and 2371 deaths from thyroid cancer occurred during 1994-2013. Thyroid cancer incidence increased, on average, 3.6% per year (95% CI, 3.2%-3.9%) during 1974-2013 (from 4.56 per 100 000 person-years in 1974-1977 to 14.42 per 100 000 person-years in 2010-2013), primarily related to increases in papillary thyroid cancer (annual percent change, 4.4% [95% CI, 4.0%-4.7%]). Papillary thyroid cancer incidence increased for all SEER stages at diagnosis (4.6% per year for localized, 4.3% per year for regional, 2.4% per year for distant, 1.8% per year for unknown). During 1994-2013, incidence-based mortality increased 1.1% per year (95% CI, 0.6%-1.6%) (from 0.40 per 100 000 person-years in 1994-1997 to 0.46 per 100 000 person-years in 2010-2013) overall and 2.9% per year (95% CI, 1.1%-4.7%) for SEER distant stage papillary thyroid cancer.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Among patients in the United States diagnosed with thyroid cancer from 1974-2013, the overall incidence of thyroid cancer increased 3% annually, with increases in the incidence rate and thyroid cancer mortality rate for advanced-stage papillary thyroid cancer. These findings are consistent with a true increase in the occurrence of thyroid cancer in the United States.

 

Adding Protective Genetic Variants to Clinical Reporting of Genomic Screening Results: Restoring Balance.

Schwartz MLB, Williams MS, Murray MF.

JAMA. 2017 Apr 18;317(15):1527-1528. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.1533. No abstract available.

PMID: 28288260

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1001/jama.2017.1533

 

Influence of Diet in Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review

M José Bagur, M Antonia Murcia, Antonia M Jiménez-Monreal, Josep A Tur, M Mar Bibiloni, Gonzalo L Alonso, and Magdalena Martínez-Tomé

Adv Nutr 2017; 8:463-472 doi:10.3945/an.116.014191

Abstract

Nutrition is considered to be a possible factor in the pathogenesis of the neurological disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Nutrition intervention studies suggest that diet may be considered as a complementary treatment to control the progression of the disease; a systematic review of the literature on the influence of diet on MS was therefore conducted. The literature search was conducted by using Medlars Online International Literature (MEDLINE) via PubMed and Scopus. Forty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. The reviewed articles assessed the relations between macro- and micronutrient intakes and MS incidence. The patients involved used alternative therapies (homeopathy), protocolized diets that included particular foods (herbal products such as grape seed extract, ginseng, blueberries, green tea, etc.), or dietary supplements such as vitamin D, carnitine, melatonin, or coenzyme Q10. Current studies suggest that high serum concentrations of vitamin D, a potent immunomodulator, may decrease the risk of MS and the risk of relapse and new lesions, while improving brain lesions and timed tandem walking. Experimental evidence suggests that serum vitamin D concentration is lower during MS relapses than in remission and is associated with a greater degree of disability [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score >3]. The findings suggest that circulating vitamin D concentrations can be considered a biomarker of MS and supplemental vitamin D can be used therapeutically. Other studies point to a negative correlation between serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and EDSS score. Vitamin B-12 has fundamental roles in central nervous system function, especially in the methionine synthase–mediated conversion of homocysteine to methionine, which is essential for DNA and RNA synthesis. Therefore, vitamin B-12 deficiency may lead to an increase in the concentration of homocysteine. Further research is clearly necessary to determine whether treatment with vitamin B-12 supplements delays MS progression.

Keywords:

multiple sclerosis diet intake food nutrition systematic review

 

Conflict of Interest and the Role of the Food Industry in Nutrition Research.

Mozaffarian D.

JAMA. 2017 May 2;317(17):1755-1756. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.3456. No abstract available.

PMID: 28464165

http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2623631

 

The DASH Diet, 20 Years Later.

Steinberg D, Bennett GG, Svetkey L.

JAMA. 2017 Apr 18;317(15):1529-1530. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.1628. No abstract available.

PMID: 28278326

http://sci-hub.cc/10.1001/jama.2017.1628

 

Changes of renal sinus fat and renal parenchymal fat during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

Zelicha H, Schwarzfuchs D, Shelef I, Gepner Y, Tsaban G, Tene L, Yaskolka Meir A, Bilitzky A, Komy O, Cohen N, Bril N, Rein M, Serfaty D, Kenigsbuch S, Chassidim Y, Sarusi B, Thiery J, Ceglarek U, Stumvoll M, Blüher M, Haviv YS, Stampfer MJ, Rudich A, Shai I.

Clin Nutr. 2017 May 2. pii: S0261-5614(17)30146-2. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.04.007. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28501343

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Data regarding the role of kidney adiposity, its clinical implications, and its dynamics during weight-loss are sparse. We investigated the effect of long-term weight-loss induced intervention diets on dynamics of renal-sinus-fat, an ectopic fat depot, and %renal-parenchymal-fat, lipid accumulation within the renal parenchyma.

METHODS:

We randomized 278 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia to low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diets, with or without exercise. We quantified renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat by whole body magnetic-resonance-imaging.

RESULTS:

Participants (age = 48 years; 89% men; body-mass-index = 31 kg/m2) had 86% retention to the trial after 18 months. Both increased renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat were directly associated with hypertension, and with higher abdominal deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue and visceral-adipose-tissue (p of trend < 0.05 for all) after adjustment for body weight. Higher renal-sinus-fat was associated with lower estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate and with higher microalbuminuria and %HbA1C beyond body weight. After 18 months of intervention, overall renal-sinus-fat (-9%; p < 0.05 vs. baseline) but not %renal-parenchymal-fat (-1.7%; p = 0.13 vs. baseline) significantly decreased, and similarly across the intervention groups. Renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat changes were correlated with weight-loss per-se (p < 0.05). In a model adjusted for age, sex, and visceral-adipose-tissue changes, 18 months reduction in renal-sinus-fat associated with decreased pancreatic, hepatic and cardiac fats (p < 0.05 for all) and with decreased cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) (β = 0.13; p = 0.05), triglycerides/HDL-c (β = 0.13; p = 0.05), insulin (β = 0.12; p = 0.05) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (β = 0.24; p = 0.001), but not with improved renal function parameters or blood pressure. Decreased intake of sodium was associated with a reduction in %renal-parenchymal-fat, after adjustment for 18 months weight-loss (β = 0.15; p = 0.026) and hypertension (β = 0.14; p = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS:

Renal-sinus-fat and renal-parenchymal-fat are fairly related to weight-loss. Decreased renal-sinus-fat is associated with improved hepatic parameters, independent of changes in weight or hepatic fat, rather than with improved renal function or blood pressure parameters.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiometabolic risk; Magnetic-resonance-imaging; Renal-parenchymal-fat; Renal-sinus-fat; Weight-loss

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The Effect of Diet on the Survival of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

Rysz J, Franczyk B, Ciałkowska-Rysz A, Gluba-Brzózka A.

Nutrients. 2017 May 13;9(5). pii: E495. doi: 10.3390/nu9050495. Review.

PMID: 28505087

Abstract

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high and it is gradually increasing. Individuals with CKD should introduce appropriate measures to hamper the progression of kidney function deterioration as well as prevent the development or progression of CKD-related diseases. A kidney-friendly diet may help to protect kidneys from further damage. Patients with kidney damage should limit the intake of certain foods to reduce the accumulation of unexcreted metabolic products and also to protect against hypertension, proteinuria and other heart and bone health problems. Despite the fact that the influence of certain types of nutrients has been widely studied in relation to kidney function and overall health in CKD patients, there are few studies on the impact of a specific diet on their survival. Animal studies demonstrated prolonged survival of rats with CKD fed with protein-restricted diets. In humans, the results of studies are conflicting. Some of them indicate slowing down of the progression of kidney disease and reduction in proteinuria, but other underline significant worsening of patients' nutritional state, which can be dangerous. A recent systemic study revealed that a healthy diet comprising many fruits and vegetables, fish, legumes, whole grains, and fibers and also the cutting down on red meat, sodium, and refined sugar intake was associated with lower mortality in people with kidney disease. The aim of this paper is to review the results of studies concerning the impact of diet on the survival of CKD patients.

KEYWORDS:

chronic kidney disease; diet; glomerular filtration; malnutrition; mortality; survival

 

Cancer - Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality in the Oldest-Old. A Comprehensive Review.

Nolen SC, Evans MA, Fischer A, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Bota DA.

Mech Ageing Dev. 2017 May 11. pii: S0047-6374(17)30004-0. doi: 10.1016/j.mad.2017.05.002. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 28502820

Abstract

Chronic health conditions are commonplace in older populations. The process of aging impacts many of the world's top health concerns. With the average life expectancy continuing to climb, understanding patterns of morbidity in aging populations has become progressively more important. Cancer is an age-related disease, whose risk has been proven to increase with age. Limited information is published about the epidemiology of cancer and the cancer contribution to mortality in the 85+ age group, often referred to as the oldest-old. In this review, we perform a comprehensive assessment of the most recent (2011-2016) literature on cancer prevalence, incidence and mortality in the oldest-old. The data shows cancer prevalence and cancer incidence increases until ages 85-89, after which the rates decrease into 100+ ages. However the number of overall cases has steadily increased over time due to the rise in population. Cancer mortality continues to increase after age 85+. This review presents an overview of plausible associations between comorbidity, genetics and age-related physiological effects in relation to cancer risk and protection. Many of these age-related processes contribute to the lowered risk of cancer in the oldest-old, likewise other certain health conditions may "protect" from cancer in this age group.

KEYWORDS:

Ageing; Cancer Incidence; Cancer Mortality; Neurodegeneration; Oldest-old

 

The role of adipokines as prognostic factors of one-year mortality in hip fracture patients.

Gulin T, Kruljac I, Kirigin Biloš LS, Gulin M, Grgurević M, Borojević M.

Osteoporos Int. 2017 May 13. doi: 10.1007/s00198-017-4068-2. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28501890

Abstract

This study investigated the impact of anthropometric parameters, adiponectin, leptin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), beta-isomerised C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (β-CTX), and routine biochemical tests on one-year mortality in hip fracture patients. We found that male patients with high adiponectin, leptin, and β-CTX levels had a 5-fold increase in all-cause one-year mortality.

INTRODUCTION:

Several predictors of one-year hip fracture mortality have been identified including advanced age, male sex, low bone mineral density, and preexisting comorbidities. However, the impact of metabolic parameters on hip fracture mortality remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of serum leptin and adiponectin levels, as well as other metabolic parameters on all-cause one-year hip fracture mortality.

METHODS:

This prospective study included 236 patients of all ages with non-traumatic hip fractures. Anthropometric parameters, adiponectin, leptin, HOMA-IR, β-CTX, and routine biochemical tests were recorded at admission and correlated with one-year mortality by using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models.

RESULTS:

The median patient age was 82 (75-87) years, and one-year mortality rate was 28.4%. In univariate analysis, adiponectin, age, β-CTX, and renal function were associated with mortality. However, in a multivariate model, male gender, high β-CTX, adiponectin, and leptin were independently associated with increased mortality. Thus, we constructed a nomogram that included all the latter variables in addition to age. The nomogram predicted mortality with a sensitivity of 74.8% (66.0-82.3) and specificity of 74.4% (57.9-87.0), and had an area under the curve of 0.784. Patients that scored <9.2 had a mortality of 10.1%, while those with >9.2 had a mortality of 49.2% (relative risk 5.4, 95% CI 2.8-10.2, P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION:

Male patients with high adiponectin, leptin, and β-CTX levels have a 5-fold increase in all-cause one-year mortality after hip fracture.

KEYWORDS:

Adiponectin; hip fracture; leptin; metabolic parameters; one-year mortality; risk factors

 

Association of Dual-Task Gait With Incident Dementia in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Gait and Brain Study.

Montero-Odasso MM, Sarquis-Adamson Y, Speechley M, Borrie MJ, Hachinski VC, Wells J, Riccio PM, Schapira M, Sejdic E, Camicioli RM, Bartha R, McIlroy WE, Muir-Hunter S.

JAMA Neurol. 2017 May 15. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.0643. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28505243

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Gait performance is affected by neurodegeneration in aging and has the potential to be used as a clinical marker for progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. A dual-task gait test evaluating the cognitive-motor interface may predict dementia progression in older adults with MCI.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether a dual-task gait test is associated with incident dementia in MCI.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

The Gait and Brain Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older adults that enrolled 112 older adults with MCI. Participants were followed up for 6 years, with biannual visits including neurologic, cognitive, and gait assessments. Data were collected from July 2007 to March 2016.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Incident all-cause dementia was the main outcome measure, and single- and dual-task gait velocity and dual-task gait costs were the independent variables. A neuropsychological test battery was used to assess cognition. Gait velocity was recorded under single-task and 3 separate dual-task conditions using an electronic walkway. Dual-task gait cost was defined as the percentage change between single- and dual-task gait velocities: ([single-task gait velocity - dual-task gait velocity]/ single-task gait velocity) × 100. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association between risk of progression to dementia and the independent variables, adjusted for age, sex, education, comorbidities, and cognition.

RESULTS:

Among 112 study participants with MCI, mean (SD) age was 76.6 (6.9) years, 55 were women (49.1%), and 27 progressed to dementia (24.1%), with an incidence rate of 121 per 1000 person-years. Slow single-task gait velocity (<0.8 m/second) was not associated with progression to dementia (hazard ratio {HR}, 3.41; 95% CI, 0.99-11.71; P = .05)while high dual-task gait cost while counting backward (HR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.57-9.15; P = .003) and naming animals (HR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.04-5.59; P = .04) were associated with dementia progression (incidence rate, 155 per 1000 person-years). The models remained robust after adjusting by baseline cognition except for dual-task gait cost when dichotomized.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Dual-task gait is associated with progression to dementia in patients with MCI. Dual-task gait testing is easy to administer and may be used by clinicians to decide further biomarker testing, preventive strategies, and follow-up planning in patients with MCI.

 

A 12-week randomized clinical trial investigating the potential for sucralose to affect glucose homeostasis.

Lee Grotz V, Pi-Sunyer X, Porte D Jr, Roberts A, Richard Trout J.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017 May 11. pii: S0273-2300(17)30126-5. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.05.011. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 28502831

Abstract

The discovery of gut sweet taste receptors has led to speculations that non-nutritive sweeteners, including sucralose, may affect glucose control. A double-blind, parallel, randomized clinical trial, reported here and previously submitted to regulatory agencies, helps to clarify the role of sucralose in this regard. This was primarily an out-patient study, with 4-week screening, 12-week test, and 4-week follow-up phases. Normoglycemic male volunteers (47) consumed ∼333.3 mg encapsulated sucralose or placebo 3x/day at mealtimes. HbA1c, fasting glucose, insulin, and C-peptide were measured weekly. OGTTs were conducted in-clinic overnight, following overnight fasting twice during screening phase, twice during test phase, and once at follow-up. Throughout the study, glucose, insulin, C-peptide and HbA1c levels were within normal range. No statistically significant differences between sucralose and placebo groups in change from baseline for fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide and HbA1c, no clinically meaningful differences in time to peak levels or return towards basal levels in OGTTs, and no treatment group differences in mean glucose, insulin, or C-peptide AUC change from baseline were observed. The results of other relevant clinical trials and studies of gastrointestinal sweet taste receptors are compared to these findings. The collective evidence supports that sucralose has no effect on glycemic control.

KEYWORDS:

Glucose homeostasis; Healthy volunteers; OGTT; Sucralose

 

Carbohydrate Composition Associated with the 2-Year Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults.

Cho NH, Cho AK, Kim HK, Kim JB, Lee KE, Kim SS, Kim YJ, Jang HC, Baik I.

Clin Nutr Res. 2017 Apr;6(2):122-129. doi: 10.7762/cnr.2017.6.2.122. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

PMID: 28503508

https://synapse.koreamed.org/DOIx.php?id=10.7762/cnr.2017.6.2.122

https://synapse.koreamed.org/Synapse/Data/PDFData/0214CNR/cnr-6-122.pdf

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between macronutrient composition and metabolic syndrome (MetS) incidence in Korean adults. Data were obtained from a cohort of 10,030 members aged 40 to 69 years who were enrolled from the 2 cities (Ansung and Ansan) between 2001 and 2002 to participate in the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study. Of these members, 5,565 participants, who were free of MetS and reported no diagnosis of cardiovascular disease at baseline, were included in this study. MetS was defined using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III and Asia-Pacific criteria for waist circumference. MetS incidence rate were identified during a 2-year follow-up period. Baseline dietary information was obtained using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between the quartiles of percentages of total calorie from macronutrients consumed and MetS incidence. In analyses, baseline information, including age, sex, body mass index, income status, educational status, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, and physical activity level was considered as confounding variables. Participants with the second quartile of the percentages of carbohydrate calorie (67%-70%) had a 23% reduced odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.97) for MetS incidence compared with those with the fourth quartile after adjusting for confounding variables. The findings suggest that middle aged or elderly Korean adults who consume approximately 67%-70% of calorie from carbohydrate have a reduced risk of MetS.

KEYWORDS:

Carbohydrate; Korean adults; Macronutrient composition; Metabolic syndrome; Prospective cohort study

 

B-Vitamin Intake from Diet and Supplements and Breast Cancer Risk in Middle-Aged Women: Results from the Prospective NutriNet-Santé Cohort.

Egnell M, Fassier P, Lécuyer L, Zelek L, Vasson MP, Hercberg S, Latino-Martel P, Galan P, Deschasaux M, Touvier M.

Nutrients. 2017 May 13;9(5). pii: E488. doi: 10.3390/nu9050488.

PMID: 28505069

Abstract

Experimental studies suggest a protective effect of B-vitamins on breast cancer risk, potentially modulated by alcohol intake. However, epidemiological studies are limited, especially regarding non-folate B-vitamins. Furthermore, few studies included quantitative assessment of supplemental intake. This prospective study aimed to investigate the associations between intakes of B-vitamins (dietary, supplemental, total) and breast cancer risk. 27,853 women aged ≥45 years from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-2016) were included, with a median follow-up time of 4.2 years. Dietary data were collected using repeated 24 h records. A specific questionnaire assessed dietary supplement use over a 12-month period. A composition database of 8000 supplements was developed. Associations were characterized by multivariable Cox models, and 462 incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Dietary (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.74 (0.55, 0.99), P-trend = 0.05), supplemental (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.61 (0.38, 0.98), P-trend = 0.05), and total (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.67 (0.50, 0.91), P-trend = 0.01) pyridoxine intakes were inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Total thiamin intake was borderline inversely associated with breast cancer risk (HRper 1-unit increment = 0.78 (0.61, 1.00), P = 0.05). Statistically significant interactions between alcohol consumption and B-vitamin (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folate, and cobalamin) supplemental intake were observed, the latter being inversely associated with breast cancer risk in non-to-low alcohol drinkers but not in higher drinkers. This large prospective study, including quantitative assessment of supplemental intake, suggests a potential protective effect of pyridoxine and thiamin on breast cancer risk in middle-aged women.

KEYWORDS:

B-vitamins; breast cancer risk; diet; dietary supplements; prospective cohort

 

Bone-Protective Effects of Dried Plum in Postmenopausal Women: Efficacy and Possible Mechanisms.

Arjmandi BH, Johnson SA, Pourafshar S, Navaei N, George KS, Hooshmand S, Chai SC, Akhavan NS.

Nutrients. 2017 May 14;9(5). pii: E496. doi: 10.3390/nu9050496. Review.

PMID: 28505102

Abstract

Osteoporosis is an age-related chronic disease characterized by a loss of bone mass and quality, and is associated with an increased risk of fragility fractures. Postmenopausal women are at the greatest risk of developing osteoporosis due to the cessation in ovarian hormone production, which causes accelerated bone loss. As the demographic shifts to a more aged population, a growing number of postmenopausal women will be afflicted with osteoporosis. Certain lifestyle factors, including nutrition and exercise, are known to reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis and therefore play an important role in bone health. In terms of nutrition, accumulating evidence suggests that dried plum (Prunus domestica L.) is potentially an efficacious intervention for preventing and reversing bone mass and structural loss in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis, as well as in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Here, we provide evidence supporting the efficacy of dried plum in preventing and reversing bone loss associated with ovarian hormone deficiency in rodent models and in humans. We end with the results of a recent follow-up study demonstrating that postmenopausal women who previously consumed 100 g dried plum per day during our one-year clinical trial conducted five years earlier retained bone mineral density to a greater extent than those receiving a comparative control. Additionally, we highlight the possible mechanisms of action by which bioactive compounds in dried plum exert bone-protective effects. Overall, the findings of our studies and others strongly suggest that dried plum in its whole form is a promising and efficacious functional food therapy for preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women, with the potential for long-lasting bone-protective effects.

KEYWORDS:

(poly)phenols; bioactive compounds; functional foods; menopause; nutrition; osteopenia; osteoporosis; polyphenols; prune

 

Macronutrient Intake and Risk of Crohn's Disease: Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies.

Zeng L, Hu S, Chen P, Wei W, Tan Y.

Nutrients. 2017 May 15;9(5). pii: E500. doi: 10.3390/nu9050500.

PMID: 28505133

Abstract

Dietary intake is potentially associated with the onset of Crohn's disease (CD), but evidence from epidemiological studies has remained unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the role of macronutrient intake in the development of CD. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science to identify all relevant studies, and the role of macronutrients in the development of CD was quantitatively assessed by dose-response meta-analysis. Four case-control studies (a total of 311 CD cases and 660 controls) and five prospective cohort studies (238,887 participants and 482 cases) were identified. The pooled relative risks (RR) for per 10 g increment/day were 0.991 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.978-1.004) for total carbohydrate intake, 1.018 (95% CI: 0.969-1.069) for total fat intake, and 1.029 (95% CI: 0.955-1.109) for total protein intake. Fiber intake was inversely associated with CD risk (RR for per 10 g increment/day: 0.853, 95% CI: 0.762-0.955), but the association was influenced by study design and smoking adjustment. In subtypes, sucrose intake was positively related with CD risk (RR for per 10 g increment/day: 1.088, 95% CI: 1.020-1.160). Non-linear dose-response association was also found between fiber and sucrose intake and CD risk. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested a lack of association between total carbohydrate, fat or protein intake and the risk of CD, while high fiber intake might decrease the risk. In subtypes, high sucrose intake might increase the risk of CD.

KEYWORDS:

Crohn’s disease; disease risk; dose–response; macronutrient intake; meta-analysis

Edited by AlPater

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